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Full text of "Styles of ornament"

Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 

SCOTT TH(»1PS0N 



STYLES OF ORNAMENT 



STYLES 
OF 

ORNAMENT 



ALEXANDER SPELTZ 




400 FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS 

GROSSET & DUNLAP 

Publishers new York 



TRANSLATED FROM THE SECOND GERMAN EDITION BY DAVID O'CONOR 




Printed in the United States of America 



EDITOR'S PREFACE 




The first German edition of this worit was published in 1904 and met with 
such signal success that its author Herr Alexander Speltz was called upon to 
tiring out a second edition two years later. In this edition the number of plates 
was increased from three to four hundred which enabled the author to give a 
more complete representation of ornament as developed in England and America 
than had been at first contemplated. 

The original work was undertaken with the object of representing the entire 
range of ornament in all its different styles from pre-historic times till the middle 
of the 19*^^ century and to illustrate the different uses to which it had been 
applied. The whole of the illustrations which were taken from the best autho- 
rities on each subject and period were drawn specially for the work and evince 
the remarkable industry and knowledge of the author and his artistic power in 
representing ornament. In fact it is only necessary to glance through the several 
plates to see how closely the author has caught the style and character of each 
period. Acknowledgments of the sources are made throughout the work and in 
addition a special list of books of reference, including those which have been 
drawn upon for illustrations, has been inserted at the end of the volume. 

An English edition was published in America in 1906 for sale in that country 
only, but the historical accounts were not in accordance with the latest research 
and many of the descriptions to the plates had suffered so much in translation 
that very considerable revision was necessary in preparing the present issue. 
Three new plates of English Ornament have been added to this edition taking 
the place of others which it was found necessary to delete, various changes 
have also been made in the headings to some of the chapters and in the terms 
employed, more particularly in the section devoted to the Renaissance period; 
for instance the term "Barocco", which although well-known and recognised 
throughout Germany is but seldom used here, has been replaced by "Later 
Renaissance" which is more familiar to the English student and includes that 
which used to be known as the pure Italian style introduced by Inigo Jones. 



IV EDITOR'S PREFACE. 

The term Rococo has been retained as it would have been difficult to find any 
other to suggest the vagaries of the Louis XV. style which spread through Italy, 
France, Spain, Germany and Flanders and here in England led to Chippendale's 
work; the terms adopted to distinguish the later periods are adhered to as 
in the original edition. 

The plates and their accompanying descriptions being arranged throughout 
in chronological sequence render an index a very important adjunct and special 
care has been taken in preparing that given in the work. The examples are 
entered according to both subject and material and the periods to which they 
relate are indicated, thus enabling any particular object in any style to be imme- 
diately referred-to. 

The 400 plates in which the several styles of ornament are illustrated contain 
a larger and much more varied series than in any work hitherto published, 
indeed the volume forms a veritable encyclopaedia of the evolution development 
and application of ornament in architecture and the decorative arts throughout 
the ages, and it should prove of great value to the architect, craftsman, designer 
and student. 



R. PHENE SPIERS. 



CONTENTS 




Plates Page 

Introduction . . ... . . — 1 

Prehistoric and Primitive Ornament I — 3 3 

ANTIQUITY 4-56 11 

Egyptian Ornament 4—7 12 

Babylonian- Assyrian Ornament 8 — 10 22 

Persian Ornament. . 11 — 12 29 

Phoenician-Hebraic Ornament 13 34 

Indian Ornament .... 14 — 16 37 

Greek Ornament . 17—30 43 

Etruscan Ornament 31—32 67 

Roman Ornament 33—44 71 

Pompeian Ornament 45—49 91 

Celtic Ornament 50—56 90 

THE MIDDLE AGES 57—200 113 

Early-Christian Ornament . .......... 57—62 114 

Lombardo-Byzantine Ornament in Italy ...... 57—58 118 

Visigothic Ornament in Spain. . 59 122 

Italo-Byzantine Ornament in Italy . 60, 62 122 

Prankish Ornament 61 122 

Byzantine Ornament . . 63—70 125 

Byzantine Ornament in Spain 69 — 70 132 

Romanesque Ornament 71 — 107 137 

Romanesque Ornament in Germany 71 — 77 139 

Romanesque Ornament in France 78 — 85 149 

Romanesque Ornament in Upper and Middle Italy . . 86 — 88 161 

Saracen-Norman Ornament in Sicily and Lower Italy . 89 — 91 161 

Romanesque Ornament in Spain . 92 — 94 169 

Romanesque Ornament in England 95 — 101 173 

Romanesque Ornament in Scandinavia. ...... 102 — 107 183 



VI  SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 

Plates Page 

Russian Ornament 108—111 193 

Mahometan Ornament 112— 134 198 

Arabian Ornament 112 — 115 203 

Moorish Ornament 116— 120 207 

Saracenic Ornament 121 214 

Ottoman Ornament 122—126 214 

Persian Ornament 127—130 225 

Indo-Saracenic Ornament 131 — 134 231 

Gothic Ornament 135—188 235 

Gothic Ornament in France 135—143 238 

Gothic Ornament in the Netherlands 144 — 145 252 

Gothic Ornament in England 146 — 160 254 

Gothic Ornament in Germany and Austria 161 — 176 274 

Gothic Ornament in Italy 177—183 298 

Gothic Ornament in Spain 184—188 310 

Chinese Ornament 189—193 316 

Cambodian Ornament 194—195 324 

Japanese Ornament 196—200 327 

RENAISSANCE and MODERN TIMES 20i-400 337 

Renaissance Ornament 201—270 339 

Renaissance in Italy 201—215 341 

Florence 201—202 343 

Rome 203—204 343 

Venice 205-206 349 

Various 207—215 349 

Renaissance in France 216 — 226 362 

Renaissance Ornament in Spain and Portugal .... 227 — 234 377 

Renaissance in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. . . 235—248 388 

Swiss Renaissance Wood Buildings 249—250 408 

Renaissance Ornament in Hungary 251 412 

Renaissance Ornament in the Netherlands 252 — 255 414 

Ornament of the Northern Renaissance ...... 256 — 257 419 

Slavonic Renaissance Ornament 258—260 422 

Renaissance Ornament in Poland 258 422 

Renaissance Ornament in Russia 259—260 427 

Renaissance Ornament in England 261—270 428 

Later Renaissance Ornament 271 — 311 443 

Later Renaissance Ornament in Italy 271 — 275 445 

Later Renaissance Ornament in France (Louis XIV. Style) 276—286 453 
Later Renaissance Ornament in Germany, Austria and 

Switzerland. 287—295 468 

Later Renaissance Ornament in the Netherlands . . . 296 — 298 481 

Later Renaissance Ornament in England 299—311 487 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. VII 

Plates Page 

Rococo Ornament . .312—333 503 

Rococo Ornament in Italy 313 507 

Rococo Ornament in France (Louis XV. Style) 314—322 509 

Rococo Ornament in Germany and Austria 323—330 519 

Rococo Ornament in England (Chippendale Style). . . . 331 — 333 531 

Colonial Style Ornament in the United States .... 334—339 534 

Ornament of the Classical Revival of the 18**» Century 340—376 543 

18*^ century Ornament in Italy ... .... 340—342 545 

18*^ century Ornament in France (Louis XVI. Style) . . . 343—350 549 

18*^ century Ornament in the Netherlands 351 559 

18^^ century Ornament in Germany 352—354 559 

18*** century Ornament in England 355—376 565 

Examples of the work of R. and J. Adam 355 — 369 565 

Furniture made from designs by Sheraton . . . . . 370 — 372 579 

Furniture made from designs by Hepple white .... 373 585 

Work prepared from various designs . . . . . 374—376 585 

Empire Ornament 377—393 592 

Empire Ornament in France . 377 — 385 592 

Examples of the work of Percier and Fontaine . . . 377 — 383 592 

Various designs 384, 385 597 

Later Empire . . 386 605 

Empire Ornament in Italy . 387—389 606 

Examples of the work of Guiseppe Borsato .... 388 606 

Empire Ornament in Germany . ..... 390—393 611 

Biedermeier or old fashioned Style in Germany . . . 394, 395 617 

Neogrec Ornament in Germany. .... .... 396—400 621 

List of Reference books 627 

Index of illustrations according to subject and material 630 



STYLES OF ORNAMENT 



INTRODUCTION- 




ighlly understood, the conformation of an ornament should 
be in keeping with the form and structure of the object 
which it adorns, should be in complete subordination to 
it, and should never stifle or conceal it As varied and 
as many-sided as it may be, still, the Art of ornamen- 
tation is never an arbitrary one; besides depending on 
the form of the object, it is influenced also by the nature 
of the material of which the same is made, as well 
as by the style or manner in which natural objects 
are reproduced in ornamentation by different peoples 
at different times. The art of ornamentation, there- 
fore, stands in intimate relationship with material, 
purpose, form, and style. The oldest forms 
of ornamentation consisted of geometric figures, 
small circles, bands, straight and curved lines, 
<Sc, all of which were drawn with categorical 
regularity and according to a certain rhythm. With the advance in the intellectual 
development of mankind, artists acquired more technical skill, and ventured even 
to make use of animals, plants, and, finally, of the human figure itself, for orna- 
mental purposes. A plant or a living being can be employed in ornamentation 
in two ways, firstly, just as it is formed by nature — which is naturalistic Orna- 
ment, and secondly, in a form which reflects the spirit of the times, the political 
or religious ideas of the peoples, or the effects of foreign influence — where by 

SPELTZ, styles of Oraament I 



Initial from a German manu- 
script. 12 th century (Dolmetsch). 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

was formed the stylistic Ornament. Each style exhibits one and the same plant 
and one and the same animal in a different fashion. Each country sought the 
models for its own ornamentation in its own Fauna and Flora, and each style 
had certain plants and animals which it preferred to all others. Style is really 
more the product of one epoch of time rather than of a single people, and it is 
according to this chronological standpoint that the present work has been ar- 
ranged. In keeping with the tendency of the work, it may be remarked that 
the illustrations, are all reproductions of such objects only 4s were really produced 
at the period for which the style is characteristic. 




Stonehenge near Salisbury. 



PREHISTORIC AND PRIMITIVE ORNAMENT. 




Stonerelief from Yucatan 

(Globus 1884). 



ivided according to the periods of development 
during which it existed, Prehistoric Ornament 
extends over two great epochs: the Stone Age 
and the Metal Age. It is, however, charac- 
teristic not alone of all peoples who lived 
oa the earth in Prehistoric times, peoples se- 
parated by thousands of years from each 
other, but. even of people who exist at the 
present day. We find the Prehistoric Orna- 
ment not only amongst the remains of those 
races of people who lived along the Medi- 
terranean over 6000 years ago, but also the 
primitive ornament amongst different people 
who inhabit certain parts of the earth at present but who have not yet advanced 
beyond that stage civilisation to wliich this style of Ornament is peculiar. 
Prehistoric ornament embraces two periods: the Stone Age and the Metal Age. 
The Stone Age is generally supposed to have begun at the end of the Jast 
period of the Tertiary Age, distinct proofs place it at the last epoch of the 
Diluvian Era. During the Paleolithic or Ancient Stone Age, stone was habitu- 
ally used as the material from which tools were made; in the Neolithic or later 
Stone Age the tools were polished and given an artistic form, and vessels made 
of clay decorated with simple ornamentations were manufactured. Lake dwellings, 
the burying of the dead in caves, middens, barrows, cromlechs, and other nu- 
merous Megalithic monuments, the use and purpose of which are still matter 
of speculation, are all characteristic of this era. In the course of time these 
early inhabitants arrived at a stage of development which enabled them to make 



4 PREHISTORIC ORNAMENT. 

use of metals, bronze being first employed and later on iron, the different periods 
being designated as the Earlier and Later Bronze Age and the Earlier and Later 
Iron Age. The use of bronze was introduced from the East throughout the 
entire of Europe at about the year 1500 B.C. The Later Bronze Age extended 
only over the middle and north of Europe and dates from about 1000 to 600 B.C. 
Iron was however already worked during this period in the countries bordering 
on the Mediterranean, and was besides extensively known to the Assyrians in 
the ninth century before Christ. In all probability the use of iron was intro- 
duced from Assyria into Europe, where, in consequence of its introduction, 
new forms were given to arms, tools, and implements of all kinds. Iron was 
now used almost entirely for arms and tools, bronze being employed for artistic 
work. The Earlier or Ancient Iron Age is called also the Hallstadt Period, 
Hallstadt being a locality in the Salzkammergut where all the greatest and most 
important discoveries dealing with this period were made. The Later Iron Age, 
designated also as the La Tene Period in consequence of the discovery of remains 
found in the caslle in the island La T6ne in the Lake of Neuchatel, dates from 
400 to 100 B. C, and is confined generally speaking to the Gallic races. 

Even in those prehistoric times a very lively commercial intercourse existed 
between the different peoples. The locality, therefore, where a certain article 
has been discovered cannot by any means be accepted as the country of its origin. 
It could just as well have been manufactured by another people more advanced 
in civilisation, and have been brought by itinerant traders to the locality where 
it was eventually found. 

The Stone and Metal periods, however, are not confined alone to those pre- 
historic peoples who have long since passed away, and of whose names or 
descent we have never been able to acquire the slightest knowledge. There are 
people in Asia, Africa, America, and Australia, at the present day, who have not 
even yet arrived so far as the Metal period. The inhabitants of America at the 
time of its discovery had not yet advanced beyond the Stone or Metal Age. 
Examples of their work are therefore included in the two plates dealing with 
these periods. 

Prehistoric and the Primitive Ornaments may be said to be purely geometric 
ones, the artists of the time rising very seldom to such heights as to try and 
imitate in their work the figures of men, animals, or plants. Altough there cannot 
be any mention of "style" in connection with it as it was so disconnected, and 
so widely separated by time and space — still, Prehistoric ornament as such formed 
the foundation upon which genuine styles were constructed later on. 



Plate 1. 



PREHISTORIC ORNAMENT. 




PREHISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 2. 




PREHISTORIC ORNAMENT. 7 

Plate 1. 

Prehistoric Ornament. 

1, Ivory carving found In a cave in Lourdes (Hoerner, Urgeschichte). 

2, Ivory carving found in Arudy (Basses Pyrenees), France (Hoerner). 

3, Ivory carving found in Brassempoy, France (Hoerner). 

4, Clay statuette found in Budmir, Bosnia (Hoerner). 

5, and 6. Earthenware vessels found in Budmir, Bosnia (Hoerner). 

7. Vessel found in the pile-dwellings on Laibach Moor, later Stone Age (Hoerner). 

8. Bronze object from the first Iron Age found In Hungary (Hoerner). 

9. Bronze jewel found in Hungary (Hoerner). 

10. Bronze needle (Brockhaus, Konversationslexicon). 

11. Earthenware vessel found in Odenburg, first Stone Age (Hoerner). 

12. Urn found in West Prussia (Hoerner). 

13. Um found In Borgstedfeld, Holstein (Hoerner). 

14. Bronze plate found in Glarinoc, Bosnia (Hoerner). 

15. Bronze greave found in Herzegovina (Hoerner). 

16. Weapon found in Hungary (Hoerner). 

17. Iron dagger found In the Lake of Garda (Hoerner). 

18. Fragment of an engraved bronze girdle found In Chodschall in Transcaucasia 
(Hoerner). 

19. Jewel from the gold-discoveries in Vettersfelde (Hoerner). 

20. Lance-head, Germany (Hberner). 

21. 22, and 28. Wicker-work found in the Swiss pile-dwellings (Lfibke, Die Kunst 

des Altertums). 

23. Border ornamentation of a bronze basin found in the Wies, Styria (Hoerner). 

24. Clay figure found In a Boeotian grave (Hoerner). 

25. Stone axe of Montezuma (Sir John Evans). 

26. Sword of the Bronze Age (Labke). 

27. Needle of the Bronze Age (Ltibke). 

29. and 32. Bronze Clasps (Brockhaus). 

30. Scabbard (Brockhaus). 

31. Figure of Charon on a bronze relief plate found In North Syria (Hoerner). 

33. Bronze fibula (Brockhaus). 

34. Double earthenware vessel found at Langenlebron.in a grave of the Hall- 
stadt period (Hoerner). 

35. Scissors (Brockhaus). 

36. Bronze wedge (Brockhaus). 

37. Neck ornament (Ltibke). 

38. Needle (Liibke). 

39. Bronze sword (Ltibke). 

40. Stone spear-head (Brockhaus). 

41. Bronze fibula (Brockhaus). 

42. Stone knife (Brockhaus). 

43. Stone sickle (Lfibke). 

44. Iron spear-head (Brockhaus). 

45. Iron vestment pin (Brockhaus). 



PRIMITIVE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 3. 




PREHISTORIC ORNAMENT. 9 

Plate 2. 

Prehistoric Ornament, 

Fig 1. Ancient Peruvian Vase (Brockhaus Konversationslexikon). 

2. Granite Vase found in Honduras (Brockhaus). 

3, 4, 26, 27, 41, 42, and 44. Bronze weapons (Labke, Kunst des Altertums). 

5, Urn found in the district of the Elbe (Reichhold, Flachornament des Altertums). 

6, 23, and 30. Knives found in the Swiss pile-dwellings (Reichhold). 

7, Relief on the Monolith Gate of Tiahuanaco (Lubke). 

8, and 11. Wedges of the Inkas period (Brockhaus). 

9, 10, 12, and 14. Earthenware vessels found in America (Reichhold). 
13. Relief from a Mexican temple (Brockhaus). 

15. Earthenware vessel found in the island of Cyprus (Reichhold). 

16. Sepulchral urn found in England (Reichhold). 

17. Sepulchral urn found in Sweden (Reichhold). 

18. Ornament from a building In Prlnxillo (Labke). 

19. 20, 43, and 45. Earthenware vessels from the Middle Rhine (Reichhold). 

21. Old Italian sepulchral urn with engraved ornamentations (Reichhold). 

22. Relief cut in the rocks in Izamal, Yucatan (Brockhaus). 
24, 25, 28, 29, 31—34, and 36. Bronze jewels (Ubke). 
35. Fragment of a column (American), found In Tula (Brockhaus). 
37 to 39. Metal-vessel ornamentations of the Bronze Age (tUbke). 
40. Idol. 



Plate 3. 

Primitive Ornament 



Fig. 1. Mat from the Southsea (Finsch, Erfahrungen und Belegstflcke aus der Sadsee). 

„ 2. Fan screen of painted feathers from Australia (Racinet, romement polychrome). 

„ 3, and 5. Painting from an Australian canoe (Racinet). 

„ 4. Painted Woodcarving from Central Africa (Racinet). 

„ 6. Model of a house of the Haida, Queen Charlotte's Islands. In the Anthro- 
pological Museum of Berlin. 

„ 7. Ebony spatula with Incrnsted work from New Guinea (Reichhold, Kunst und 
Zeichnen). 

,, 8. Specimen of woven work from Australia (Racinet). 

„ 9. Club from New Zealand (Racinet). • 

,, 10. Native chair, Camerun. In the anthropological Museum of Berlin. 

„ 11. Woodcarving from a canoe in New Zealand. In the Louvre (Racinet). 

„ 12. and 13. Terminal heads of paddles from Polynesia (Glazier, A manual of Historic 
Ornament). 




Door of the grand TheocalU of Uxmal, Yucatan (Gallhabaud, DenkmMler). 

Frame: Mexican Ceramic Ornaments in tlie British Museum (Owen Jones, 

Grammar of Ornaments). 




c \ 



r ^ 



Egyptian wood columns (Prisse d'Avennes, hist. d. Tart ^gyptien). 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 




Egyptian Dress (Lflbke). 



ong before civilisation was known in Egypt there 
existed at one time in Ancient Syria and Ba- 
bylonia, countries once so rich and flourishing, 
a civilisation much older than that of Egypt. 
Proofs of this civilisation have been brought 
to light in the excavations carried out in recent 
years in these two countries. It is, however, 
Egypt that has supplied us with those series 
of monuments by means of which the most 
ancient historical facts now in our possession 
have been put together and verified. Even 
so far back as 4000 B. C. an extensive artistic spirid reigned throughout Egypt. 
The historic period of the country, which dates from about the year 3200 B. C. 
when Mena was king, comprise thirty dynasties, and is divided in accordance 
with the records of the priest Manetho into four principal periods, namely: 

1. The Ancient Kingdom dating from about 4180 B. C. to about 3000 B. C. 
This period, reached its highest glory under Khyan, the last king of the tenth 
dynasty. The city of Memphis in Lower Egypt flourished during this period. 

2. The Middle Kingdom dates from 3000 to 1587 B.C. The principal 
centres were in Middle and Upper Egypt vnth the capital Thebes. The highest 
period of development characteristic of this epoch was reached about 2660 B. C. 
during the 1 2**^ dynasty, the decline and decay of this development being brought 
about by the conquest of the country by the Hyksos who had their centre of 
government in the city of Tanis. 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. |3 

3. The Modern Kingdom dates from the year 1587 to 702 B.C. The 
principal city was Thebes in Upper Egypt. The highest period of development 
was reached in the years 1516 to 1234 B. C. under Hat-Shepsut, Rameses, 
Seti, and Rameses II., of the 18*'' and 19*'^ dynasties. The decline began about 
the year 950 B. C. 

4. The Later Period dates from the year 664 B. C, the period of the 
restoration by Psammeticus with the capital Sais. The final development took 
place under the 26*'^ dynasty between the years 663 to 525 B. C. when the 
country was conquered by the Persians, during whose occupation few buildings 
were erected. In 332 B. C. a revival took place under the rule of Alexander 
the Great which was continued by the Ptolemies from the year 323 B. C. and 
by the Romans from 31 B. C. 

The life led by the ancient Egyptians was characterised by distinctly marked 
order and regularity, and to this is due the clearness, exactness and dignity, 
which distinguish Egyptian works cf art. They are deficient however in that 
warm spirit which animates Grecian art, and are in consequence cold and stiff. 
Owing to the scarcity of timber, all the great enclusures of temples, palaces, 
and domestic structures generally were built in unbumt brick, a material which 
necessitated a much greater thickness for the lower part of the wall at the base, 
and this type of construction would appear to have been the model on which 
all the great monuments in stone were based, thus accounting for the raking 
walls given to the pylcns and temples 

Apart from a pure geometrical setting-out, Egyptian ornament consists of a 
rigidly systematic arrangement of plants native to the country. The well-known 
Egyptologist, Louis Borchardt, has arranged a clear classification of Egyptian 
plant-ornamentation, and the complete plants used as models being arranged by 
him as follows: 

1 . The Lotus-flower, Nymphaea Lotus L, Nymphaea Cerula L., and Nym- 
phaea Nelumbo L. 

2. The Lily, the botanical name of which has not yet been fixed. 

3. The Papyrus flower, Cyperus papyrus L. 

4. The Date-palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. 

5. Reeds and a kind of Withe* were also cften employed as can be 
seen from certain fragments discovered in the excavations. 

The lotus and papyrus flowers were, however, used the most often by the 
Ancient Egyptians in the ornamentation of all kinds of work, from the most 
colossal Egyptian columns down to the smallest objects. Borchardt denies that 
there is any constructive importance to be attached to the Egyptian plant-column. 
To the ancient Egyptians, the temple meant the world, the ceiling was the heavens, 
under which the columns, made to represent plants, rose up from a mound of 

* Probably the leaf of the maize or Indian com. 



14 EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 

earth. That the imitation of a plant was used as a support for the ceiling is 
an idea which cannot be accepted. As, however, supports for carrying the ceiling 
were necessary, there was placed, as connecting link between the supports and 
the burden, an abacus, which on account of the strong swell of the capital, 
was invisible from below. In this way, the idea of having again flowers under 
the open skies was realised. It is therefore, according to this, evident that the 
ornament was used as a support and not that the support was ornamented. 

The principal features characterising the manner in which Egyptian artists 
wished to represent the lotus flower were, first, the elliptical form of the buds 
with stalks, then the calyx of the flowers rounded off above, and the intermediate 
petals rounded off in a similar manner. The lotus-flowers have no foot-leaves, 
these being peculiar to the papyrus-shaped columns only. There are closed and 
opened lotus and papyrus columns, as well as simple and compound ones. 

Although stone is the material which predominates, columns and vessels in 
wood have also been discovered. Casting in metal, clay and even glass-blowing, 
were known to the ancient Egyptians, and they were adepts in the textile industry. 
In the ornamentation of Egyptian buildings, more especially in temples and tombs, 
painting was the predominant characteristic. 



Plate 4. 

Border: Column with closed lotus capital from a mural painting found in the tomb 
of the Kej of Bersche. It dates from the Middle Egyptian Kingdom (Borchardt). 

Fig. 1. Column with closed lotus capital from the Middle Kingdom, found in Beni- 
hasan. Horizontal section is also given. (Lepsius, Tagebuch.) Like all lotus 
columns, this one has neither foliage nor entasis. From the stone base, on which 
the column is raised, rise 4 main stalks. These, and the 4 intermediate stalks, are 
held together by means of 5 chaplets. The capital is made up of 4 lotus-buds with 
longitudinal convex bands. The abacus is small and square. 
„ 2. Closed lotus capital dating from the Ancient Egyptian Kingdom, found by 
de Morgan in the tomb of the Ptah-schep-ses near Aboukir. Horizontal 
section of the column is also given. (Revue arch. 1894.) The column consists 
of 6 principal and 6 intermediate stalks, held together by 5 neck-bands. The ca- 
pital consists of very sharp-pointed buds. The intermediate stalks end above in open 
lotus-flowers. The whole column is painted over in a naturalistic manner. 
„ 3. Closed lotus capital from the Ptolemaic epoch, taken from the temple of 
Isis-us-ret in Philae (Borchardt). Columns with closed lotus capitals did not exist 
in the Modern Kingdom. This kind of capital, like all capitals from Uie time of 
the Ptolemies, was peculiar in the fact that the stalks were allowed to appear below 
the bands of the necking. In this example, furthermore, the triple intermediate stalks 
do not rest between the main stalks. The shaft is smooth and completely covered 
with hieroglyphics. 



Plate 4. 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 



15 




16 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 5. 




EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT I7 

1^1 Fig. 4. Open lotus capital in Edfu, dating from the time of the Ptolemies (Prisse, 
Histoire de I'art egyptien). This capital consists of 4 large lotus-flowers standing 
close to each other. Between each pair of these flowers are 3 Others— one large 
and 2 small ones— which rise from small intermediate posts, and between these 
16 flowers are 16 other extremely small ones. Open lotus capitals of columns 
dating from the Ancient Kingdom have not yet been discovered in a perfect condition. 
„ 5, and 6. Open lotus capitals decorating piers from the Ancient Kingdom, found 

in the tombs 1 and 2 of the Hepi in Sawijet el Meitni (Borchardt). 
„ 7. Symbol of the union of Upper and Lower Egypt from the throne of a Cephren 
statue in Gizeh (Borchardt). The symbol of Upper Egypt was the lily, the botanical 
name of which cannot, however, be even yet fixed, and the Symbol of Lower Egypt 
the papyrus. 
„ 8. Thothmes pillar of granite dating from the New Kingdom, found in the sanc- 
tuary in Karnak (Lepsius, Tagebuch). 
., „ 9. Open papyrus capital in Philae dating from the time of the Ptolemies (Prisse). 
, 10. Papyrus ornament from a mural fresco found in a tomb in Beni-Hasan 

(Prisse). 
, 11. Osiride pillar from Medinet Habii (Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art). 



Plate 5. 

Border: Papyrus column with closed capital from a mural fresco found in the tomb 
of Kha*-em-het at Qurna. This example dates from the Later Egyptian King- 
dom (Borchardt). 

Fig. 1. Papyrus column with closed capital in front of the pyramid of Amenemhet 
near Hawara. This column dates from the Middle Kingdom (Prisse). From 
the stone base on which the column rests, spring 8 stalks arranged in regular 
order. The horizontal section of the column given in the same figure will make 
this clear. As is the case with all papyrus columns, there are, at the foot of the 
stalk, sheathing leaves which enclose the lower portion of the column. Under the 
capital, the stalks narrow off, and are bound together by 5 fillets. Over these fillets, 
8 closed buds, each with a head-foil, develop themselves. The section of the buds 
and stalks is triangular. Under the neck-band are 8 clusters each having 3 stalks. 
These capitals, however, gradually lost their characteristic form, until finally, they 
became completely changed as in fig. 8. 

, 2. Palm-leaf capital of a column at Philae dating from the later Egyptian 
Kingdom (Prisse). Here, also a space exists between the capital and the neck-band. 

, 3. Capital in the Palace of Thothmes, 1541—1516 B. C. in Karnac (Lepsius). 

, 4. Palm-leaf capital of a column in Bersche dating from the Middle Kingdom 
(Borchardt). 

, 5. Papyrus column with open Flower capital from the granite pilasters in front 
of the Sanctuary in Karnac (Lepsius). 

, 6. Open papyrus flower capital at Karnac, dating from the Middle Kingdom 
(Prisse). Pictures and inscriptions are worked in between the painted flower stalks. 

« 7. Clay mould with lily from Tell-el-Amarna dating from the Middle Kingdom 
(Petrie, Tell-el-Amarna). 

SPELTZ, styles of Ornament 9 



18 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 6. 




EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. t9 

Fig. 8. Turned papyrus-capital of a column with closed flower, at Karnac, dating 

from the later Egyptian Kingdon^ (Prisse). 
„ 9. Decoration of a figured dish in the British Museum (Borchardt). 
„ 10. Figured frieze— flowers and buds from the same plant— from the palace of 

Amenophis' IV. in Tell-el-Ama'rna (Borchardt). 
„ 11. Papyrus ornament on a figured dish in the British Museum (Borchardt). 
„ 12. Papyrus thicket from the mural fresco of a tomb in Benihasan, dating from 

the Middle Kingdom (Borchardt). 
„ 13. Withe from a painted wreath of a coffin, dating from the Middle Kingdom. 
„ 14. Palm-shaped column in process of manufacture from a mural fresco at Gurna; 

dating from the Middle Kingdom. 



Plate 6, 

Border: Closed lotus capital from a mural fresco (Borchardt). 
Fig. 1 to 7. Egryptian mural fresco (Uhde). 

„ 8. Woven work sandals (Prisse, Hist, de I'art egypt.). 

„ 9, and 11. Sphinx in red granite in the museum of the Vatican (Tatham, Anc 
Omam. Arch, in Rome). 

„ 10. Scent-spoon from collection in the Louvre (Perrot and Chipiez). 

„ 12. Egyptian dagger (Perrot and Chipiez). 

„ 13. Leather sandals (Perrot and Chipiez). 

„ 14. Egyptian bronze knife (Perrot and Chipiez). 

„ 15, and 18. Egyptian lions in green basalt before the Capitol in Rome (Tatham 
Anc. Ornam. Arch, in Rome). 

„ 16, and 17. Egyptian heads in relief dating from the Later Kingdom (Lflbke). 

„ 19. Egyptian sewing-needles (Perrot and Chipiez). 

„ 20, and 21. Old-Egyptian wooden chairs (Koeppen und Breuer, Geschichte d. M5bels). 

„ -22, 23, and 24. Egyptian furniture (Canina, arch. ant). 



Plate 7. 

Border: Columns with open lotus-capital from a painted canopy in a tomb at Gurna, 

dating from the Middle Kingdom (Borchardt). 
Fig. 1. Painted bouquet-column in the tomb of Sennundem. Dates from the Egyptian 

Middle Kingdom (Berlin Museum, Ph. 664). 
„ 2. Breast-plate of gold with incrusted enamel bearing the name of Rameses lU 

(Perrot and Chipiez). 
„ 3. Head of Nofret (Lubke). 
„ 4. Egyptian clay jar (Libonis, Les styles). 
„ 5. Egyptian amphora (Libonis). 



20 



EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 7. 




EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 



21 



Fig. 



6. 
7. 
8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Rhyton, an Egyptian musical instrument (Libonis). 

Ceiling ornamentation from Memphis and Thebes (Prisse). 

Winged sun, the symbol of royal dignity datirg from the Ancient Kingdom 

of the Egyptians. 

Gold necklace (Libonis). 

Girl with guitar from a mural painting in Thebes (Perrot and Chipiez). 

Ornament (Libonis). 

Ring of Rameses IJ. (Perrot and Chipiez). 

Transporting a mummy, from a murat painting. 

Harness (Prisse). 

Engraved ring in the Louvre, Paris (Perrot and Chipiez). 

Egyptian doors of wood (Prisse). 

Bracelet of Prince Psat, dating from the New Egyptian Kingdom. 




Building a temple, from a mural painting found in a grave 
at Abd-el-Gurna (Lfibke). 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN ORNAMENT. 




long the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris, 
in the sacred land of Mesopotamia, and 
under the special influence of these two 
streams, a characteristic civilisation deve- 
loped itself more than 5000 years ago — 
much the same as the civilisation which was 
developed in Egypt under the influence of 
the Nile. The results of the latest exca- 
vations in Tello, Niniveh, Nimroud, Koyunjik, 
Khorsabad, and other places, have afforded 
proofs of the existence, even as far back as 
4000 B. C. of the Sumerians, a non-Semitic 
people who became afterwards united with 
the Assyrians. It may therefore be accepted 
as certain, that in this river valley a civili- 
sation existed which was older than that of 
Egypt. The language of the Sumerians long after it ceased to exist as a living 
tongue was spoken as a dead language by scholars. The Bible itself mentions 
the colossal buildings erected by the Babylonian and Assyrian kings at that 
remote period. In this particular country, there was such a mixture of peoples, 
one alternately subjugated by another, that the art of the epoch must be regarded 
as one common to the people as a whole. The people themselves appear to 
have been more of a sensible and practical, rather than of a peotic turn of mind. 
They were at once commercial as well as warlike, keeping material gain and 
their own supremacy above all other matters. 



Stone imbossed work, representing 
the surrender of Lachis to Sen- 
nacherib (Roger-Miles). 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN ORNAMENT. 23 

In the third thousand before Christ a number of small principalities . . . 
such as Shirpula, Ur of the Chaldees, Isin, Larsa, etc. . . . existed in South 
Babylonia, but were finally conquered by Khammunrabi, king of North Babylonia 
in the year 2232 B. C. After this conquest the city of Babylonia was made the 
capital. The kingdom of the Semitic Assyrians was founded and began about 
the year 2000 B. C, developing into a powerful state about 1300 B. C, the 
principal cities being Ashur and Nineveh. This kingdom reached its highest glory 
in the reigns of Assurnasipal (884—860 B. C), Shalmaneser II. (860—824 B. C), 
Sargonll. (722—705 B.C.), Sennachirib (705—681 B. C), Esarhaddon (681—668), 
and Ashur-bani-pal (Sardanapalus) (668 — 626). Under this latter monarch Assyria 
became the principal worid-power, being however deprived of this supremacy by 
Nabcpolassar of Babylonia and Cyaxaras of Media in the year 603 B. C. The 
new kingdom now established flourished for a short time, 605 to 561 B.C. 
under Nebuchadnezzar, being itself finally conquered by Cyrus King of Persia 
in this year 538 B. C. 

While structures built of stone predominated in Egypt, in these districts on 
the Tigris and Euphrates the buildings were almost always constructed of air- 
dried bricks, which accounts for the fact that- so few of them have remained 
intact. Walls made of these unburnt bricks were first coated with stone slabs, 
plaster, or asphalt, and then covered with mosaic-work formed of glazed pieces 
of terra-cotta. Most of the discoveries, therefore, made in this region, consist of 
these fragments of glazed terra-cotta, in which work these people excelled. 

The specimens of sculpture which have come down to us are mostly all in 
relief, few of them being in cavo-relievo. 

Many of the art objects discovered in recent excavations show Egyptian 
influence, but there is no proof of any kind at hand pointing to the supposition 
that such objects were brought into Assyria by Egyptian traders. As in Egypt, so 
here also the lotus-flower played a very important role in ornamentation. 

There must be a distinction made between a specific Babylonian period and 
a specific Assyrian period, the ruins of which were discovered at different levels 
in the excavations in Nimroud, Khorsabad, Nmeveh, and Koyunjik. 

It must be regarded as certain, that, next to the Egyptian, Babylonian-Assyrian 
art exercised a very great influence, on the one side, towards the East and 
North, that is, India, China and Persia, and on the other side, towards the West. 
especially in the Mediterranean islands. 



w 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 8jl 







A^V^•;^::w^:^y^>|v^V^  > V-: • «■ ••- •y^-r-.v.l.;,...;......;.. . .:...(,;,.,..■. .y.^...-< v..-.n:V. ■:■-.>.. y..^. 




BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN ORNAMENT. 25 

Plate 8. 

Fig. 1. Assyrian relief in alabaster from Nineveh, taken from the palace of King 
Ashurbanipal (668—626 B. C), after a photograph from the English excavations. 
^K What is very remarkable in this example is the extremely soft outlines of the lioness 
^B as she lies stretched at the feet of the lion; the lithe grace and lissomness of her 
^B body are in fine contrast with the strongly-marked, swelling, and powerful muscles. 
^B 2. Bas-relief showing a wounded lion (Libonis). In the British Museum. 
^B 3, 4, and 7. Capital in ivory from the ruins of Nineveh. In the British iViuseum. 
^m (Dieulafoy, I'Art antique). 

^B 5. Window with balustrade under cill, from the ruins of Nineveh (Dieulafoy). 
I^B 6, and 8. Relief in ivory from the ruins of Nineveh (Dieulafoy). In the British 
^B Museum. 
I „ 9. Capital of Baluster. 

10. Assyrian bowl (Semper, Der Stil). 

11. The Assyrian winged-globe (Perrot). 

12. The Assyrian mysterious tree (Perrot). 

13. Siren (Babelon, Archeologie). 

14. Assyrian pedestal (Dieulafoy). 

15. Vessel resembling a basket in the hand of a sacrificer (Semper). 

16. The Babylonian lion. Bas-relief made of glazed bricks from the temple of 
Ninmach (Gurlitt). The Babylonian lion was white with a yellow mane, or yellow 
with a green mane, the background being light blue. 



Plate 9. 

1. Floor ornament from Koyunjik (Ltibke, Kunst des Altertums). The motif in this 
ornament appears to have been copied from a very ancient piece of textil-work, 
which, notwithstanding its antiquity, shows highly-developed artistic workmanship. 

2. Capital or base of column at Khorsabad (Uhde, Architekturformen des klas- 
sischen Altertums). 

3. Mural decoration made of burned, glazed stone, from Nimroud (Uhde). 

4. Assyrian relief in alabaster, showing King Ashurbanipal (688—626 B. C.) 
hunting. Taken from a photograph at the English excavations in Nineveh. 

5. Assyrian wall decoration made of enamelled slabs (LUbke). 

6. From an Assyrian embroidery (Perrot and Chipiez). 

7. Bronze fragments of chairs found in Nimroud (Uhde). 

8. Ornamentation on glazed, coloured bricks from the wall of a court in the 
palace of King Nebuchadnezar at Babylon. From a photograph taken in the 
recent German excavations in Babylon. 

9. Assyrian standards (Libonis). 

10. Arched portal from Koyunjik (LUbke). 

11. Horse bridle (Brockhaus). 

12. Bronze lion from the palace of Sardanapalus (Libonis). 

13. Winged steer with human head. In the Louvre, Paris (Libonis). 



26 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 9. 




Plate 10. 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN-ORNAMENT. 



27 




« 



Border 
Fig. 1. 



2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9, 
12. 
13, 
16. 
17. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22, 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 



BABYLONIAN-ASSYRIAN ORNAMENT. 

Plate 10. 

: Flag-post on palaces (Uhde). 

Ancient Babylonian female head In Diorlte. A genuine original is preservet 

in ihe Berlin Museum. A similar head was discovered in the excavations carriec 

out by the French in Tello (South-Babylonia). 

Assyrian Chair (Perrot). 

Bronze tripod in the Louvre (Perrot). 

Carriage-pole (Perrot). 

Bronze sword (Perrot). 

Footstool (Perrot). 

Beaker (Perrot). 

Bracelet (Perrot). p 

10, and 11. Ear-rings (Perrot). 

Metal bucket (Perrot). 
14, and 15. Amphorae of clay (Perrot). 
and 18. Goblets (Semper). 

Bronze fragment from a chair of state (Babelon). 

Washhand stand (Semper). 

Dish (Semper). 

Metal bucket (Semper), 
and 23. Fork and spoon (Smith, Assyrian Discoveris). 

Gold buttons, in the British Museum (Perrot). 

Harness (Perrot). 

Gold ear-ring (Perrot). 

Embroidered breast-piece (Layard, Monuments). 

Royal necklet of gold (Perrot). 




Assyrian fighting car (L'Art pour tous). 



PERSIAN ORNAMENT. 




isunion and a continual state of unrest were 
the conditions permanent in the south- 
western part of Asia in ancient times. The 
supremacy was ever changing and never 
fixed, and, as a consequence, the peoples 
who inhabited it were not in a position to 
develop any independent art distinct from 
each other. The conquerors or the con- 
quered were always naturally influenced 
by the more advanced section of those with 
whom they were brought into contact. For 
these reasons, it is clear that Persian orna- 
ment can show but very little characteristic 
peculiarities, Egyptian, Assyrian and Helle- 
nic influences being all plainly discernable. 
The beautiful buildings of the Persian kings were erected by artists who 

were made prisoners in the wars in Babylonia, Egypt, and in the Grecian colonies 

in Asia Minor. 

The first beginnings in Persian art were very probably made by the Medes, 

a people who conquered the kingdom of the Elamites with its capital city Susa 



Imbossed work, representing the king 
Xerxes upon the throne (Roger-Miles). 



30 



PERSIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 11. 




PERSIAN ORNAMENT. 31 

in the 7*^ century B. C. an then founded a powerful state making Egbatana the 
capital, but who were, later on themselves subjugated in the year 550 B. C. by 
the Persians under Cyrus. No remains, however, of a special Median art have 
ever been discovered. Persia developed into the most powerful empire in the 
world under the reigns of Cyrus (559—529), Cambyses (529—522), Darius 
521—485), and Xerxes (485—465 B. C), but was in its turn conquered by 
Alexander the Great in the year 330 B. C. From the years 312 to 284 B. C. 
it was under the sway of the Seleucidae, from 284 B. C. to 284 A. D. it was 
subject to the Parthians, and from 284 A. D. to 641 A. D. to the Sassanians. 
Under the sway of the latter a new Persian Empire was established which 
flourished until it finally became subject to Islamite supremacy. The Islamites 
when in decided power changed entirelv the character of Art then flourishing, 
giving it an entirely new direction an turning it on to entirely different lines 
from those along which it had hitherto moved. Persian art, which continued to 
develop for about two centuries, is the last echo of the art of the Mesopotamian 
lands. With the destruction of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great, 
Hellenic art, already flourishing at that period, won the upper hand throughout 
the East. 



Plate 11. 

Fig. 1. Lion frieze in the Louvre (Dieulafoy). 

2. Lion and griffin frieze (Dieulafoy). 

3, 4, and 11. Columns from Persepolis (Uhde). 
5, and 7. Column in the hall of Xerxes in Persepolis (Uhde). 
6- Detail from the tomb of King Achemenides in the necropolis of Talchte- 

Djemschid (Dieulafoy). 

8. Floor of stairs in the palace of Artaxerxes (Libonis). 

9. Frieze, a winged steer (Libonis). 

10. Relief at Persepolis (Lfibke). 

11, and 12. Persian bases (Dieulafoy). 



Plate 12. 

Fig 1, and 2. Persian Wall decoration of glazed terra-cotta (Libonis). 
„ 3. Head of a steer in the Louvre (Perrot and Chipiez). 
. 4, 5, and 6. Persian pottery (Perrot and Chipiez). 
H 7. From a bas-relief in the hall of the 100 columns, Persepolis (Flandin et Coste. 

Perse ancienne). 
„ 8. Persian silver coin fPerrot and Chipiez). 
„ 9 Bas-rcllef at Persepolis. 
„ 10 Head-dress of Cyrus (Dieulafoy), 




^'i>i>.^mmmmmmmm 



iMUmHHHVi: 






PERSIAN ORNAMENt. 



33 



Fig. 11, and 12. Fragment of an enamel bas-relief from Susa (Dieufafoy). 
„ 13, and 14. Bas-reliefs from the graves of Naksch^ Roustem (Dieulafoy). 
„ 15. Mosaic from the floor of stairs in the palace of Artaxerxes (Libonis). 
„ 16, and 17. Utensils in chased silver. Dating from the Sassanian period. In the 
Paris Medaillon-Cabinet (Havard, Histoire de rorfevrerie Fran^aise). 



MMM:Mmm^!^fM^i- 



fMimt:M!t'-^^^^!^M^^ 




Curtain over the throne of Achemenides (Dieulafoy). 



SPELTZ. Styles of Ornament 



PHOENICIAN-HEBRAIC ORNAMENT, 




n Phoenicia lived a distinctly commercial people, full of 
the spirit of trade, thinking of nothing but gain and 
commerce and keeping their commercial interests always 
above other interests^ of any kind whatever. In the 
second thousand before Christ they were already settled 
on the coast of Syria, had trading-stations and colonies 
in Greece, Italy, Gaul, Hispania, and Africa, and in 
their intercourse with the various peoples with whom 
they traded paid attention only to such matters as were 
best likely to forward their own commercial interests. 
To this commercial spirit is due the fact that there is 
no strictly Phoenician art. In the Phoenician Ornament 
evidences of all kinds of decoration can be recognised, 
Egyptian-Assyrian influence being specially predominant 
The most characteristic examples of Phoenician art 
which have come down to us are their jewels. These 
imply that the Phoenicians lived in a high state of 
luxury, and prove also that they had reached a high state of development in the 
art of working in gold. The Hebrews in Palestine were entirely dependent on 
the Phoenicians for their technics and their art. The Mosaic law forbidding 
pictures and images prevented the free development of art amongst the Jews. 
In the reigns of David and Solomon, that is, about the year 1000 B. C, Hebrew 
Art was in its highest glory, and remained so until the destruction of Jerusalem 
by Nebuchadnezar in the year 586 B. C. The principal buildings of King Solo- 
mon's palace, and of the Temple, were however the work of Phoenician artists 
and artisans. Numerous tombs cut into rocks at this time and characteristic 
of this period are still preserved. In North Syria along the Upper Euphrates 



A Phoenician In the time 
of King Thoutmes III 

(Roger-Mil^s) 



Plate 13. 



PHOENICIAN-HEBRAIC ORNAMENT. 



35 




35 



PHOENICIAN-HEBRAIC ORNAMENT. 



and in Cappadocia lived a people called the Hittites who were neither of Aryan 
or Hebrew stock. They were settled here since the year 1500 B. C, and, from 
1130 B. C. were continuously attacked by the Assyrians, being finally conquered 
and destroyed by Sargon in the 8*^ century B. C. These people had a special, 
characteristic style of their own, a style, however, which shows traces of Egyptian 
and Assyrian influence. The Art of the Hittites, however, on the other hand played 
an important part in and powerfully influenced the development of Persian art» 
Only very few remains of this civilisation are now in existence. 

With regard to the other races who also lived in Asia Minor, it may be 
remarked that, the remains which have come down to us from these peoples are 
so few that it is no possible to deduce from them any distinct, characteristic style. 



Plate 13. 

Fig. 1. Frieze hewn in stone (Renan Mission, Libonis). 
„ 2. Capital found in Cyprus (Vogii^ Mission). 
„ 3, and 4. Phoenician capitals (Libonis). 
„ 5, 13, and 18. Phoenician jewels (Libonis). 
„ 6, 9, 11, and 12. Phoenician vases from Dali (Liibke). 
„ 7. Vase from Larnaka (Liibke). 
„ 8. Glass vase from Jerusalem (Libonis). 
„ 10. Pigmy in burnt clay, in the Louvre (Libonis). 
„ 14. Head of a sarcophagus in clay from Carthage (Libonis). 
„ 15, 16, and \7. Phoenician vases from Alhambra (Ltibke). 
„ 19. Phoenician glass vases (Libonis). 
„ 20. Phoenician altar (Cippe), (Libonis). 
„ 21. Silver dish from Curium in Cyprus (Graul, BUderatlas). 
„ 22. CofHn plate (Libonis). 




Painting from an old Cyprian clay vessel representing 
tree adoration (Seesselberg, FrUhmittelaltefliche Kunst). 



INDIAN ORNAMENT. 




Bas-relief from Ellora. 



t is generally believed that Indian civilisation dates 
back to a very remote period, it was not, 
however, till about the year 2000 B.C. that 
the Aryans who had emigrated from Central 
Asia settled in the South of India and reached 
the plenitude of their power. The archaeo- 
logical discoveries made in India reach no further 
back than a few centuries before Christ. A 
close observation of Old-Indian ornaments shows 
us that Indian art was by no means free of 
foreign influences, more especially Persian, and 
j later on, Greek. India is but a purely geographical expression, and has no 
ethnographical signification whatever. It is inhabited by races of people so dif- 
ferent and distinct from each other that to class them together as the Indian 
i race would be incorrect. To speak of a homogeneous Indian art is therefore 
I impossible, the more so, as each race which inhabited the country had its own- 
art history. 

The general history of Indian art may be divided into the following periods: 

1. The Vedi-Brahman era extending up to the middle of the 3"^ century 

B. C. There is perhaps no monument from this period in existence. 

I 2. The Buddhist era which extends to the 7^^ century A. D., and began when 

1 Buddhism was raised to be the established state religion by King Asoka in the 

year 256 B. C. 

3. The New-Brahman Period which began on the restoration of the Brahma 
religion in the 8"* century and continued up into the 12*** century A. D. This 
period reached its highest glory between the 8*** and 12**» centuries A. D. 



38 



INDIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 14. 



luKuK"..^ /^^ 




INDIAN ORNAMENT. 39 

4. The period of the dominion of Islam to the present time. 

The spread of Buddhism helped most materially in giving a great impulse 
to the development of art. Indeed the progress made in art in other countries 
besides India has always been greatly influenced by religious fanaticism. The 
style of decoration used at this period, although worthy of admiration, was so 
fantastic and bizarre, that the form was completely overspread and hidden by 
the ornamentation. The oldest monuments from this period at present in existence 
date from the reign of King Asoka 272-— 236 B. C. 

With the spread of Islam, Indian art took a new direction based on Arabian 
art. This part of the subject will be treated of later on when dealing with the 
art of the Mahommedans. 



Plate 14. 

Fig. 1. Corner-pillar of the temple in Nijamizzur (Uhde, Die Konstniktionen und die 

Kunstformen der Architektur). 
„ 2, and 3. Details from temple in Ahmedabad (Uhde). Appears to have been 

made after textile samples. 
„ 4. Capital from the temple in Kumurpal, Palitana (Uhde). This capital shows 

clearly defined traces of Grecian influence. 
„ 5. Isolated monolith column near the temple at Peroor (Uhde). The use of 

metal in this example strengthens the impression that the ornamentation was copied 

from a textile sample. 
„ 6. Capital from Bharhut (Ltlbke). 
„ 7. Isolated stone-column from the cave at Karli (Uhde). Hewn out of the solid 

rock. The lion signifies the victoy of Bhuddism. 
„ 8. Pillars from the Chaitya cave in Karli (Uhde). 

„ 9. Pilaster, with crest, from the temple in Bhagovati (Rajendralal^ Mitra). 
„ 10. West portal at Sanchi, Tope (Uhde). This is one of the oldest stone monuments 

in India. It is however an imitation of wooden architecture. 
„ 11. Iron memorial column commemorating the victory of Buddhism (Uhde). 

This column dates from the reign of King Asoka in the third century B. C 
„ 12. Detail from the temple in Mukteswara (Rajendralald Mitra). 
„ 13. Column from the rock-temple in Lauka, Ellora (Uhde). 
„ 14. Capital from the Kutub near Delhi (Uhde). Dates from the later period 1191—93. 
„ 15. Column from the rock-temple of Indra in Ellora (Canina, architectura antica). 
„ 16. Column from the Vihara in Ajunta (Uhde). 
„ 17, and 18. Details from the temple at Bailur. Appears to be copied from a 

carpet pattern. 

Plate 15. 

Fig. 1. Window from the temple of Muktes'wara (RajendralaM Mitra. The other 
illustrations in this plate are all from the same authority). 
„ 2. Moulding from the temple of Bhagovati. 
„ 3. Detail from the tower of Bhuvanes'war. 
M 4. Medaillion from the temple of S^ri DeOI. 
M 5. Moulding from the temole of Muktes'wara. 



40 



INDIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 15. 




r^^mwrnwrn^ 



(w^^^fm< 



INDIAN ORNAMENT. 



41 



Fig. 6. Statue of the province from a niche in the temple of Bhuvanes'war. 

„ 7. Relief from the same temple. 

„ 8. Pillars from the rock-temple of Uday-agirf. 

., 9. Lotus ornament from the temple of Rdjerdni. 

„ 10. Relief from the temple of Bhuvanes'war. 

„ 11. Base of a pilaster from the great tower of Bhuvanes'war. 

„ 12. Cornice from the temple in Pardsurdmes'vara. 



Plate 16. 

Fig. 1. 4, 7, and 8. Old Indian furniture (Rajendralala Mitra). 
„ 2. Ornament worn by females of the middle class (Raj). 
„ 3. Club found in Bhuvanes'war (Raj.). 
„ 5. Bas-relief from Bharhut representing an Indian of the 2"^ century 

(Lebon). 
„ 6. Club found in Puri (Raj.). 
,. 9. Flag found in Sdnchi (Raj.). 
„ 10. Javelin from Cunningham's Bhilsa Topes (Raj). 
„ 11, 19, and 23. Tridents found in the same place (Raj.). 
„ 12. Wooden jewel-case found in Amravati (Raj.). • 
„ 13. Wooden box found in Bhuvanes'war (Raj.). 
„ 14. Antique fan (Raj.). 
„ 15, and 16. Ear ornaments (Raj.). 
„ 17. Four sided clay vessel (Raj.). 
., 18. Urn for holy water (Raj). 
„ 20. Guitar from Amravati (Raj.). 
,,21. Metal shield found in Kondrak (Raj.). 
„ 22. Short club (Raj.). 
.. 24, and 27. Battle axes (Raj.). 
„ 25. Crown for a goddess (Raj.). 
,. 26. Gold bracelet (Raj.). 
„ 28, 30, and 31. Clay vases (Raj.). 
„ 29, and 34. Samples of antique textiles (Raj.). 
„ 32, and 33. Bow and arrow (Raj.). 



B. C 




Painting in a grotto at Adochantd (after GrttnwedeJ). 



42 



INDIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 16. 




GREEK ORNAMENT. 




Grecian Women at home 

(Gerhardt, auserlesene Vasenbilder). 



t has been clearly and defini- 
tely proved, both from disco- 
veries made in excavations, 
as well as from certain signi- 
ficant statements made by 
Homer himself, that even in 
prehistoric times several cen- 
tres of art existed in Greece 
and in the islands lying in its 
neighbourhood. These centres 
were chiefly found in the Pelo- 
ponnessus, in Attica, in Miletus, 
Ephesus, Chios, Samos, and many other islands, as well as also in Southern 
Italy. The prehistoric Greek Ornament, which was brought to light by Schliemann 
in the excavations undertaken by him in Troy, Mycenae and Tiryns, contains 
so many Egyptian and Assyrian motifs that no doubt can be entertained, that 
Egypt and Asia Minor exercised a most powerful influence on its early be- 
ginnings. That an intercourse existed between these countries is beyond doubt, 
for, even in prehistoric times, the waters of the Mediterranean were alive with 
craft trading in all directions. 

In its primary stages of development, Greek art in the islands of the Aegean 
Sea was subject to Oriental influences. The Greek style was developed from 
wooden structures, the constructive forms, in many cases, changed into ornament 
in the stone masonry. 



44 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 






The national character of the Greeks was very different from that of the 
Egyptians, the cold severity peculiar to Egyptian art was antagonistic to the 
sense of beauty characteristic of the Greeks, and the latter, consequently, soon 
changed the Egyptian form into one more genial, pleasing, and agreeable. Style 
is after all but the truthful expression of the character and perceptions of a 
people or of an historical epoch. 

Greek art can be divided into four epochs: 

I. The Mythical Period or the Heroic Epoch which continued up to the 
migration of the Dorians to the year 1104 B. C. The Aryans, a tribe 
of people of the same stock as the Hellenes and designated by the 
latter under the general title of Pelasgians, were without doubt the 
original inhabitants of Greece. This period is con- 
fined to that prehistoric era when stone and copper 
predominated, and to the Bronze Age of the Mycae- 
nean epoch. The principal centres of the artstyle 
of this period were found on the coasts and islands 
of the Aegean Sea but especially in Argos and 
Crete. 
H. The Doric, or Archaic Period, from 1104—470 
B.C. The national Hellenic period began about 
the year 1000 B.C., when the Hellenes had taken 
up permanent residence in the country, at which 
time the monarchy was changed into a republican 
form of government. The mythology which arose at this period kindled 
the spirit of art and gave it that predominating ideal character which 
afterwards distinguished it. The Hellenes themselves on the other hand 
brought with them into the country their own peculiar style which they 
further developed by allying it with the ancient Mythic art existing at 
the time of their settlement, and by making new use of Egyptian, 
Assyrian, and Hettite influences. From the 7^^ century B. C. downwards, 
when Oriental art began to decline, Hellas took up the leadership in 
art and civilisation, developed its own style in a characteristic manner 
and made it the ruling one throughout all the civilised countries existing 
at that time. Three orders of columns were etablished, the Doric, the 
Ionic, and a later one, the Corinthian. 
III. The Period when Greek art reached its principal development from 
470 to 338 B. C, during which time the Doric and Ionic Orders exer- 
cised their influence mutually one on the other. The centr£ of this 
flourishing period was that reached at Athens under Pericles in the years 
469—429 B. C, when the Doric and Ionic styles, which developed 
together, evolved the Attic-Doric and Attic-Ionic styles. The latter ex- 
celled in elegance, the former in manly strength, The Erechtheion which 




GREEK ORNAMENT. 



45 



was begun in the year 425 B. C. but not completed till 408 B. C, is 
one of the most beautiful monuments of Greek art in existence. 
IV. The Alexandrian Period from 338 to 146 B. C; this included the deve- 
lopment of the Corinthian style down to the destruction of Corinth, which 
was followed by the downfall of Greek independence and the union of 
Grecian with Roman art. 
Although the two great styles of Greek construction were developed simul- 
taneously still the general employment of each separate style enables a chrono- 
logical division to be made. The Doric must be described as the oldest style, 
but its strongly marked, earnest character, unsuitable for rich ornamentation, 
failed to give pleasure to the gay spirit of the luxurious Athenians who lived 
at the time of Pericles when Greek art was in its glory. The Doric was, there- 
fore, partly superseded by the Ionic, and, later on, by the Corinthian style. The 
ornamentation in these two styles allowed more play to the artist's fancy, and 
was not so binding in its rules as the Doric. The quiet harmony peculiar to 
the Doric was, however, lost, ornamentation became predominant and, later on, 
tended to mask the masonic form in Roman art. 




Late Doric Frieze, found in the wall of a church at Athens. 



46 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



Plate 17. 




GREEK ORNAMENT. 47 

Plate 17. 

Greek Pre-histork Ornament. 
Fig. 1. Mural frescoes in the palace of Tiryns (Schliemann). 
„ 2, 4—12, 16, and 17. Gold jewels found in graves in Mycenae (Schliemann). 

3. Bronze plate from Olympla (LUbke). 
„ 13. Dipylon vase (Baumeister). 
„ 14. Cyprian coin. 

„ 15. Capital of Column from the Tomb of Agamemnon (Canina). 
„ 18. Kyanos frieze from Tiryns (Schliemann). 
„ 19. Ceiling in relief from Orchomenos (Schliemann). 



Plate 18. 

Doric Ornament. 

1. Angle of Pediment of the temple in the island of Aegina. (Mauch, Archi- 
tektonische Ordnungen). This temple is an example of the Doric Order architecture 
at the period of its highest splendour, that is, after the defeat of the Persians, and 
when Pericles stood at the head of the government of Athens. Pericles fully under- 
stood, at this period, the great importance of Art and its influence on the state. 
All the works of art designed by him were carried out by Phidias the renowned 
sculptor, with the assistance of Ictinus and Callicrates, the best architects of the time. 
These men succeeded in bringing Greek architecture in all its parts to the highest 
perfection. 

The temple was erected, probably in the 75th Olympiad, and was dedicated 
to Aphaea. The columns have an entasis of Vso 0^ the lower diameter, and present 
much more pleasing proportions than those from Paestum. This is especially so in 
the capital; here, the strong, sharp-angled projection produced by a swelled cushion 
is avoided, and the capital formed of cornicelines which rise delicately and gracefully 
from the flutings. In this way, an echinus is formed, which, while being strong, is 
not bent and swollen out under its burden, and in which the effects of light and shade 
are most attractive. The fillet under the echinus displays that delicate formation 
peculiar to the time of Pericles, the channels in the neck alone being the only parts 
which remind one of the ancient columns from Paestum. The profile of the cyma 
over the sloping gable-cornice is very beautiful, and was painted with an ornament 
which the Greeks called anthemion. The griffin on the roof of the gable has been 
reconstructed after discovered fragments. The whole structure was built of polished 
and painted sandstone. Traces of yellow and green foil have been found on the architrave. 

The taenia was painted in vermilion, the regula, triglyphs, and mutule, in blue. 
The plain bands were red, with traces of scrolls having been painted on. The cymatium 
above these was decorated with red and blue foil, the same colours being given to 
the flowers on the cyma. The back ground of the pediment was blue. 

2. Angle of Pediment from the temple of the Apollo Epicurius near Phigaleia 
in Arcadia. (Mauch, Architektonische Ordnungen.) This temple, which was built 
by Ictinus, the Architect of the Parthenon in Athens, was with the exception of the 
temple of Tegea, one of the most beautiful throughout the entire Peloponnesus. 
It was constructed of bluish-white limestone, the sculptured frieze inside being of 
white marble. The entire proportions resemble those from the time of Pericles in 
Attica. The cyma over the gable-cornice is, however, entirely different. It is 
ornamented with the acanthus-flower in relief. 



48 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



Plate 18. 




GREEK ORNAMENT. 49 

3. Capital from the temple of Ceres in Paestum (Mauch, Architektonische Ordnung). 
This temple was in all probability built under the rule of the Sybarites, about the 
year 530 B. C. Certain peculiarities point to Etruscan influence. 

4. Ante-fix from temple of the Apollo Epicurius near Phigaleia in Arcadia 
(Mauch, Archit. Ordn.). This ornament is beautifully sculptured in marble. (See 
Fig. 2.) 

5. Acroterium of the pediment of the temple on the island of Aegina (Mauch, 
Archit. Ordn.). See Fig. 1. 

6. Profile of the capital from the same temple (Mauch, Archit. Ordn.). See Fig. 1. 

7. Under surface of the corona from the Parthenon in Athens (Mauch, Archit. 
Ordn.). 

8. Ante-fix from the Parthenon in Athens (Mauch, Archit. Ordn.). 

9. Capital found in Paestum (Mauch, Archit. Ordn.). This capital shows undoubted 
evidences of Etruscan influence. 

10. Anta-capital in Athens (Mauch, Archit. Ordn.). The cymatium of this capital is 
painted with the foil peculiar to the ancient Doric Anta capitals. 

11. Anta-capital from the temple of Nemesis in Rhamnus (Mauch, Archit. Ordn.). 

12. Doric cymatium (Liibke, Kunst des Altertums). 



Plate 19. 

Ornamental Mouldings. 
(From Uhde, Architekturformen des klassischen Altertums.) 
1—5. Ancient Bead and reel. 
6—8. Ogees from the Ptolemeion. 
9, and 10. Ogees from the Erechtheion. 

11. Painted Ogees from the Theseum Athens. 

12, and 13. Painted Ogees from the Propylaea. 
14. Ogee from Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 



Plate 20. 

Ionic Ornament. 
(From Mauch, Architektonische Ordnungen.) 
. 1,2, 4, and 5. Pilaster-capitals from the cella of the temple of Apollo Didymaeus 
near Miletus. Fig. 1 shows the front view of half such an Ionian capital, and 
fig. 5, the side view. Figs. 2 and 4 are ornaments of the space between other 
capitals with the same cella. 
3, 8, 9, and 12. Angle columns from the temple of Minerva Polias at Priene. 
This temple is one of the most beautiful examples of Ionian architecture. Fig. 8 
is the section of the column at the neck, with the capital, seen from below. Fig. 9 
is the pedestal with four-cornered plinth. This description of base is rare, being 
found only in the Ionic column. Fig. 12 shows the ornament on the under side 
of the cornice. Details as to the helicoid of the Ionic capital will be found in 
"Speltz, Saulenform der Schneckenlinie des jonischen Kapitals". 

6. Capital and plan from the temple of Apollo Didymaeus near Miletus. 

7. Capital of the central column of the temple of Minerva Polias in Priene, 
with plan. 

SPELTZ. Stjirles of Ornament. 



50 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



Plate 




Plate 20. 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



51 




4* 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B^^^^^^^S 



OREEK ORNAMENT. g3 

Fig. 10. Capftal from the aqueduct of Hadrian at Athens, with plan. 
„ 11. Ornament between the Capitals in the cella of the temple of Apollo Dldy- 

maeus near Miletus. 
„ 13. Side-view of a capital in the PropylaeUm of the temple of Minerva Polias 

at Priene. 
„ 14, and 15. Side and front-views of a pilaster-capital at Priene. 



Plate 21. 

Ionic Ornament. 

Fig. 1, and 4. Capitals and pedestals of columns in the Temple of Minerva Polias 
at Athens (Mauch). 

In the Acropolis at Athens were erected numerous buildings of which the 
Parthenon and the Erechtheion were the most important. The columns in the latter, 
with their energetic, double-fluted volutes, the braided torus over Ihe echinus, the 
latter being visible in its entire round, the finely moulded cushion, and the delicately 
ornamented neck, display structure of the purest and most refined style. 

Instead of the Sanctuary which formerly stood here, and was destroyed 
during the Persian war, the Erechtheion was erected, but was not completed until 
after the year 409 B. C. In the back wall of the North Portico, was the celebrated 
beautiful door, details of which are given in Figs. 3, 6, and 7. At the west end of 
the south side is the Caryatide Portico. This Portico, which is covered with marble 
tiles, is carried on 6 supports, called Caryatides (Fig. 10). They probably represent 
Pan-Athenaic virgins. The entablature over these figures has no frieze. 

„ 2. Pilaster-capital from the hexastyle or Eastern portico of the Erechtheloo» 
Athens (Mauch). 

„ 3, 6, and 7. Details from the door of the Erechtheion In Athens (Mauch).- 

„ 5. Capital from the interior of the Temple of Apollo at Bassae, near Phlga- 
leia (Mauch). 

„ 8. Capital from the temple of Neandria (Lubke). 

„ 9, 11, and 12. Grecian antefix of the time of Pericles (Libonis). 

„ 10. Caryatid* of the Erechtheion at Athens (Mauch). 

„ 13, and 14. Capital and anta from the temple of Minerva Polias at Athens (Mauch). 

„ 15, and 16. Orecian coins (Lubke). 



Plate 22. 



Corinthian Ornament. 

Fig. 1. Capital of temple at Patara (Semper). 
„ 2. Capital from the Tower of the Winds in Athens (Mouch). 

This Corinthian capital, which is of the simplest kind, has been found with but 
very slight changes all over Greece. It was even employed in Byzanthine architecture. 
„ 3. Capital and entablatures from the monument of Lysicrates at Athens (Mauch). 
This tower-like structure, which dales from the year 334 B. C, is built 
of Pentelic marble, and is still in existence although in a very damaged condition. 
A six-columned circular pseudo-peripteral, rests on a substructure built in the form of 
a podium. On the roof are three caulicoloe (Plate 23, Fig. 11) with central finial 



54 

lo 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



Plate 22. 



HEHSHHHlIlElHHiBIi!^^ 



Q 
H 

 
m 
a 
a 




Plate 23. 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



55 




56 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



Plate 24. 





GREEK ORNAMENT. ^j 

or crest (Plate 22, Fig. 9 and 10). This crest, which is of one piece, is one of the 
most wonderful examples of Greek sculpture. The three wide projecting scrolls of 
the same were at one time supported by consoles, but these have now entirely 
disappeared. The capital approaches more to the real Corinthian capital than that 
of the Tower of the Winds. 
Fig. 4. Capital of a column from the ruins of the temple of Apollo near Miletus 
(Mauch). 
Upper part of the Tower of the Winds in Athens (Mauch). 

This is an octagonal tower of Pentelic marble, on the sides of which, under 
the cornice, the figures of the eight winds are shown in relief. On the pyramidal 
top of the roof was a brazen Triton which served as a weather-cock. The tower 
itself contained a clepsydra or water clock. 

Base of a column of the Lysicrates monument at Athens (Mauch) (Fig. 3). 
Capital of portico of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens (Mauch). 
Pilaster capital from Paestum (Mauch). 

Upper part of the Lysicrates monument in Athens (Mauch) (Fig. 3). 
Crest of the same monument (Mauch) (Fig. 3). 
, Plan of the capital in Fig. 3. 
Capital at Eleusis (Mauch). 



Plate 23. 

1. Terra-cottas from Olympia (BOtticher, Olympia). 

2. Frieze from a portico on the island of Delos, built at the time off Philip 
of Macedon 346-337 B. C. (Uhde). 

3. Mosaic flooring in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (Graul). 

4. Lion from the tomb of Mausolus, in the British Museum (Roger-Miles). 

5. Bronze plate, representing the dispute on the tripod (Roger-Miles). 

6. and 7. Fragments of a Grecian frieze in the Villa Albani in Rome (Tatham). 
8, and 9. Columns from portico on the island of Delos, front and side views (Uhde). 

10. Head of Zeus in bronze from Olympia (LUbke). 

11. Roof off the monument off Lysicrates in Athens (Mauch). See Plate 21, Figs. 3, 
6, 9, and 10. 

12. Painted clay anteffix (Reichhold). 



Plate 24. 

(From C Thierry, Classische Ornamente.) 
Fig. 1, and 3. Bas-relieffs from the Kircher's Museum, Karlsruhe. 
„ 2. Bas-relieffs from the National Museum, Karlsruhe. 



Plate 25. 

1. Bas-relieffs suggesting oriental influence (Thierry). 

2. Marble ornament from Branchidae (Thierry). 

3. Marble bas-relief in the Villa Poniatowsky in Roma (Thierry). 

4. Painted terra cotta dish (Dolmetsch). 

5. Marble seat or throne (Thierry). 



58 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 




Plate 26. 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



59 




60 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



Plate 27. 



a. 



W*=^ 



iisisii^^m 



^VVVVWWW^^^WWWVVViWV*^^^^ 





GREEK ORNAMENT. 



Plate 26. 



61 



Principal examples of the Grecian Vase from Baumeister. 
The principal centres of pre-historic ceramics was in Troy and in the islands of Cyprus 
and Mytilene. 

The real Grecian ceramics are distinguished as follows: 

1. Vessels of the geometric style (about 1000— 700 B. C), which have been discovered 
principally near the Dipylon Gate in Athens, hence the title Dipylon Style. The colouring 
is dark-brown on yellow clay. 

2. Vessels showing Oriental influences, dating from the 8^^ to the 6th century B. C, 
the principal centre being in Corinth. 

3. Attic black-coloured vessels which were developed in Athens from the 6th century 
B. C. downwards, the clay is red. 

4. Red-coloured vessels which were developed from the fore-going style in the fifth' century 
B. C, the entire vessel being painted over with black varnish, thus enabling red figures to 
be made on a black ground. The ceramic art entirely disappeared from Greece about the 
year 300 B. C, being afterwards revived in Lucania, Campania, and Apulia. 

Fig. 1. Vase from the island of Mytilene, dating from the beginning of the last millenium, 
B. C. The surface is gray, painted of a dull brown. 

2. Vase, lacquered, from the Greek Islands, of Mycaenean origin. 

3. Athenian vase from the 7th century B. C. 

4. Phaleronian jug from Attica, found in grave near Phaleron. 

5. Attic amphora from the 7th century B. C. 

6. Vase of later date from the island of Rhodes. 

7. Corinthian vase. 

8. Chaldaean vase. 

9. Vase of Gamedes from Boeotia. 

10. Vase on three feet, Boeotia. 

11. Attic Amphora. 

12. Black figured Amphora, Athens. 

13. Attic Oinochoe. 

14. Attic Kylix. 

15. Amphora by Nicosthenes. 

16. Krater or mixing bowl for wine. 

17. Pyxis or toilet box. 

Plate 27. 

Frescoes and Vase-pointing. 
Fig. 1, 3, 5—7, 9—12, 20, 26-28, 33, 35, 36, 39, 41-43. Greek vase paintings (LIboni?, 

Reichhold, Meyer). 
„ 2, 4,* 13-16, 21—25, 34, 38. Fret-work fillets, principally from Greek vases 

(Meyer, Reichhold). 
„ 8. Team of carriage horses from the older Grecian period, from a black figured 

vase (Gerhard, Ausserliche Vasenbildung). 
„ 17. Grecian war-ship from a vase-painting (Baumeister). 

„ 18, 30-32, 39. Coffer-work from the ceiling of the Propylaea in Athens (Meyer). 
„ 19. Vase-painting, Ceramic work from the Grecian islands (Reichhold). 
„ 29. Ornamental work on the ears of a Greek vase (Reichhold). 
„ 37. Ornamental work on the neck of a Greek hydria (L'art pour Tous). 
„ 40. Ornamentation of a coffered work ceiling from the Parthenon, Athens (MeyerV 



62 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



Plate 28. 




GREEK ORNAMENT. 63 

Plate 28. 

Fig. 1. Grecian mirror (Reichhold). This is given as an Etruscan mirror, bout it would 
perhaps be more correct to consider it as having been produced in Greece. 

2. Female apparel dating from the time when Greece stood at its highest 
splendour (Reichhold) 

3. and 17. Furniture inlay from the Greek colonies in the Crimea (Semper). 

4. Marble chair of state (Baumeister). 

5. Bronze leg of an arm chair (Reichhold). 

6. 10, 16, 18. Chairs (Racinet and Baumeister). 

7. Bronze tripod from he geometrical ornament period (Reichhold). 

8. Fans (Racinet). 

9. Kylix or dish found near Kertsch with engravings showing the furniture of Greek 
lady's boudoir (Antiq. d. Bosph., Cymm.). 

11—13. Lyres (Racinet). 

14. Drinking-horn (Racinet). 

15. Small table (Racinet). 

19. Marble arm-chair (DOrpfeld and Reich, Theater). 

20. Couch with table after copy from the Industrial Ait Museum in Dresden. 



Plate 29. 

Fig. 1. Helmet from Samnium (Baumeister). 

2, and 6. Helmets of gladiators (Baumeister). 

3, and 4. Relief, arms and armour (Baumeister). 
5. Dagger (Baumeister). 

7. Iron helmet (Baumeister). 

8. Bronze figure from a carriage-pole, in the Museum Dutuit, Paris. 

9. Relief, weapons, from Pergamon (Baumeister). 

10. Iron helmet with silver ear-laps (Baumeister). 

11. Bronze greaves (Baumeister). 

12. Bronze shield (Libonis). 

13. Helmet from the time of Homer (Racinet). 

14. Bronze tripod from Metapontum (Reichhold). 

15. Bronze handle of a looking-glass, from the Dutuit Museum, Paris. 

16. Spear-head (Baumeister). 

17. Coins stamped with the Olympian Zeus, from Elis (LQbke). 

18. Fragment of statue of a woman, from the Acropolis in Athens (Labke). 

19. Stele of Aristion by Aristocles, Athens (Ltibke). 

20. and 21. Arrow heads (Baumeister). 
22, and 23. Theatre masks for men and women (Baumeister). 
24. Box, from a vase-painting (Gerhard, etruslcische Spiegel). 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 




Plate 30. 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 



65 




SPELT Z, Styles of Ornament. 



66 



Fig 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 

Plate 30. 

1—5, and 8. Ornaments (Libonis). 
6, and 7. Foot-gear (Renard). 
9. Cymbals (Renard). 

10. Gold belt-clasps (Libonis). 

11. Tambourine (Renard). 

12. and 13. Sacrificial knives (Renard). 

14. Sunshade (Baumeister). 

15. Girl with embroidery-frame (Baumeister). 

16. 17, 21, and 22. Coiffures with ornamentation (Racinet). 

18. Torch (Renard). 

19. Horse-bridle (Racinet). 

20. and 23. Necklaces (Havard). The first is considered by some to be Etruscan work, 

it is, however, in all probability Grecian. 
24. Silver vase with relief in gilt (Havard). 




Greco-Phoenician Bust 

(L'Art pour tous.) 



ETRUSCAN ORNAMENT. 




Scene of a banquet 

(Martha, I'Art EtrusqueX 



truscan was the name given to a people who 
lived in what is now called Tuscany at the 
time when Rome was founded. It is impossible 
to trace the origin of their descent, but it 
appears as if they had wandered down from 
the north east and took forcible possession of 
the country about the twelfth century, B. C. 
in which they afterwards settled and which 
was inhabited by Samnites, Umbrians, Pelas- 
gian and other races. The period of the 
highest development of the Etruscans dates 
from 800 to 400 B. C. They were subjugated 
by the Romans, after which they gradually disappear from history, the only 
traces of their once having existed being some few architectural monuments, 
chiefly tombs, which have come down to us. Although the monuments left 
behind by the Etruscans show most decided traces of Grecian influence, still, 
the hypothesis that the Etruscans were of Grecian origin cannot be accepted on 
that account. The racial differences between them and the Grecians were so marked, 
they were so totally different in their physical constitution from the latter, that it is 
impossible to regard the Etruscans as of Hellenic origin. It is possible that in their 
wanderings towards Italy they came into intimate contact with the Grecians, and 
thus brought with them the elements of Grecian art into their adopted country. 
Their art was in all probability subject to influences proceeding from Phoenicia 
and Carthage, but more especially to ancient Ionic influence. They understood^ 
however, how to change all these influences in such a way as to give them 
the stamp of their own national art. 

At the period of their subjugation by the Romans, the Etruscans had brought 
their own art to such a high state of development that it was, able to exercise 
an influence by no means small on the development of Roman art which was 
at that time in its infancy. Roman art came afterwards, of course, entirely under 
the influence of Grecian art. 



68 



ETRUSCAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 31. 




ETRUSCAN ORNAMENT. 



69 



Plate 31. 

Relief, travelling-carriage (Baumeister). 

Antefix of a tomb (Martha), 
and 8. Etruscan bigas with bron?e casing. These were found in Norchia and 

purchased by the Metropolitan Museum in New York. 

Etruscan frescoes (Martha). 

Bronze candelabrum (Martha). 

From the facade of a tomb in Norchia (Lubke). 

Clay sarcophagus from Cervetri, in the Louvre (Ltibke'. 
and 11. Marble altar from the collection in the Villa Borghese near Rome (Tatham). 

Terra-cotta altar (Tatham). 



Plate 32. 

Fig. 1, and 6. Swords (Baumeister). 

„ 2, and 5. Helmets (Libonis). 

„ 3. Link for the handle of a bucket. 6th century B. C. (Reichhold). 

„ 4, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, and 25. Ornaments (Libonis). 

„ 7, 12, and 14. Greaves (Libonis). 

„ 8. Fibula (Libonis). 

„ 9. Fighting warriors (Racinet). 

„ 10. Etruscan peasant (Racinet). 

„ 11. Razor (Libonis). 

„ 13. Etruscan mirror in the numismatic collection in Paris (Gerhard, Etruskische Spiegel). 

This is considered by some to be Grecian work. 

„ 15. Tripod (Reichhold). 

„ 18. Tripod (Martha, I'Art Etrusque). 

„ 21. Dagger (Baumeister). 

„ 23. Heating-stove (Martha). 

„ 24. Antique bronze cist (Gerhard). 

„ 26. Spear-head (Baumeister). 




Etruscan tomb in Cervetri (Renard). 



70 



ETRUSCAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 32. 




ROMAN ORNAMENT. 




ith their art the Greeks conquered 
the world, the Romans with their 
politics and their legions. The 
whole civilized world at the pre- 
sent day is striving to emulate 
the works of art of the former, 
the laws of the latter are consi- 
dered throughout the world as 
the foundation upon which all laws 
must be established. In these 
facts lie the difference in character betwe'en the two peoples. Those Romans 
who lived at the beginning of Roman history were unable to develop an In- 
dependent art of their own, for all their endeavours were directed to amassing 
wealth, and increasing their lands. They were obliged therefore to take the 
motifs for their art from Etruria and continued to do so until Grecian art became 
predominant. Becoming more accustomed to luxury from the conquests which 
they made, the Roman began gradually to form a national art of their own 
under the guidance of Greek teachers. The practical spirit of the Romans and 
their taste for monumental work are naturally to be seen best exemplified in 
their architecture, a science in which they have performed most magnificent 
work especially in connection with the monumental development of templesi, 
basilicas, thermae, theatres, etc. The Romans furthermore took up and accom- 
plished the task of combining numerous elements in a homogeneous whole, and 
of developing them further. In this latter art they^ became the teachers of fuhire 
generations. The Romans adopted the three columnar Orders of the Greeks 
retaining however at the same time the Etruscan column. To these four orders 
they added the Composite Order. 

Besides bringing architecture to a high state of development, the Romans 
also succeeded in bringing the art of sculpture to a great degree of perfection. 



72 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



In this latter, however, they had the assistance of Greek artists. The manner, 
however, in which the Romans enriched their ornament was detrimental to the 
characteristic Greek outlines, and the insatiable luxury predominating during the 
time of the Caesars finally destroyed completely the exquisite harmony of Greek 
art— the form was entirely overgrown by the ornament. The art of mosaic 
work, which had its origin in the Orient, was brought to its highest perfection 
by the Romans, all the old Roman mosaics now in our possession prove this 
beyond any question. 

The fall of the Roman Empire, and the victory of Christianity, marked also 
the decline and fall of classic art, for this art could no longer appeal to those 
Christian barbarians who now poured into the country from all sides. The 
eastern Roman Christian Empire exercised a very great influence on the deve- 
lopment of a new art amongst the Christian States which rose from the ruins 
of the Western Roman Empire. 

From the so-called Early Christian and Byzantine Style shortly afterwards 
developed, the Romanesque Style which from the 9**^ to the 1 2*^ centuries spread 
through all the newly constituted States. 




Roman Labnitn (Tatham). 



Plate 33 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 




74 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 34. 



■v 



''<i ^i^'AVMiatz^:A:,^it:A:Ay^ 



M %mimmM ^ 




ROMAN ORNAMENT. 75 

Plate 33. 

Fi^;. 1, 4, 9, 19. Capitals and entablatures o! the Doric Order, found In Albano, 
near Rome (Mauch). It appears as if Vignola organised his Doric Order according 
to this fragment. The entablature produces a specially fine ei'fect by means of the 
under aspect of the corona soffit. Fig. 19. There are two fascias to the architrave, 
the upper one projecting infront of the lower. Figure 4 gives a view of the capita) 
seen from below, and Fig-. 9, the base of the column. 

5, 17. Doric Capitals and entablatures from the Thermae of Diocletian 
(Mauch) which were erected about 300 B. C. The delicate profile of the cornice, 
the decorated members, and the fretwork denticulations in meander form, belong 
really more to the Ionic order. Figure b shows the capital seen from below, and 
Fig. 17, the soffit of the corona. 
From a white marble altar in the Vatican Museum (Tatham). 

18. From a white marble altar in the Museum of the Capitol io Rome (Tatham). 
7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14. Foil for cyma (Mauch). 
12. Bead-moulding (Mauch). 

15. Arch with rustication from the Amphitheatre in Pola, Completed 150 A. D. 
(Uhde). 

16. Frieze ornament (Tatham). 



Plate 34. 

Fig. 1, 2, 5. Square angle pier with principal cornice from the Thermae of Diocletian 
in Rome (Mauch). This pier, which is of the Ionic order, and was placed on an 
angle, is an example of the questionable inconsistency of employing the capital of 
a column on a square pier. This is seen in the fact that the echinus, which, is 
rounded above, is forced, below, together with the astragal, to sink into tlie straight 
lines of the body of the column. The Frieze is pulvinated, a form often used by 
the Romans. Figure 2 shows the base of the pilaster, and Fig. 5 a view of the 
capital seen from below. 

,; 3, 4, 6. Columns and entablatures from the temple of Fortuna Virilis in Rome 
(Mauch). This temple was Tetrastyle Pseudo-peripteral with a portico two inter- 
columniations deep. Its erection took place towards the close of the Republic 
The entablature is by no means free from objections, for, besides other errors, the 
bed moulding is heavy, the frieze and the architrave poor. Figure 3 shows the 
base of the column, and Fig. 6, the capital seen from below. 

„ 7. Column in the court of saint Hieronymus in Rome (Piranesi). 

„ 8. Capital of a house on the Bridge of Gratianus in Rome (Piranesi). 

„ 9. Capital from the temple of Proccdis (Piranesi). 

„ 10. Capital from the basilica of San Clemente (Piranesi). 

„ 11. Capital from a house in Rome (Piranesi). 

„ 12. Capital from the Palace Pionetti in Rome (Piranesi). 

„ 13. Capital from the temple of Priscae in Rome (Piranesi). 

„ 14. Capital of a column in the Villa Negronia in Rome (PiranesiX 



76 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 35. 




ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



77 



Plate 35. 

Fig. 1. Soffit of the corona from the temple of Castor in the Forum Romanum 

(Mauch). 

2. 10, 11, 12. Capitals and entablatures from the interior of the Pantheon in Rome 
(Mauch). 

This building is still well preserved it was built by Hadrian 124 A. D. on the 
north side of the Thermae of Agrippa. Figure 10 gives a view of the capital from 
below, Figure 11, the base of the column, and Fig. 12 an under view of the corona 

3. Fragment from the Villa Borghese in Rome (Piranesi). 

4. 5, 7. Fragments found near S. Gregorius (Mauch). 
6. Fragment from the Villa Albani (Piranesi). 

8. Fragment from the Villa Borghese (Piranesi). 

9. Capital from the temple of Castor in the Forum Romanum (Mauch). 



Plate 36. 

Fig. 1, 6. Capitals and entablatures from the arch of Septimius Severus In Rome 

(Mauch). 

This is an example of the composite order. Figure 6 is a view of the Capital 
from below. 
„ 2. From a Roman sacrificial altar (Piranesi). 



» 




Marble Fragment from Rome (Tatham). 



78 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 36. 




ROMAN ORNAMENT. 








80 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 38. 




ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



81 



Fig. 3, 4, 7, 8. Base, capital, and entablature from the Temple of Vesta in 
Tivoli (Mauch). 

This temple was circular and peripteral with 18 columns, 10 of which are still 
in good condition. The columns are not perpendicular but inclined to the axis in 
such a manner that the inner lines on the tapering shaft receive almost a vertical 
direction, thus increasing not only the apparent but the real stability of the whole. 
In order to produce this effect, the fillets under the base and above the capital are 
somewhat wedge-shaped. The capital, which differs in form from' the usual normal 
capital of the Corinthian order, has a very pleasing shape with a large central-flower 
between the volutes. The leaves also bear more resemblance to the curled cabbage 
rather than to the acanthus. Figure 4 shows a section through the corners of the 
capital and one at the roots of the Jeaves. Figure 7 gives an oblique view of the 
capital. The base on podium in Fig. 8 has no plinth, possibly on account of the 
circular form in which it. is constructed. The frieze is most effective being decorated 
in a naturalistic manner with ox head, rosettes, festoons, and patera, instead of the 
usual ox-skull. 
Roman egg and dart moulding (Mauch). 



Plate 37. 

Fig. 1 and 8. Pedestals from the Villa of Cardinal Alexander Albani before the 
Solarian Gate in Rome (Piranesi. The remaining examples are all from the 
same authority.) 

„ 2. Base from the Villa Barberini, 

„ 3. Base from the Temple of Nero. 

„ 4. Base from the Mausoleum of Augustus. 

„ 5. Capital from the Villa Farnese. 

„ 6. Base from the Church of S. S. Quattro Coronati. 

„ 7. Base from the Basilica of S. Bartolomeo air Isola. 
, „ 9. Pedestal from the Church of S. Prassede. 



Plate 38. 

Fig. 1, 5. Pilasters of veined marble In the cloister of the Convent of Art coeli 

near Rome (Tatham). 
„ 2. Fasces from a bas-relief in the Massfmi Palace in Rome (Tatham). 
„ 3. Ancient marble altar from the collection in the Villa Borghese In Rome 

(Tatham). 
„ 4. Fasces from a bas-relief in the Capitol (Tatham). 
„ 6. Fragment of an antique frieze found in Tivoli (Tatham). 
„ 7. Fragment of a frieze in high-relief from the Villa Aldobrandini in Rome 

(Tatham). 



SPELTZ, styles oi Ornament. 



82 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 39. 




Plate 40. 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



83 




84 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 41 




22«.-S-/r--'>»— ' 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. g^ 

Plate 39. 

Roman Chairs and Seats after Tatho'U. 
Fig. 1. White marble arm-chair from Rome. 

„ 2. 4. Foot of a white marble sarcophagus in the Vatican Collection. Front 

and profile. 
„ 3. Half of a green marble tripod from the Vatican Collection. 
„ 5, 8. Ancient bronze arm-chairs from the Museum in Portici. The covering is 

modern. Front and profile. 
„ 6. Ancient marble stool from Rome. 
„ 7, 9. Ancient bronze stools from Rome. Front and profile. 
„ 10, 11. Chairs of state in white marble from the Vatican Collection. Front and 

profile. 

Plate 40. 

Roman Sculptures after PiranesL 
Fig. 1. Marble tripod in the Capitol Museum at Rome. 
„ 2. Marble vase in the Farnese Palace. 
„ 3. Terra-cotta vase in the Vatican Library. The chimerical figure has reference 

to human life. 
„ 4. Marble candelabrum in the Piranesi Museum. 
„ 5, 6, Marble vases from the Villa of Hadrian. 



Plate 41. 

Fig. 1. Skull Ornament (Baumeister). 

2. Copper axe (Racinet). 

3. Sheath for the sacrificial knife (Baumeister). 

4. Incense box (Racinet). 

5. Handkerchief of the sacrificer (Baumeister). 

6. Marble table from Rome (Tatham). 

7. 18, 27, 28. Ancient foot-gear (Racinet). 

8. 9, 10. Female coiffures (Racinet). 

11. Silver spoons (Baumeister). 

12. Sacrificial axe (Baumeister). 

13. Memorial wreath of gold plate, from Lower Italy (Baumeister). 

14. Key (Racinet). 

15. Priest's ladle (Baumeister). 

16. Wine-jug of day used In religious rites (Racinet). 

17. Ivory figure of an actor (Baumeister). 

19. Weight in form of skull (Dutuit). 

20. Fumigating altar (Baumeister). 

21. Sacrificial knife (Baumeister). 

22. Sprinkler (Baumeister). 

23. Priests of Cybele in full canonicals with sacrificial implements (Baumeister). 

24. Wine-jug for use in sacrifice (Baumeister). 

25. Priest's mask (Baumeister). 

26. Incense-box for use in sacrifice (Baumeister). 



86 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 42. 




Plate 43, 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 




M 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 44. 




iiifliiiiiiiiiiiiirdiiiiiffl^ 



ROMAN ORNAMENT. ^ 

Plate 42. 

Fig. 1. Marble candelabrum (Canina). 

„ 2, 6. Marble table (Canina). 

„ 3. Fragment of a bronze candelabrum from Naples (Libonis). 

»4. Silver dish found in the silver discoveries in Hildesheim (Havard). 

5. Marble candelabra (Canina). 

„ 7. Roman scales (Dutuit). 

„ 8. Roman satyr (Baumeister). 
„ 9. Amulet with head of Mercury (Dutuit). 

„ 10. rtoman sedan chair (Baumeister). 
„ 11. Portrait of Julia, daughter of Titus \ 

„ 12. Portrait of Augustus / °" Cameos, found in Florence (Libonis). 

„ 13. Clay oil-lamps (Libonis). 

„ 14. Bronze toilet-vase (Dutuit). 

„ 15. Roman coins 1 As (Baumeister). 

„ 16, 19, 21. Silver forks (Baumeister). 

„ 17. Vase in chased silver (Martha, Manuel d'archeologie Etrusque et Romaine). 

„ 18. Bronze from Naples showing Hercules fighting with the snakes (Baumeister). 

„ 20. Bronze wine-jug (Baumeister). 



Plate 43. 

Fig. 1, 7, 15. Hair pins (Liboni§). 

2. Medallion with picture of Hercules (Libonis) 

3. Massive gold necklace (Libonis). 
4—6, 10, 11. Ear-rings (Libonis). 

8. Bronze candelabrum from Naples (Libonis). 

9. Bronze lamp in the Louvre (Libonis). 

12. Terra-cotta lamp (Libonis). 

13, 14. Rings (Renard). 
16-18, 22. Pins (Renard). 
20. Needle (Renard). 

23. Quiver with bow (Renard). 

24. Bronze comb in the Mayence Museum (Renard) 

25, Head of Medusa (Libonis). 

26, 27, 28. Silver vessels discovered in Hildesheim (Havard). 



Plate 44. 

fig. 1. Costume of a Consul from the later period (Baumeister). 

„ 2, 6. A Roman helmet found in Germany (Baumeister). 

„ 3. Relief from the Mayence Museum showing a rider leading his horse (Baumeister). 

I, 4. Bronze ribbon brooch or clasp (Lindenschmitt). 



90 



ROMAN ORNAMENT 



Fig. 5. Iron dagger-sheath in the Mayence Museum (Baumeister). 

„ 7. Shield (Renard). 

„ 8. Bronze tripod from Naples (Libonis). 

„ 9, 11, 12. Roman military badges (Raciner). 

„ 10. Ivovy sword-pommel (Baumeister). 

., 13. Bas-relief from Puteoli, showing a Trireme (Baumeister). 

„ 14. Helmet of a Centurion (Libonis). 

„ 15. Marble statue of Titus in State armour, in the Louvre (Baumeister). 




Ancient Chimaera in white Marble, Rome 
(Tatham). 



POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. 




n the neighbourhood of Mount Vesuvius on the 
Bay of Naples stood the cities of Pompeii 
Herculaneum and Stabia. These three cities 
were destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius in 
the year 79 A. D., and were so thoroughly and 
completely buried that for centuries no trace of 
where they stood could be found Their po- 
sition was, however, accidentally discovered 
in the year 1748. The city of Pompeii 
became subject to the Romans in the 4**^ cen- 
tury B. C, and, having been thoroughly 
Romanised, grew to be the favourite summer residence of the wealthier classes. 
The characteristic tendency of the Romans towards luxury soon made Pompeii 
a special centre, Greek artists were introduced, style was given to classic art, 
and, finally, a special Pompeian Style grew into existence. The small arts and 
work in metal were brought to a very high state of perfection. The remains 
of objects of this class at present preserved in the museum at Naples, more 
especially those vessels found in the silver discoveries in Boscoreale, are extre- 
mely beautiful and worthy of the highest admiration. 

Peculiarly characteristic of Pompeian art are the mural paintings and the 
coloured stucco ornamentation. Similar work might of course have also existed 
in other Roman cities, all traces having disappeared in the course of time. Four 
distinct and regularly consecutive periods can be distinguished in these mural 
paintings, the incrustation style, already used in Hellenic-Oriental art, consisting 
of imitations of many-coloured marble ashlar-work combined with ornament 
worked in stucco. After this came the pictorial architectural style which con- 
sisted in exhibiting, in perspective, on smooth surfaces, paintings of fantastic 



92 POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. 

architectural pictures. Tlie wall was divided into panels in free ornamental 
style and decorated with small figurative centre pictures. The type which 
appears to have been in most general use was the prospect style, here, the 
straight wall, was so changed by a rich play of delicate stone architecture that 
the chamber had the appearance of being larger than it really was. These types, 
as far as their collective arrangement goes, show decided leaning towards Hellenic 
proto-types -from Alexandria, at the same time, however, very many single Or- 
naments show, in their pure naturalistic style, very great artistic independence. 
Although the al fresco mural paintings, which were coloured by simple hand- 
workers, are of a most dazzling brillancy of colour, still, the gradations are 
toned off so regularly and .legitimately that the effect of the whole is soothing 
and pleasing to the eye. This style of art was, in all probability, well known 
to a large circle. 

It is impossible to form an exact picture of Roman life in any Roman city, 
but this is more especially the case with Pompeii which was completely over- 
whelmed in one night. It is impossible also to differentiate exactly Pompeian 
from Rom art, for it is highly probable that many objects discovered in Pompeii 
were manufactured in other parts of the Empire, and that other articles disco- 
vered in various other cities had their origin in Pompeii. 



Plate 45. 

Fig. 1. Column from the house of the Tragic poet in Pompeii (Uhde). 
„ 2. Mural ornamentation from the house of M. Lucretius in Pompeii (Uhde). 
„ 3. Mural ornamentation from the house of Modestus in Pompeii (Uhde). 
„ 4, 6. Capitals from the basilica in Pompeii (Uhde). 
„ 5, 7. Pilastercapitaly and column from the house of the Colours in Pompeii 

(Ulide). 
„ 8. Capital from the house of the Faun in Pompeii (Uhde). 
„ 9. Capital of column from the house of Actaeon in Pompeii (Uhde). 
„ 10. Podium from the tomb of Naevoleia Tyche in Pompeii (Uhde). 



Plate 46. 

Fig. 1. Mosaic from Pompeii, showing a theatrical scene (Libonis). 

2. Mural frescoes from Pompeii (Reichhold). 

3. 6, 8. Mosaic floors (d'Espouy). 

4. Mural fresco, the holy marriage of Zeus and Hera (Baumeister) 

5. From a mural fresco, illustrating Mediation (Roux ain^). 
7. Mural fresco with theatrical mask (Baumeister). 



Plate 45. 



POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. 



93^ 




94 



POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 46. 






Plate 47. 



POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. 



95 




96 



POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 48. 




POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. 

Plate 47. 



97 



Fig. 



« 



1. Marble table from the house of Cornelius Rufus in Pompeii (Bflhlmann, die 
Bauformenlehre). 

2, 3, 4, 7. Vessels in embossed silver from the discoveries of Boscorcale (Libonis). 

5. Bronze table in the Museum at Naples (Buhlmann). 

6. Bronze candelabrum (Libonis). 
8, 9, 10, 16 Ornaments (Labke). 

11. Bronze figure of a Triton (Collection Dutuit). 

12. Lamp (Collection Dutuit). 

13. Pompeian glass vase (Libonis). 

14. 15, 17. Bronze tripods (Liibke). - 



Plate 48. 



Fig. 1—5, 9, 16, 20, 21. From Pompeian mural frescoes (Roux ain^). 
„ 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 18, 19. Bronze candelabra (Mauch).' 
„ 12, 13, 15, 17. From Pompeian mural frescoes (Reichhold). 
„ 14. Later Sphinx of bronze (Baumeistcr). 



Plate 49. 

Fig. 1—10. Various mural frescoes in Pompeii (Roux ain6, Herculanum et PompciO. 




Figure of bronze (Roux ain^). 



i 



SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament 



98 



POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 49. 





CELTIC ORNAMENT 
(FRANCE AND GERMANY) 



Prankish Warrior 

(Hottenroth). 



oubts no longer exist as to the fact that before they 
came into contact with the Romans, the Celts and 
Germans had their own characteristic national art, 
even, although the same had not advanced beyond 
the bronze and iron periods. It is difficult to 
strictly separate Celtic from Germanic ornament, 
the connections between the two races were so 
varied and so intimate, that what was characteristic 
of the one was transplanted to the other. The 
Celts, who had occupied the whole of Europe, were 
after a time driven out from Germany and Austria 
by the Germans, there must have been therefore 
ample opportunity, before the Romans came into contact with the Germans, for 
Celtic and Germanic art to exercise mutual and abiding influence on each other. 
The Romans became, afterwards, the instructors of both in ornamentation, and 
under the influence of Roman art, Celtic and Germanic art came closer to each 
other, the relationship developing into a most intimate connection at that period 
when the Germans held possession of the Western Empire of the Romans. 

After the fall of the Roman Empire, Byzantine influence predominated, and 
as the Roman style became developed, a new art period made itself manifest 
Pure Celtic ornament, far purer than in France, existed in the British Islands 
up into the 12*^ century. This part of the subject, however, is dealt with in 
the next chapter, although it would be perhaps more correct chronologically 
to refer to it in treating of the art of the Middle Ages. 



1 



too 



CELTIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 50. 



1 


W: 




CELTIC ORNAMENT. 



tot 



Germanic Ornament was entirely confined to the decoration of weapons 
and useful articles. Nothing was known of architecture, not even of archi- 
tecture in wood, even rites and ceremonies 
were never held within doors, but in the 
open air under a tree. 

n their first attempts at architecture, which were 
made soon after the introduction of Christia- 
nity, the Celtic artists confined themselves 
almost entirely to the building of wooden 
churches and oratories. All their splendid 
triumphs as seen in the development of the 
Celtic Church Architecture were achieved 
Gallic Warrior (Racinet). a few centuries later. 




Plate 50. 

Fig. 1, and 3. Breton embroidery from Pont rAbb6, Finisterre (Racinet). 

2. Bronze ornament, found in Castel near Agen, in the Cluny Museum (Racinet). 

4. Bronze buckle, Cluny Museum (Racinet). 

5. Belt-buckle, Cluny Museum (Racinet). 

6. Bronze brooch, Cluny Museum (Racinet). 

7. Neck ornament of bronze (Racinet). 

8. 9, and 10. Belt buckles from the Merovingian Period (Racinet). 

11. Bronze fibula, in the Louvre (Racinet). 

12. Bronze fibula from the Merovingian Period, Cluny Museum (Racinet). 

13. Bronze belt-buckles, Cluny Museum (Racinet). 

14. and 15. Heads of Gallic chieftains from the time of the Romans, after bronze 
medals (Racinet). 

16. Silver brooch from GoldboroUgh in Yorkshire (Racinet). 

17. Remnant of a reliquary of iron with bronze and silver ornament from 
Cashel, Co. Tipperary, Ireland (Racinet). 

18. Brooch with granate and gold filigree-work, found near Abingdon (Racinet) 

19. and 20. Bronze fibulae (Racinet). 

21. Bronze brooch with silver ornamentation, found near Lincoln (Racinet). 

22. Bracelet from Pont-Audemer (Havard). 

23. Bronze brooch found in the churchyard at Blasion (Havard). 

24. Buckle found in the churchyard at Chisell-Down, in the Isle of Wight (Racinet). 

25. Bracelet, found in R^allon, Hautes Alpes (Havard). 

26. and 27. Bracelets from Caranda (Havard). 



102 



CELTIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 51. 




CELTIC ORNAMENT. IO3 

Plate 51. 

Fig. 1. Prankish weapons, from the Museum at St. Germain (Barriere-Flany, Les Arts 
industrials peubles barbares de la Gaule. All the following Figures in this plate 
are from the same author). 

„ 2. Burgundian ornament from Elisried (Canton Bern). 

„ 3. Necklet, same origin. 

„ 4. Neck ornament in the Museum at St. Germain. 

„ 5. Burgundian ornament from Delle near Belfort. 

6. West Gothic buckle from Jean-le-Pouget, in the Museum at Cluny. 

7. Burgundian buckle from Fierier near Tonniges (Haute Savoie). 

8. Prankish glass bottle from Achery-Magot (Aisne). 

9. Burgundian clay vessel from Tournus (Saone et Loire). 
10. Prankish glass dish from Anguilcourt-le-Sort (Aisne). 
n. West Gothic clay vase from Herpes (Charente). 

12. Prankish comb. 

13. Burgundian clay vase from Charnay (Saone et Loire) in the Museum at 
St. Germain. 

14. Anglo-Saxon knife. 

15. West-Gothic buckle from Pigoret-Guzarques (H^rault). 



Plate 52. 

The Merovingian Period. 



Fig. 1—5, 8—13, 15, and 16. Ornaments (Havard). 
„ 6. Sword of the Childerich (Roger-Miles). 

„ 7. Cross from St. Martin, Limoges, made by Saint Eloi (Havard). 
„ 14. Chair of Dagobert, made of gilt bronze (Havard). 



Plate 53. 

Fig. 1, and 2. German sword in the Mayence Museum (Lindenschmitt, Aus der heid- 
nischen Vorzeit. The following are all according to the same authority). 

M 3. Silver needle from the Prankish graves near Neuhofen. 

>. 4. Prankish fibula. 

,, 5. Half-drawn dagger from the graves at Hallstadt. ' 

„ 6. Prankish bracelet. Museum in Mayence 

., 7. Bucket with bronze mounts and iron handles from the Prankish graves 
near Monsheim, in the Mayence Museum. 

„ 8. Bucket with bronze mounts found in the graves on the Schiersteiner Wege. 
Wiesbaden Museum. 

„ 9. Ear-ring from the graves near W6rrstedt. 

M 10. Dagger from Sprendlingen, Rheinhessen. 

., 11. German ribbon clasp, Mayence Museum. 

M 12. Fibula from the graves near Nordendorf. 

*, 13. Necklet from a grave in Wurmlingen, Wtirttemberg. 



1 



104 



CELTIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 52. 




Plate 53. 



CELTIC ORNAMENT. 



105 




106 CELTIC ORNAMENT. 

Fig. 14. Ear-ring in the Wiesbaden Museum. 

„ 15. Shoe found in the turf moor Friedeburg, West Friesland. Hannover Museum. 

„ 16. Frankish belt-buckle, Mayence Museum. 

„ 17. Glass vase found in grave near Kreuznach. 

„ 18. Clay vase found in grave near Ulm. 

„ 19. Clay vase found in graves at Osthofen, Mayence Museum. 

„ 20, and 22. Coffins of Gypsum. 

„ 21. Ciay urn found in graves near Remingen. 

„ 23. Ring from the Mayence Museum. 




Anglo-Saxon Baptismal Font 

(MuUer and Mothes), 



CELTIC ORNAMENT 
(GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND). 




Tnamental art, such as was developed in the British 
Isles, but more especially in Ireland, even during 
the sway of heathenism, was, without any doubt, 
a pure Celtic art of its own, without any traces 
of Byzantine or South European influences. The 
very same ornamental work which we find in the 
old heathen stone coffins are also to be seen in 
the manuscript paintings of the Celtic monks of 
the sixth century. Celtic artists show a most 
astonishing and extraordinary skill and variety in 
the delineation of ornamental tracery, in which the 
bodies of birds, dogs, snakes and fantastic animals 
are most skillfully interwoven. Vegetable ornaments 
were entirely absent in the earlier specimens of 
this work, appearing first in the 9*** century, very 
probably as the result of Roman influence. The 
very great similarity existing between Scandinavian and Celtic ornament points 
to a very close connection between the two styles of art, a fact which is 
all the more evident when we remember that Christianity was introduced into 
Norway and Sweden by Irish missionaries. 



Initial from the 7th century 

(Owen Jones). 



1 



108 



CELTIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 54. 




Plate 55. 



CELTIC ORNAMENT. 



t09 




no 



CELTIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 54* 

Fig. 1. Manuscript painting from tlie IQth century (Dolmetsch). 
M 2. Initial from a Psalter, ll^^ century, at present in Trinity College, Dublin 

(Owen Jones). 
„ 3, and 4. Manuscript paintings from tlie lO^h century (Owen Jones). 
„ 5. The Aberlemno cross (OiXren Jones). 
„ 6. Initial from the 7th century (Dolmetsch). 

„ 7—11. Manuscript paintings of Celtic-Anglo-Saxon origin (Owen Jones). 
„ 12. Ornament from base of cross in the church of Eassie, Angusshire (Owen Jones). 
„ 13. Ornament from base of cross in the church at St. Vigean, Angusshire (Owen 

Jones). 
„ 14. Ornament from base of cross in the church at Meigle, Angusshire (Owen Jones). 



Plate 55. 

Fig. 1, 3, 4, and 8. Specimes of manuscript paintings from the W^ century (Dolmetsch 

and Owen Jones). 
„ 2. Manuscript paintings from the 11th century (Dolmetsch). 
„ 5, 6, and 10. Manuscript paintings from the 8th century (Dolmetsch). 
„ 7. Manuscript painting from the 9th century (Dolmetsch). 
„ 9. Initial from the Franco-Saxon bible at St. Denis, from the 9th century 

(Owen Jones). 
„ 11—21. Specimens from manuscript paintings of Celtic -Anglo -Saxon origin 

(Owen Jones). 



Plate 56. 

Fig. 1—3. Specimens of manuscript paintings from the 7th century (Dolmetsch). 
„ 4. Manuscript painting from an Irish Gospel of the 10th century. The border 
is copied from the Gospel of St. Cuthbert now in the British Museum, and known 
as the Book of Durham, a book which was written between the years 698 and 720. 
(Henry Shaw, Mediaeval Alphabets and Devices.) 




From an Irish Spelling-Book (Mothes and Muller). 



Plate 56. 



CELTIC ORNAMENT. 



Ill 



iM^ 



y 



.-y loHIKLIi 
CDMNHO 



s 



IMUVKW 






112 




Roman Marble Vase (Piranesi). 




window from Monastery St. Juan de los Reye$» Toledo (Monumentos de Espafia). 

SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament. 8 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 




From a 

Carolingian Gospel 

in the British 

Museum 

(Mailer and Mothes). 



radually, as the political supremacy of a country begins to 
decline, Art in that country begins also to decay. The 
decline of classic art was the natural consequence of the 
political weakness and final decay of the Western Roman 
Empire, as well as of the decisive victory which Christianity 
finally obtained pver Heathenism, In all the old historic 
styles there exists an intimate connection between religion 
and art. Art developed under the aegis of religion and was 
so strongly influenced by it that a style of art produced 
under the influence of a certain religion could never har- 
monise with any other religion except that from which it sprung. When, there- 
fore, Christianity received into its hands the remains of classic art, it was obliged 
to change and harmonise them into a style in unison with Christian ideas, tastes, 
and necessities, without a the same time entirely freeing itself from classic in- 
fluences. On the ruins, therefore, of the Western Roman empire, the Christian 
States erected a new civilisation changing everything they found to fit the new 
condition of affairs, and making use of the peculiar elements of Byzantine art, 
then in its full glory to form a new style of art of its own. The Byzantine 
influence was so powerful at that time, that it is often a matter of real diffi- 
culty for the art historian to say whether certain works of art belong to the 
Eariy Christian or to the Byzantine style. The antiquities discovered in the 
ancient city of Ravenna show most remarkable traces of Byzantine influence$. 
Eariy Christian art may be regarded as a period of transition the tendency 
of which was to free itself alike from Classic and Byzantine influence. It was 
only when this latter influence had been entirely overcome, when, about the 
year 900 A. D., the Romanesque style of architecture began to develop itself, 
that art began again to move along secure lines. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 



115 



The attempts to change classic art into forms more suitable to Christianity 
were, however, not confined to the Western Roman empire. Attempts in this 
direction were also made in Asia Minor, but were finally rendered unavailing 
by the spread of Islamism. 

Before their contact with the Romans, the art of the Celts, if we exclude 
Architecture and Sculpture, even though primitive, was still a thoroughly charac- 
teristic, peculiar one. The Eastern Goths, who ruled Italy from 493 to 555, 
but who soon lost their peculiar individuality, did not cherish this style of art 
as the Lombards did. These latter, who settled in Northern Italy under Alboin 
ill the year 568, preserved it carefully, and to such an extent that it actually 
exercised a very remarkable influence on the development of Italo-Romanesque art 




Mural painting from the Coemeterium Majus, Rome 
(Wilpert, Malereien der Katakomben Roms). 



116 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 5 




Plate 58. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 



117 




113 EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 

Plate 57. 

Lombardo-Byzantine Ornament in Italy. 
(E. A. StUckelberg, Longobardische Plastik.) 

Fig. 1. Circular pattern braided work from Ventimiglia. 

„ 2. Diamond pattern braided work from Ravenna. 

„ 3. Bottom of a basked from Rome, 

„ 4. Relief from Ventimiglia. 

„ 5, and 13. Interlaced work from Milan. 

„ 6. Relief from Spalato. 

„ 7. Interlaced work from Como. 

„ 8. Processional Crucifix from Milan. 

„ 9. Interlaced work from Valeria. 

„ 10. Lattice work from Milan. 

„ 11. Church altarscreen from Aquileja. 

„ 12. Relief from altar in Orvieto. 



Plate 58. 

Lombardo-Byzantine Ornament in Italy, 
(After Professor Karl Mohrmann and Dr. Eugen Ferd. Eichwede, Germanische Fruhkunst.) 

Fig. 1, 2, and 5. Capitals from the church of S. Ambrogio, Milan. 

„ 3. Fountain, in the Museum at Venice. 

„ 4. From a balustrade in the cathedral at Aquileja. 

„ 6—8. Portals from the church of S. Ambrogio, Milan. 

„ 9. Capital of column from the church of S. Ambrogio, Milan. 




Crucifix in the Museum at Ravenna (Dehli). 



Plate 59. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 




120 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 60. 



|^^».^i^Ai.4n^'HMifefefe^^^'^^*^!^lg ^»»^ 





ST 


l\/A\/A\/A\to// 1 


>s< 




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i=< 


1^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


^^M.^^p 


g 


^^^^^^^^^^E 


-^K 


^^^^ 


g 




^^^^ 


n 




^^^^^s 


-7^. 




#is^^^^^ 


';■! 


M 6. 





rt^.i/?/u.^,>.., .,1 l|l|||,|f||[]lV| -|i"| MTfr-- 




Plate 61. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 



121 




122 EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 

Plate 59. 

Visigothic Ornament in Spain. 
(After Monumentos de Espana.) 
Fig. 1. Cross from the crown of Receswint. 
„ 2. Crown of Suinthila. 
„ 3. Votive crown. 
„ 4. Votive cross. 
i, 5. Arm of a processional-crucifix. 



Plate 60. 

Italo-Byzantine Ornament in Italy, 

Fig. 1. Frieze from tlie cliurcli at Dana in Syria (VogUe, La Syrie Centrale). 

2. Capital from tfie churcli of St. Apollirare Nuovo, Ravenna (Dehli). 

3, 4, and 5. Capitals from the church of St. Vitale in Ravenna. The church 

of St. Vitale in Ravenna was founded by the treasurer Julianus Argentarius being 
moved thereto be the exhortations of Bishop Ecclesius (524—534 after Christ). The 
strongly marked Byzantine character of this church is easily explained when it is 
remembered that very intimate relations existed at that time between Ravenna and 
Byzantium (Dehli). 

„ 6. Marble panel from Ravenna (Bilderatlas). 

„ 7. Monogram of Christ in a sarcophagus in the church of St. Apollinare-in- 
Classe, Ravenna (Dehli, Selections of Byzantine Ornament). 



Plate 61. 

Prankish Ornament. 

Fig. 1., Gospel of Charles the Bald in the National Library in Paris (Havard). 
„ 2. Sword of Charlemagne in the Imperial Treasury in Vienna (Havard). 
„ 3. Chair of the statue of St. Foy in the treasury at Conques (Havard). 
„ 4. Gold crucifix, presented to the monastery of St. Denis by Charles the 

Bald (Havard). 
„ 5. Crown of Charlemagne in the Imperial Treasury in Vienna (Havard). 
„ 6. Crown of the statue of St. Foy in the treasury at Conques (Havard). 
„ 7. Reliquary medallion of Charlemagne in the monastery at Aix-la-Chapelle 

(Havard). 
„ 8. Throned Christ from a gospel of Charlemagne (Muller and Mothes). 
„ 9. Hunting horn of Charlemagne in Aix-la-Chapelle (Muller and Mothes). 
„ 10. Madonna from the catacomb of St. Calixtus in Rome (Muller and Mothes). 



Plate 62. 



Fig. 1. Diptych from the 6*^ century, supposed to be the Cathedral of Maxentius 
(Libonis). 
„ 2. Sarcophagus of the Exarch Isaac, representing the adoration of the Three 
Magi (Libonis). 



Plate 62. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 



123 




124 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT. 



Fig. 3. Ambo In Salonica (Gagarin, Russische Ornamente). 
„ 4. Bookcase in church in Ravenna (Havard). 
„ 5. Chalice, presented to the monastery of Kremsmanster in 780 by Duke Tassilo 

(Muller and Mothes). 
„ 6. Reading desk of St. Adelgundl (Libonis). 
„ 7, and 8. Sarcophagi In Ravenna (D'Espouy). 

„ 9. Mosaic flooring from the church of St Vitale In Ravenna (D'Espouy). 
,-, 10. The Empress Theodora and her suite. Mosaic from the church of St. Vitale, 

Ravenna (Libonis). 




Altar In the Museum at Ravenna (Dehli). 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 




yzajitine is the title given to that conglomerate style 
of art which was developed in the Eastern 
Roman Empire from all the different styles 
which were in existence at that early period. 
The first impulse to the development of a 
Byzantine style was given in the year 330 A.D., 
when Byzantium or Constantinople became 
the seat of the royal residence of the emperor 
Constantine, and when Christianity was made 
the established state religion. Byzantine Art 
may be said to have reached its highest 
standard in the 6^^ century when it spread 
throughout the whole Empire and extended to 
North Africa. 

Its influence however was not confined to 
those regions for already in the same century 
it had reached as far north and west as Scot- 
land and Ireland, in which countries it is found intermingled with Celtic Art. 
It also penetraded through tne Balkan States and Italy, and, from the 9^^ century 
when under the influence of the Macedonian Empire, it took fresh life, down 
to the middle of the 12*'^ century, it permeated the ornament of all the Romanesque 
Styles of Europe, whilst even in Constantinople when taken by the Turks, in 
1453, the Church of Sancta Sophia became the model on which all the Turkish 
Mosques were based, so far as their main features are concerned. 



Initial from a breviary 

in the Mazarin Library 

(Libonis). 






126 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 63. 




'^ ofai'€yo:o?:cic^>QLQ\o,Q'Q:^^ ^^^^^S 





Plate 64. 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 



127 




ft 



J28 BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 

It was in fact the political influence which the Byzantine Empire enjoyed 
during the period of its supremacy, together with the low standard of civilization 
existing at that period in the Christian States of the West, which caused the 
new Christian Art, whose development had already commenced, to be strongly 
influenced by the Byzantine Style, more especially in its ornament. 



Plate 63^ 

Fig. 1. Arch and column of the lower gallery in the church of St. Sophia, Constantinople. 

(Saizenberg, Altchristliche Baudenkmale von Konstantinopel.) This church, erected 
in place of a basilica destroyed by fire, was built under Justinian in the years 532—537, 
after plans designed by Anthemios of Tralles assisted by Isidorus of Miletus. The 
church has been used as a mosque since 1453. 

„ 2 — 4. Details from the facade of the church of St. Marks in Venice (Gagarin). 
The church of St. Marks, although a prototype of Romanesque architecture, contains 
many features peculiar to Byzantine art. Though founded about 830 A. D. the five 
domes were not commenced till 1063 A. D. and the sumptuous marble decoration 
not completed till two centuries later. 

„ 5. Bronze door in the church of St. Marks, Venice (Gagarin). 

„ 6. Arch and capital in the baptistery of the church of St. Marks, Venice (Gagarin). 

„ 7,8. Capitals in the church of St. Marks, Venice (Gagarin). 



Plate 64. 

Fig. 1. Arch from a gallery in the church of St Sophia, Constantinople, from the 
Qth century (Gagarin). 
„ 2, 3. Bronze knockers from the door of St Marks, Venice (Dehli, Byzantine 

Ornament). 
„ 4. Capital from the church of St Marks In Venice (Dehli). 
„ 5—10. Capitals from the church of St Marks in Venice (Gagarin). 



Plate 65. 

After Dehli, Selections of Byzantine Ornament. 

Fig. 1. Stone panel from the Atrium of St Marks in Venice. 

„ 2. Baptismal Font In the Vendramin palace, Venice. 

„ 3. Sarcophagus from the church of St Antonio, Padua. 

„ 4. Relief from the church of St Pietro In Verona. 

„ 5. From transept of St Marks, Venice. 

^ 6. Frieze over door of the Zeno Chapel in St Marks, Venice. 



Plate 65. 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 



129 




SPELTZ, Styles of Oinament. 



130 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 66 




Plate 67. 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 




9* 



132 BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 

Plate 66. 

Fig. 1. Gold ring from the collection of Rollin and Bourdent (Libonis). 

2. Border of a manuscript of the 10*^ century (Libonis). 

3. Stone panel in the gallery of the church of St. Marks, Venice (Dehli). 

4. Ivory Bookcover in the South Kensington Museum (Libonis). 

5. Marble mosaic (Libonis). 

6. Mosaic panelling in the triforium of the church of St. Sophia, Constantinople 
(Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der Baukunst). 

7—9. Marble mosaics from the church of St. Marks in Venice (Dehli). 

10. Letters from a manuscript (Libonis). 

11. Stone relief from the church of St. Sergius in Constantinople (Krauth und 
Meyer, Steinhauerbuch). 



Plate 67. 

Fig. 1. Well head from Venice, now in the South Kensington Museum (Dehli). 
„ 2. Cover of an ivory reliquary in the South Kensington Museum showing John 

the Baptist between Saints Philip, Stephen, Thomas, and Andrew (Libonis). 
„ 3. Byzantine ivory coffer. 
„ 4. Cover of book of the four gospels owned by St. John of Besancon, showing 

the crowning of Romanus IV and Eudoxia. Dates from the 11th century, at present 

in the National Library, Paris (Libonis). 
„ 5. Byzantine miniature-painting (Libonis). 
„ 6. Leaf of a diptych in the British Museum showing Michael the Archangel 

(Libonis). 



Plate 68. 

Fig. 1—6, 8—10. Miniature paintings from manuscripts in the National Library, Paris 

(Gagarin). 
„ 7, Lectern, from a manuscript in the National Library, Paris (Gagarin). 
„ 11. Byzantine crown (Hottenroth, Trachten). 
„ 12—15. Byzantine coiffures (Hottenroth). 
„ 16. Reliquary (Hottenroth). 
„ 17. Chalice (Hottenroth). 
„ 18, 19, 20. Arm chairs (Hottenroth). 
,, 21. Consular chair of state. 



Plate 69. 

Byzantine Ornament in Spain. 
(After Monumentos de Espaiia.) 

Fig. 1. Ruins of the ancient cloister of San Roman in Hornija. 
,. 2. Capital from the same cloister. 
,. 3. Fragment of parapet, preserved in the cathedral of Cordova. 



Plate 68. 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 




134 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 69. 



teTO/feSMPb-DQl 



^K55SlS«Mi 



^MvHOEbpeVj^M^ 









Plate 70. 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 



135 




136 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 



Concejo 



Fig. 4. Outer cornice of the Camara Santa In the Cathedral of Oviedo. 
„ 5-7. and 13. Window from the church of San Salvator in Valdedlos 

de Villa Viciosa. 

„ 8, and 12. Capitals from the hermitage of Santa Christina in Lena, Oviedo. 
„ 9. iVledallion from the same church. 
„ 10. Pulpit parapet from the same church. 
„ 11, )4— 16. Capitals from the church of San Salvator in Valvedios. 



Fig. 



Plate 70. 

Byzantine Ornament in Spain. 
(After Monumentos de Espafia.) 

1, and 3. Fragments from a building — called the Cist^rna — in M6rida. 

2. Fragment from the Basilica in Cordova. 

4. Enamelled work from a reliquary in the cloister of San Domingos de Silos. 

5, and 6. Pillar from the transept of the Church of St. Miguel de Lino, Oviedo. 




Decorative Frieze (Libonis). 



ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 




soon as Charlemagne had succeeded to a certain 
extent in consolidating his empire, he selected Aix- 
la-Chapelle as his place o! residence, and called 
around him in that city artists of all kinds both 
from the former Western as well as from the 
Eastern Roman empires. These artists were en- 
gaged in decorating and adorning his palaces, and 
it was here that a new style, the Romanesque 
style, based upon classic architecture, and very 
strongly influenced by Byzantine art, which stood 
then at its highest glory slowly developed itself. 
At first, after the death of Charlemagne, art could 
not make much progress in the empire, a circum- 
stance due to the fact that Charlemagne's successor 
was an incapable ruler under whose dominion the 
and lay diseased and dormant, awaiting with dulled apathy the end of all things. 
I It was not until the year 1000 had come that new life began to be again 
I manifest, and later on when the religious zeal was stirred up by the Crusades 
' that some really great and genuine works of art were produced. The Romanes- 
que style of architecture, whose earliest architects were priests and monks, the 
lay element being introduced later on, is a genuine Orthodox style. In the be- 
ginning this style was heavy, but it soon developed, and reached its highest 
standard in the 12*^ and 13"* centuries. The aftergrowths of the Romanesque 
style in Germany were produced by a combination of the same with the Gothic, 
a style which came in from France, resulting in the pointedarch style which 
sprung into existence. The Romanesque style itself spread rapidly into all 
those countries which were included in the former Western Roman empire, its 
character becoming changed in accordance with the character of the inhabitants 



initial from a 
German Xllth centuf7 
manuscript (Dolmetsch). 



ft 



138 



GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 71. 




GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. I39 

of each particular country. In France Spain and England the Romanesque style 
developed into the Gothic, and some time afterwards, towards the middle of 
the 13**» century, Germany, following the example of France and using the 
French Gothic as a standard, began also gradually to develop, the Gothic style 
of architecture. 



Romanesque Ornament in Germany. 
Plate 71. 

(Heideloff, Ornamentik des Mittelalters.) 
Fig. 1. Keystone of a vault in the church of St. Sebald, Nuremberg. 
„ 2, and 3. Arch frieze with consol from the same church. 
„ 4, and 7. Bases of columns, from the convent churcli in Heilbrunn, Bavaria. 
„ 5. Capital from the church of St. Sebald, Naremberg. 
„ 6. View and ground plan of large column in the vestibule of the cathedral in 

Schwabisch-Hall. 
„ 8. Shaft of column from the portal of the Burggraf Chapel in the Augustinian 

Cloister, Esslfngen. 
„ 9. Capital from the same church. 
„ 10. Capital from the Benedictine Abbey in Murrhard. 
„ 11. Capital from the convent church in Faurudan near G5ppingen. 
„ 12. Cornice on the tower of St. John's church in Schwabisch-Gmflnd. 



Plate 72. 

Fig. 1. Abacus from the church of St. Michel in Hlldesheim, 12th century (Raguenet, 
Mat^riaux et documents). This church, which. was begun by Bishop Bemward of 
Hildesheim fa the year 1001, and completed in- the year 1033, marks the transition 
from the Early to the Late Romanesque Style. 

2. Abacus from the church of Marmoutiers in Alsace (R^guenet). 

3. Capital from Rosheim near Strassburg, datfag from the 11th century (Raguenet). 

4. Stone cross in the market-place at Treves (Raguenet). 

5. Capital and base from Eger (Gniber, Kaiserburg in Eger). 

6. Capital from the cathedral in Limburg (Opderbecke, Bauformen). This church 
was built by Konrad II in the years 1030—1042, and dedicated in 1046 in the reign of 
Henry III. The building operations were conducted by the Cluniac Abbot Poppo 
von Stoblo. 

7. Signature tablet from- the llth century (Mailer and Mothes). 

8. Door-knocker in the cathedral at Aix-Ia-Chapclle from the 8th century 
(Raguenet). 

9—12. Mural paintings from the cathedral in Brunswick (Gailhabaud I'architecture). 
13. Frieze from Mary's Chapel in the cathedral in Oandersheim (Raguenet). 



li 



140 



GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 72. 




Plate 73, 



GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



141 




142 



GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 74. 




GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 143 

Plate 73. 

. 1. Frieze from the Burg at Mflnzenberg in Hesien (Opderbecke, Bauformen des 
Mittelalters). 

2. Frieze from the church in Denkendorf, 12th century (LObke). 

3. From a stall in the cathedral at Ratzeburg (Joseph). 

4. Ornamentation on shaft of a column from Buchenberg near Goslar, 12th century 
(Opderbecke). 

5. Capital from the church in Brenz, Warttemberg, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

6. Base from the abbey church in Laach, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

7. Archivolte from the doorway of Worms cathedral, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

8. Capital from the Scottish church of St. Jacob in Ratisbon, 12th century 
(Opderbecke). 

9. Window from the church at Laach (Opderbecke). 

10. Window-column from the cathedral at Worms, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

11. and 14. Doorway from the church at Gelnhausen, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

12. Tympanum from St. MichaePs Church in Schwabisch-Hall, 12th century (Opder- 
becke). 

13. Base from the church at Arnsberg, 12th century (Opderbecke). 



Plate 74. 

. 1. Throne of Emperor Henry II, after a miniature in the monarch's own Book of 
Gospels which is at present in the Court Library in Munich (Muller and Mothes). 

2. Flagon in the Royal Imperial Numismatic Cabinet in Vienna (Muller and 
Mothes). 

3. Comb of Henry I (Hefener-Alteneck, Trachten). 

4. Wrought-iron candlestick (Hottenroth). 

5. Seven-branched candlestick in Brunswick cathedral (Muller and Mothes). 

6. Bronze candlestick (Hottenroth). 

7. Bishop's crozier from the Church Treasuries in Deutz (Muller and Mothes). 

8. Two-handled chalice from the Marienstern Cloister in Saxony (Muller and 
Mothes). 

9. Candelabrum from the cathedral in Aix-Ia-Chapelle (Hottenroth). 
10. Reliquary of oak with gilt reliefs in lead, dates from the year 1300, at present 

in the Nuremberg Museum. 
„ 11. Glass painting from 12th century in Neuweiler, Alsace (Mailer and Mothes). 



Plate 75. 

Wooden coffer, 10th century (Hottenroth). 

Initials from the time of Joseph XIII (MUller and Mothes). 

3. Candlestick, 12th century (Hottenroth). 

4. Bishop's crozier, 11th century (Hottenroth). 

5. Chalice, 11th century (Hottenroth). 

6. Fragment of a small crystal bottle, 10th century (Hottenroth). 

7. Initials from the Bremer Gospel, from the year 1050 (MUUer and Mothes). 

8. Thurible of gilt copper, 12th century (Muller and Mothes). 



144 



OERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 75. 




Plate 76. 



GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



145 




SPELTZ, Styles of OrnameBt 



146 



GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 77 




GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. I47 

Fig. 9. Writing-desk, after a manuscript in the National Library at Paris (Gagarin). 

„ 10. Bronze church lamp, 11th century (MOller and Mothes). 

„ 11. Stool (Hottenroth). 

„ 12, and 13. Beds, 12th century (Hottenroth). 

„ 14. Fighting warrior, 13th century (Hottenroth). 

„ 15. Cup (Hottenroth). 

„ 16. Bishop's chair (Hottenroth). 

„ 17. Imperial shoe (Hottenroth). 

„ 18. Clasp of Imperial mantle (Hottenroth). 

„ 19. Sprinkler (Hottenroth). 

„ 20. Cover of the prayer-book of St. Elizabeth (MOller and Mothes). 

„ 21. Bed, 12th century (Muller and Mothes). 



Plate 76. 

North-German Brickwork, 
(After Stiehl, Backsteinbau romanischer Zeit) 

The Romanesque style of brick architecture was introduced into the Altmark, at Jerichow, 
and into parts of Mecklenburg, Holstein, and Pomerania, during that period of time when 
these Wendic lands were being germanised. These districts being poor in stone and very 
rich in clay, necessitated the employment of burnt bricks. The origin of brick architecture 
has been traced to Lombardy by Herr O. Stiehl, Government architect, who carried out a 
series of careful and searching inquiries into this question (O. Stiehl, Der Backsteinbau romanischer 
Zeit, besonders in Oberitalien und Norddeutschland). From Lombardy it was introduced into the 
Wendic districts by missionaries. As the Romanesque style of architecture was the prevalent 
one at that period, the brickwork was constructed in accordance with it 
Fig. 1—3. Capitals from the convent church at Arendsee. 

„ 4. Capital from the church at Jerichow. 

„ 5. Capital from the church of St. Maria auf deni Damme at Jfiterbog. 

„ 6—8. Arched doorway and capitals from the church of St. Nicolas in Treuen- 
brietzen, 

„ 9. Capital from the cathedral at Brandenburg. 

„ 10. Capital from the church at Gadebusch. 

„ 11. Arched Corbel Table from the church at M611n. 

„ 12. Rib mouldings from the convent church at DobrilugK. 

„ 13, and 14. Bases of piers from the cathedral at Ratzeburg. 

„ 15, and 16. Compound piers from the church at Altenkrempe. 

„ 17. Window from the village church at Orofimangelsdorf. 

„ 18. Capital from the convent church at Dobrilugk. 



Plate 77. 

German Enamel Work in the Middle Ages. 
(After V. Falke and Frauberger, Deutsche Schmelzarbeiten des Mittelalters.) 
The Historic Art Exhibition held in Dusseldorf in the year 1902 contained a most beau- 



jiful and unequalled collection of German Enamel-Work from the Romanesque Art-epoch. The 
different works of art contained in this collection have since been reproduced by Otto von 



10* 



148 



GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Falke and Heinrich Frauberger in their beautifully illustrated work ..Deutsche Schmelzarbeiten 
des Mittelalters". There can be hardly any doubt but that the German artistic enamel-work 
has its origin in the Byzantine empire. In Germany itself certain centres for this art were 
established in a few cities, the masters giving instruction each according to his own particular 
school. One of the most celebrated centres was at Cologne, where the great and celebrated 
master Frederick taught. Celebrated schools were also established in Treves, Coblenz, and 
a few other places. 



Fig. 1. 



5. 
6. 
7. 
9. 
10. 



Plate from angle column of the Mauricius Shrine in Cologne by Frederick; 
dates from the year 1180. 

3, 4, and 8. Enamel plates from the Ursula Shrine in Cologne, done bv 
Frederick in the year 1170. 

The Benignus Shrine in Siegburg. Made in Cologne, in the year 1190. 
Bronze pillars from the Anna Shrihe in Cologne, 1183. 
Reliquary plate in Fritzlar, from the second half of the 12th century. 
Crest of the Albinus Shrine in Cologne, from the year 1186. 
Crest of the Anna Shrine in Siegburg. Made in Cologne in the year 1183. 



11, and 12. Crest of the Mauricius Shrine in Cologne, by Frederick in the year 1180. 




Painting from Bamberg Cathedral (Heideloff). 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 
Romanesque Ornament in France. 



149 



In the provinces of France, the Romanesque style of architecture developed Itself in 
d somewhat peculiarly characteristic fashion, while the Roman classic predominated in the 
south, more especially in Provence, bui the Byzantine style held sway in the south-west. 
In the north of France, and in Normandy, the two styles were blended together. 



Plate 78. 

1. Doorway of the church of St. Ursin, Bourges, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

2. Column from the church of Saint Pierre, Chauvigny (Havard, Histoire et 
philosophie des Styles). 

3. Doorway of the church at Surgeres, 11*^ century (Opderbeclte). 

4. Column from the church of St. Lazare, Avallon, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

5. Base from the church at Cusset, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

6. Ornament on Doorway of the church at Suger, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

7. Base from the church at Poissy, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

8. Shaft of column from the cathedral at Chartres, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

9. and 10. Base and carved string from church at Vezelay, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

11. Corbel table from a chapel in LSon, 11th century (Opderbecke). 

12. Corbel table from apse of the church et Leognon, 11th century (Opderbecke). 



Plate 79. 

1. Frieze in relief from cloister at Moissac (Havard). 

2. Frieze from the cathedral at Bourges (Raguenet). 

3. Frieze from the museum at Toulouse, 12th century (Raguenet). 

4. Corbel table from the church at Aulnay, Charente inferieure (Raguenet). 

5. Cross from Notre Dame du Port, Clermont-Ferrand, 11th century (Raguenet). 

6. Abacus from the museum at Toulouse (Raguenet). 

7. Abacus from the cloister of St. Trophime, Aries (Raguenet). 

8. Capital from the cathedral at Senlis, 12th century (v. Pannewitz, Formenlehre 
der romanischen Baukunst). 

9. and 12. Capitals from Toulouse (Heideloff).  

10. Base from the church of Semur in Brionnais, Burgundy (Raguenet). 

11. Capital from the church of St. Severin, Toulouse (Joseph). 



Plate 80. 

Romanesque Ornament in Provence. 
(After M. Henry Revoil, Architecture Romane du midt de la France.) 

ig. l.andG. Column and arch from the cloister of St. Sauveur, d'Aix. Bouche du 

Rhone. 
2. Capital and principal cornice from the chapel of St. Gabriel, Bouche du 

Rhone. Transition from the classic to the Romanesque style. 
„ 3, 5, and 10. Principal cornices. 



150 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 78. 




Plate 79, 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



151 




^^^^mm^^ 




152 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 8a 




Plate 81. 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



153 




«>^~.«s•.«^^^^^ 



154 



II # 111 I # I I #11 / 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 82. 




N0P2RS^V/VX1 




i 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 155 

Fig. 4. Compound pier from the abbey of Montmajour. 
„ 7, 9, and 11. Compound piers from tlie castle of Simiane, Basses-Alpcs. 
„ 8, 12. Pilaster from the church at Thor, Vaucluse. 



Plate 81. 

Norman-Romanesque Ornament 

(After V. Ruprich-Robert, I'architecture Normande.) 

Fig. 1, and 2. Pillar capital from the church of Montevilliers, Seine infdrieure. 
„ 3. Doorway of the church of Anisy, Calvados. 
„ 4. Capital from the church of Montevilliers. 
„ 5. Tympanum from a door of the church at Marigny, Calvados. Dates from 

the year 1150, and represents the old custom of Tree-worship. 
„ 6. Doorway of the church at Beaumais, Calvados. 
„ 7. Window of the church at Saint-Contest 



Plate 82. 

Norman-Romanesque Ornament, 
(After V. Ruprich-Robert, I'architecture Normande.) 

Fig. 1. Painted capital from the church of St Georges de Bocherville^ IStii century. 

2. Capital from the church at Mont Saint Michel (Manche). 

3. Capital from the church at Breteuil (Oise). 

4. 6, 9, and 11. Columns from the church of St Gervais, Rouen. 11th century. 

5. Norman alphabet, 11th century, after M. de Caumont 

7. Column from the Chapter hall of the Abbey of Hambe (Manche). 

8. Capital from the crypt of the cathedral of Bayeux. 
10. Cross from the church Sainte Trinity in Caen. 



Plate 83. 



Fig. 1. Iron Grille from the church of St John of Malta in Aix, Provence (Havard). 

„ 2. Wrought iron hinge on the sacristy door of the cathedral at Noyon (Havard). 

„ 3. Glass painting from the cathedral of Chartres (Havard). 

„ 4. Baptismal font in the church at Besme, Champagne (Raguenet). 

„ 5. Bishop's crozier (L. Roger-Mil^s, Comment discemer les styles). 

„ 6. Grisaille in the church at Bonlieu, Creuse (Havard). 

„ 7. Cloth fabric from the Abbey Saint Germain -des-Pr6s, Paris, 11th century 

(Roger-Miles). 

M 8. Crazier of Archbishop Abaldos, who died in the year 933, in the cathedral 

at Sens (Roger-Miles). 

„ 9. Gold embroidered silk (Roger-Miles). 

„ 10. Iron grille in the museum at Rouen, 13^^ century (Raguenet). 

^ 11. Iron grille from the cathedral at Puy, 9th century (Raguenet). 



156 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 83. 






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Plate 84. 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



157 




158 



FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 85. 











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^hANNV«QIATIO-VSAAC 




FRENCH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



159 



Plate 84. 

Fig. 1. Wood coffer from the sacristy of the cathedral of Noyon (Havard). 

„ 2. Chafing-dish from the Archbishop's palace in Narbonne,, 13th century (MflUer 

and Mothes). 

„ 3. Chalice and cover from the cathedral of Saint-Omer (Havard). 

„ 4. Initial letter from the prayer-book of Charles the Bald (Roger-Mil^s). 

„ 5. Holy mass flagon from the church treasury of St Denis (MOller and Mothes). 

,. 6. Wooden arm-chair (Roger-Mil^s). 

„ 7. Seal of the Capitol of TouU 1127—1218 (Ary Renan, le costume en France). 

„ 8. Stool (Roger-Mil^s). 

„ 9. Jewel of the Holy Tear of Vendome (Havard). 

„ 10. Eagle from hilt of a sword, 10ti» century (Roger-Mil^s). 

„ 11. Small-writig-desk for writing on the knees (Roger-Miles). 

„ 12. Paten of open-worked silver, chased and gilt, 13th century (Havard). 



Plate 85. 

French Enamel-work in the Middle Ages. 

In the Middle Ages, certain centres of art were formed in France as well as in Germany, 
one of the most celebrated art-schools in the 12th century being established at Verdun. The 
Verdun Altar is the most renowned WQrk of art during this epoch. It was prepared by 
Nicholas of Verdun in the year 1191, and is at present in the religious establishment at 
Klosterneuburg near Vienna (Karl Dreschler, Der Verduner Altar). 
Fig. 1. Enamelled plate from the Verdun Altar. 
„ 2—16. Details of borner, etc, from the same. 



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\DPOKTVV'lTlE-SlitlENTES^VH\lENifB 



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^WQ;l NOD.(ndlXXVlIl >Ml^-^i...<>=^;||L^jfhiDJA FLORA : .H yidD£i£CA TVR-LACR1ivi 



Frieze from the church of St. Pierre de Maguelonne (H^ourt). 
(Revoil, Architecture Romane dans le midi de la France.) 



160 



ITALIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 86. 




ITALIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 151 

Romanesque Ornament in Upper and Middle Italy. 

The Lombard-Romanesque style shows evidences of Germanic influence but does not 
evince such a high degree of development as the German-Romanesque style. In Tuscany 
and Venice, this style had to give way before the Florentine and Byzantine style. 

Plate 86. 

Fig. 1. Pulpit in the cathedral at Bitonto 11th century (Raguenet) 

„ 2. Portion of arcade in museum at Brescia (Mohrmann). 

„ 3. Carved string in museum at Brescia (Mohrmann). 

„ 4. Rose-window from the church at Pomposa (Mohrmann). 

„ 5. Fragment of column in museum at Brescia (Mohrmann). 



Plate 87. 

Fig. 1. Blind Arcade from Verona (Mohrmann). 

„ 2. Relief from the cathedral in Matera (Raguenet). 

„ 3. Capital from the cathedral of Torcello near Venice, 11th cenhiry (Raguenet^ 

„ 4. Italian rose-window after Rosenkranz (Bilderatlas der Baukunst). 

„ 5. Window from the church of St Abondio, Como (Joseph). 

„ 6, and 8. Capital and archivolt from the church of St Zeno, Verona (Mohrmann). 

,» 7. Doorway from the church of the Fathers in Padua (Raguenet). 



Plate 88. 

(After Prof. Karl Mohrmann and Dr. Eugen Ferd. Eichwede, Germanische Frflhkunst.) 

Fig. 1, and 2. Doorway from the church of St Stefano in Bologna. 
,, 3. Lion plinth from the principal doorway of the cathedral at Verona. 
,» 4, and 5. Lion plinths on the doorway of the church in Modena. 



Saracen-Norman Ornament in Sicily and Lower Italy. 

The Normans where originally a northern tribe which had settled in Norway, and whb 
afterwards, being forced through over-population to leave their Scandinavian home, founded 
a colony in Normandy. They conquered Sicily and Lower Italy and established also colonies 
in these countries. In the ll^h century a characteristic Romanesque style had developed 
in Normandy. In the Norman colonies in Lower Italy, this style, being very strongly in- 
fluenced by the Islamite style of the Saracens,- developed further into another most charac- 
teristic style, which reached its highest standard in the 12th century. From this combination 
of Oriental and Christian art, the only exemple perhaps oi the kind in history, from this 
union of quick Oriental fancy with the courage, strength, and power of the Northman, have 
sprung works of art whose delightful, and entranchig beauty charm the beholder and excite 
his wonder and admiration. 

S PELTZ, styles of Ornament 11 



162 



ITALIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 87. 




Plate 88. 



ITALIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



163 



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li* 



i64 



ITALIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 89. 




ITALIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 

Plate 89. 



165 



Fig. 1, 4, '6, and 7. Nave arches and superstructure of the Cathedral at Monreale 

(J. J. Hittorff et L. Zanth Architecture modeme de la Sicile). 
„ 2, and 3. Ceilings from the same cathedral (Hittorff). 
„ 5. Arcade from the cathedral at Monreale (Camillo Boito, Architettura del medio 

evo in Italia). This church was built between the years 1173 and 1182. and restored 

between the years 1816—1859. 
„ 8. Arch from the cathedral at Monreale (Hittorff). 



Plate 90. 

(After Kutschmann, Meisterwerke der sarazenisch-normannischen Kunst in Sicaicn 

und Unteritalien.) 

Fig. 1. Relief on the front side of the altar of St Cataldo. 

2. Baptismal font in St. Cataldo. 
3—5. Window archivolts from the palace of St. Antonio, Palermo. 

6. Ear-ring from the coronation hood of Queen Constance II. 

7. Mosaic from the Capella Palatina, Palermo. 

8. Inlaid frieze from the same church. 

9. Mosaic from a window reveal, same church. 
10, and U. Mosaic friezes from the cathedral at Monreale. 
12. Mosaic from the church of the Martorana, Palermo. 



Plate 91. 

Fig 1, and 3. Mosaics from the church of the Martorana, Palermo (Kutschmann). 

„ 2. From the ceiling of the cathedral at Monreale (Hittorff and Zanth). 

„ 4, and 5. Fragments from archivolt in the side aisle of the Capella Palatlna 

at Palermo (Kutschmann). 

„ 6. Mosaic from arch soffit in the same church (Kutschmann). 

„ 7, and 9. Mosaics from the cathedral at Monreale (Kutschmann). 

., 8. Painting from the cathedral of Messina (D'Espouy). 



'^^MMM^m<0Mmy=^^^ti 






Mosaic from Monreale Cathedral 

(Hittorff and Zanth). 



ITALIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 



Plate 90. 








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iPlate 91 



ITAUAlsr ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



167 




168 



SPANISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 92. 



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SPANISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



169 



Romanesque Ornament in Spain. 

Romanesque chURifi architecture in Spain was influenced by Moorish architecture of 
which there are mafly remains. 

Plate 92. 

(From Monumcntos de Espafta.) 
Fig. 1. Window from the church of San Isidoro, Leon. 
2, and 3. Strings from the same church. 

4. Capital from the same church. 

5, and 6. Capital and base from the church of St. Lorenzo, Segovia. 

7. Soffit from the same- church. 

8, and 9. Capital and base from the Gate of Mercy in the same church. 
10. Fragment from the old cathedral of Salamanca. 
1 1 Capital, corbel and base from the church of St Peter and Paul, Barcelona. 



Plate 93. 

(From Monumentos de Espafta.) 
Fig. 1. Doorway from the church of San Millan In Segovia. 

2. Arch mouldings of doorway of church of San Martin, Segovia. 

3. and 8> Plan and elevation of window from the ancient cathedral of Salamanca. 

4. Capital from the Pantheon San Isidoro, Leon. 
5—7. Panels from frieze in the church of San Lorenzo, Segovia. 
9. Stone Sarcophagus in the Pantheon San Isidoro, Leon. 



Plate 94. 

(From Monumentos de Espafta.) 
Fig. I. Arcade in the interior of the apse of the church Santa Maria de Villa 

Mayor, Concejo del Infiesto. 
„ 2, and 6. Capital and base from the tower on the Cdmara Santa of the 

cathedral at Oviedo. 
„ 3, and 4. Corbel table from the church of Santa Maria de Villa Mayor. 
„ 5. Capital from tower in no. 2. 

„ 7. Sarcophagus probably of King Alphonzo the Wise, in the cloister of Santa 
Maria la Real de las Huelgas, Burgos. 




Corbel table of doorway of San Lorenzo in Segovia (Monumentos de Espafli). 



170 



SPANISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 93. 




Plate 94. 



SPANISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



171 




ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 




ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. I73 

Romanesque Ornament in England. 

The art of the early Middle Ages in England can be divided into two periods: 

1. The Anglo-Saxon period from 449 to 1066. The art of this period consisted in an 
attempt to reproduce the remains of Roman architecture in the couritry, or in Italy. 

2. The Norman-period from 1066 to 1189. The art of this period was a:i imitation of the 
Norman French, developing gradually into a characteristic national style. 

Plate 95, 

Fig. 1. Norman mural paintings on the altar of Our Lady of Pity, Durham cathedral. 

Dates from the year 1154 (Antiquarian Gleanings in the North of England by 
William B. Scott). 

2. Door in Peterborough cathedral, 12th century (Raguenet). 

3. Column from Canterbury cathedral, from the year 1070 (Pannewitz). 

4. Arcade from the schools at Canterbury, from the year 1115. 

5. Capitals in the church of St. Peter at Northampton (Graul, Bilderatlas). 

6. Door-knocker from Durham cathedral (Scott). 

7. Tomb of an English knight, 12th century (Hefener-Alteneck). 



Plate 96, 

Fig. 1. Capital and base from the church at Lastingham, Yorkshire, 12th century 

(Pannewitz). 
„ 2. Capital from the same church (Pannewitz). 
„ 3. Capital from the church at Dunfermline, Scotland (Pannewitz). 
„ 4. Capital from the church of St. Peter-at-Gowts, Lincoln, Anglo saxoa (Baldwin 

Brown, The arts in the early England). 
„ 5. Capital from Canterbury cathedral (Pannewitz). 
„ 6. Capital from Waltham Abbey (Pannewitz). 
„ 7. Capital from the white tower of the Tower of London. 
„ 8. Double window of the east facade of the tower at Deerhurst (Baldwin Brown). 
„ 9, and 10. Pyxes (Hottenroth). 

„ 11. From the chasuble of St. Thomas A'Beckett (Hottenroth). 
„ 12. Coffer from the Church at Brampton, Northamptonshire, 12th century. 
„ 13. Norman ornaments from St. Saviour church, Southwark (Pugin, Gothic Ornament). 
„ 14. Late-Romanesque tiles, yellow and red, from the church at Bloxham» 

13th century (Dolmetsch). 



Plate 97. 

(After V. Ruprich-Robert, Architecture Normande du XI et XII slide en Normandie 

et en Angleterre.) 

Fig. 1. Triforium Arches of Rochester cathedral, Kent. 

„ 2. Archivolt of doorway, Peterborough cathedral, Northamptonshire. 

„ 3, and 5. Window shafts in the Abbey church of St Albans, Herefordshire. 

„ 4. Baptismal font In Sculthorpe church, Norfolk. 



174 



ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENTi 



Plate 96. 




Plate 97. 



ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



175 




176 



ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 98. 



'Hi%' <'i»^'.-SHSi,i'i|'.il|.i ji 




ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 1 77 

Fig. 6, and 9. Baptismal font in Winchester Cathedral, Hampshire. 
^ 7, and 8. Mural paintings from same cathedral. 
,. 10. Archivolt of doorway of St. Peter's Church, Northampton. 
„ 11.. Column from the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral, Kent. 



Plate 98. 

(After James K. Colling. Details of Gothic Architecture.) 
Fig. 1. Capital and base from the crypt of vestry in Canterbury Cathedral. 
2, and 3. Rose window from Patrlxbourne Church, Kent 

4. Capital from the church at Walsoken, Norfolk. 

5. South doorway of the small church at Gt. Tolham, Essex. 

6. and 7. West-Doorway in the tower of the church at Etton, Yorkshire. 



Plate 99. 

Fig. 1-12. From Norman cornices (Parker's Glossary of Architecture). 
Fig. 1. Lincolnshire, c. 1120, Deeping St. James. 
„ 2. St. Contest, Caen, Normandy. 
„ 3. Corbel table, St. Peter at Gowts, Lincoln. 
„ 4. Transept of Winchester Cathedral, 1090. 
„ 5. Billet, Canterbury Cathedral. 
„ 6. Beak Head, St. Ebbe'< Oxford. 
„ 7. Double square Westminster Hall, c. 1097. 
„ 8. Chevron, North Hinksey, Berks. 
,. 9. Rose, Iffley, Church Oxon. 
„ 10. Segmental Billet, Abbaye aux Dames, Caen. 
„ 11. Double Cone, Stoneleigh Church, Warwickshire. 
„ 12. Embattled, Lincoln Cathedral, c. 1140. 
,, 13. Grille in Winchester Cathedral (Bailey Scott Murphy, English and Scottish 

Wrought. Ironwork). 
„ 14—16. Capitals and base in the western tower of the church at Great Hale, 
near Sleaford, Lincolnshire (Baldwin Brown, The Arts In Early England). 



Plate 100. 

g. 1. Canon's staff (Hottenroth). • 

2. Ship in which Duke William came over to England (Hottenroth). 

3. Anglo-Saxon pyx (Hottenroth). 

4. Anglo-Saxon sword-hilt (Hottenroth). 

5. and 8. Pyxes (Hottenroth). 

6. Norman shield (Hottenroth). 

. 7. Mitre of Thomas A'Beckett (Hottenroth). 

, 9 Norman sedan chair (Hottenroth). 

, 10. Anglo-Norman woman with water-Jug (Hottenroth). 

, 11. Cross from Monasterbolce Abbey, Ireland, dates from the year 924 (Margaret 

Stokes, Early Christian Art in Ireland). 
SPELT Z, Styles of Ornament. W 



78 



ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 99. 




Plate 100. 



ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



179 




tt* 



180 



ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 101 




1 




/LBCl&O'EeVQhpLM 



ENGLISH ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



181 



Fig. 12. Anglo-Saxon dagger, from the 10th century (Hottenroth). 

13, and 15. Candlesticks (Hottenroth). 

14. Coronation spoon (Hottenroth). 

16. Dragon ship, 11th century (Hottenroth). 

17. Lantern (Hottenroth). 

18. Norman knight in chain armour (Hottenroth). 



Plate 101. ^ 

(H. Shaw, Mediaeval Alphabets and Devices.) 

Fig. 1, 3, 5, 6. Letters from the works of Josephus and other Mss. 12th century. 
„ 2, 4, 7—13. Letters from the same period taken from manuscripts in the British Museum. 




Arched doorway from the church at Framlingham, Norfolk. 

From the middle of the 12th century (V. Ruprich-Robert). 



182 



SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 102. 




SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT, 




n Norway, the Scandinavian Ornament stands in the most intimate 
relationship with the Celtic, a circumstance which is due to the 
fact that Christianity vvas first introduced into Norway by the 
Irish. In South Sweden, where English influence had to give way 
before the German, stone architecture is predominant, one of the 
most beautiful examples of this style being the cathedral at Lund, 
a basilica founded in 1072, but not completed till 1145. Arch- 
bishop Eskill who consecrated it and presided over its completion 
came from Hildesheim and it is to his influence that the pronounced 
German character of the design may be attributed. The same is 
found in the large conventual church at Dalby, south of Lund, 
which was consecrated in 1163, the crypt however being of earlier 
date. Besides being found in South Sweden, stone architecture 
of a most decidedly early Germanic style is also predominant in 
Norway and Denmark. 

In the north of Norway, however, and during the same period, 
a typical style of wooden architecture was developed. This style 
in all probability had its origin in England, although at the present 
time, there is but one example of a wooden church throughout 
the whole country, namely, the wooden church at Greenstead, near London. The 
greatest and most powerful influence, however, to which the Romanesque-Scaij- 
dinavian wooden style of architecture was subjected during its development was 
the influence exercised by Irish-Celtic Art. It must not be forgotten, at the 
same time, that the peculiar Norwegian parish churches appear to have had an 
independent development of their own, the richly decorated, ornamental doorway 
of these churches being very characteristic. Three periods are noted in the 
construction of these churches.. 



From side 

doorway of 

the church 

at Urnes 

(Dolmetsch). 



184 SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 

1. The archaic form, or the period of Irish influence up to the year 1150 A. D. 

2. The period distinguished by the Romanesque form, a style, which, in 
all probability was taken from the Anglo Saxons and Anglo Normans up to 
the year 1250 A. D. 

3. The period of Gothic influence up to the decline of art The Gothic 
could never entirely supersede the influence of the Romanesque, a style which 
had already taken such deep root in the country. 

There are three styles of doorways: 

1. The Sognin Type. This takes its name from a country district, and, 
is distinguished from the other styles of doorways by the delicacy and elegance 
of the tracery work, no different or distinct periods of development being 
apparent. 

2. The Thelmark Type, This type of doorway may be seen in the church 
of Christianasand. The traceries are broad, very often rough and coarse, and 
in strong contrast to the foregoing style. The development and decadence of 
the Thelmark type of doorway can be much better observed an followed the 
Sognin type. 

3. The Figurative Portals. This style of doorway which belongs either 
to bible history or to mythology, is found only in South Norway. The artistic 
treatment of the figures is inferior that of the Ornament. 



Plate 102. 

Romanesque Ornament in Norway and Sweden 

(After Sesselberg, Skandinavische Baukunst). 

Fig. 1. Capital from the cathedral at Nidaros, Drontheitn. This church was buUt in 

the year 1161. 

„ 2. Shaft of column from the church at Wal. 

,, 3, and 5. Window from the cathedral at Lund. 

„ 4. Door from the church at Torl5sa. 

„ 6. Capital from the cathedral at Lund. 

.. 7. Interlaced work from the church at Wal, 



Plate 103. 

(After Dietrichson and Munthe, Die Holzbaukunst Norwegens.) 

Fig. 1. Doorway of the church at Aardal, at present In the museum at Bergen. Thilj 
church was built in the year 1200, and is the most elegant example of the SogiH 
Valdrfe type of Ornament 



Plate 103. 



SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



185 




186 



SCANDINAVIAN R'OMANESQUE ORNAMENT. Plate 104. 




Plate 105. 



SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



187 











188 



SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 106. 




5. 



jiMftP 




SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE OKNAMENT. Igg 

. 2, and 4. Column and capital from the church at Urnes, one of the most interesting 
of Irish wooden churches. It is very ancient. 
3. Doorway of the Andreas Church in Bourgund. This church lies on the road 
leading from Christiania to Bergen, and dates apparently from the year 1150 after 
Christ. 

5. West gable of the church at Urnes. 

6. Remains of a ruined Irish church in Hopperstad. 

7. Doorway from* the church at Hitterdal, dates probably from 14th century. 

8. .Mask from a wall pillar in the church at Hegge. This church was first made 
mention of in the year 1327. 

9. Column from the aisle of the church at Hitterdal. 

10. Unrolled cylindrical capital from the church at Hegge. 

11. Part of a chair from the church at Hitterdal. 



Plate 104. 

(After Dietrichson and Munthc.) 

Fig. 1. Half of the outer west-doorway of the church at Hegge in Valdres, bishopric 

of Hamor. 
,, 2. Half of the doorway of the church at Hemsedal in Hollingdal, bishopric of 

Christiania. 
„ 3. Half of the doorway of the church at Hitterdal in Thelemarken, bishopric of 

Christianiasand. 
„ 4. North doorway of the same church. 
„ 5. Doorway of the church at Rennebo, Orkedal, bishopric of Drontheim, in the 

museum at Drontheim. 
„ 6. Doorway of the church of TOojem, Sogn, bishopric of Bergen, in the museum 

at Bergen. 



Plate 105. 



Fig. 1, and 2. Arm chair in the museum at Christiania. 
„ 3. Hanging bracket in the same museum (V. Ruprich-Robert). 
„ 4. Prow of ship in the same museum V. Ruprich-Robert). 
M 5. Door Lock in the museum at Bergen (Mohrmann). 
„ 6. Door Handle in the Hedal church (Mohrmann). 



Plate r06. 

Romanesque Ornament in Sweden. 

(After Mohrmann.) 

1. and 4. Baptismal fonds in the museum at Stockholm. 

2. Ornament from a baptismal font in the same museum. 

3. Capital from the crypt of church in Dalby, Sweden. 

5. Inscription on a baptismal font in the museum at Stockholm. 
6—8. Columns from the crypt of the church in Dalby, Sweden. 



190 



SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 107. 



1 


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i 


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SCANDINAVIAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT. 

Plate 107, 

Romanesque Ornament in Denmark. 

(After Mohrmann.) 

Fig. 1-5, and 7. Incised border from altarplate In the church at Sal, Jutland. 
„ 6. Doorway of the church at Ripe, Jutland. 
„ 8. Altar of the church at Sal. 



191 




Stone Ornament from the Cathedral at Lund 

(Sesselberg). 



102 



RUSSIAN ORNAMENT 



Plate 108. 





RUSSIAN ORNAMENT 



artaric influence — which dates chiefly from 1237 to 1480, 
when the Tartars were in power — may be regarded beyond 
any doubt as the chief cause why the pure Byzantine style 
originally established in Russia came to be changed later 
on into the Ornament special to that country. There, as 
into every other country where they appeared, the Christians 
brought with them a new style of art, which developed 
itself afterwards in accordance with the national character 
of the people. The commencement of Russian Art may be 
said to date from the end of the 10*'' century under the 
reign of Vladimir the Great. In the latter part of the Middle 
Ages and towards the beginning of the Modern period, Italian 
artists were invited in great numbers into the country and were engaged in 
the construction of numerous monumental buildings. The influence of Oriental 
Art, however, was already so very great, that even Italian Art was not powerful 
enough to entirely eliminate it from the country. Wooden architecture plays a 
great part in Russian ornament. There exist at present in Russia some Old- 
Slavonian manuscripts dating from the lO^'^ century. 



Initial from a 

Gospel in the Rum- 

jantzow-Museum in 

Moscow 

(Dolmetsch). 



Plate 108. 

(After E. Viollet le Due, I'Art Russe.) 
Fig. 1. Arch of a doorway in the cathedral of St. Dimitri, Vladimir. 
., 2. Russian capital. 
„ 3. Cupola off the cathedral of St. Basil. 
M 4. Russian column. 
„ 5. Stucco ornament. 



Plate 109. 

(After Gagarin, Russische Ornamente.) 
Fig. 1. From St. George's church in Jurjefff-Polslcy, Government of Vladimir; dates 

from 13th century. 
„ 2. Wood carving on an Ilcon, 16th century. 
M 3. Relief decoration off a stone wall in the church of St. George, Jurjefff-Polsky, 

Government of Vladimir. 
„ 4. From a silver mounting off a picture off Christ in Antschishat, Tifflis, 

14th century. 
„ 5, and 6. Entrance porch off St. George's Church in Jurjeffff-Polsky, 13th century. 

SPELTZ. Styl«ii of Ornament. 1^ 



194 



RUSSIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 109. 




Plate 110. 



RUSSIAN ORNAMENT. 



195 




1 


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si 


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^gM1|0 


■feBwFnikK' IPJ 


^^SiHLi^^^^lfl 


a 






196 



RUSSIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 111, 




RUSSIAN ORNAMENT. jgy 

Plate 110. 

Fig. 1, and 4. Painted ornamentations from an Old Russian Psalter, in the Imperial 

Public Library at Moscow (Dolmetsch, Omamentenschatz): 
„ 2. From a Psalter, in the library of the. Holy Trinity, Moscow (Dolmetsch). 
„ 3. From a prayer-book, in the Miracle-Cloister at Moscow (Dolmetsch). 
„ 5. From a prayer-book, 15th century, in the Bjaloserski Cloister in Moscow (Dolmetsch), 
„ 6. Club in chased iron (Libonis). 
„ 7. Old Russian helmet (Libonis). 
„ 8. Chalice of St. Anthony of Rome in the Cathedral of the Assumption, Moscow. 

Dates from 12th century (Libonis). 
„ 9. Krubok (beaker) belonging to Prince John III. (Libonis). 
„ 10. Spoon belonging to Bishop Antonius, in Moscow, 12th century (Libonis). 
„ 11. Eagle with victim in claws, made of Siberian gold, at present in the Museum 

of the Hermitage (Moscow). 
„ 12. Altar in Antschishat in Tiflis, 14th century (Gagarin). 
„ 13. Pew of the Czar in the Cathedral off the Assumption, Moscow. This church 

was re-buiit in the years 1475—1479. by an Italian architect named Aristotle Fior- 

avanti, which accounts for the Italian Renaissance influence observable in the 

Ornament. 
„ 14. Details from the Figs. 12. 



Plate 111. 

(After E. Viollet le Due, I'Art Russe.) 

Fig. 1. Embroidery from a Russian shirt. 

„ 2, 4, and 5. Ornaments from throne of the Czar Alexis Mikailowitch. 
„ 3. Diadem in enamel-work, 16th century. 

„ 6. Mural painting. The custom of Tree-worship, transmitted from very remote periods, 
is here plainly discernible. 




From a Gospel in the Cloister at Novgorod (Dolmetsch). 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 




Decorative fragment fromb tomb of 
the Sultan El-Ghoury (Prisse). 



In ancient times, art was the expression of the 
religious feelings of a people. When, therefore, 
a new religious faith was proclaimed, the deve- 
lopment of a new art commenced. The procla- 
mation of the peace of the church by Constantine 
in 323 A. D., led not only to new requirements 
to meet the demands of the new religion, 
but to great changes in design, and 
eventually to a style which differed 
materially from that which had gone 
before. The early Christian style in 
Rome and the West, and the Byzantine 
style in the East gradually transformed 
flie ancient classic art A similar change took place shortly after Mahomet 
carried the Islamic faith through Egypt, Syria and Persia. At first the conquerors 
and their new convents contented themselves with the structures then existing 
in the various countries subdued and converted, or, having no preconceived 
styles of their own, employed the native workmen to build for them, making 
use of the materials at hand, such as existed in profusion in the Pagan temples 
and the Coptic and Byzantine churches. In course of time these resources were 
no longer available, and then commenced the gradual development of the Maho- 
metan style. This style varied in the several countries according as it was in- 
fluenced by local traditions, and also in the periods when it commenced and 
when it reached its fullest developments. Thus in Syria, North Africa and Persia, 
the chief elements of the style are found towards the close of the 8*^* century. 
In Egypt it was nearly a century later, as also in Spain, where it was in- 
troduced from Kerouan in Tunis, in Asia Minor under the rule of the Seljuk 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. igg 

Turks of Rum it began to flourish toward the close of the 11*^ century, in India, 
at about the same time, but only in a small portion of the country, and in Con- 
stantinople toward the close of the IS*** century. In all these countries there 
was one universal rule which was rarely departed from, viz, the absolute pro- 
hibition of naturalistic representations of men, animals or plants. This led from 
the first to a purely conventional type of leaf design, which often served as 
backgrounds for the magnificent inscription in Arabic characters, and to geome- 
trical designs of immense variety, the followers of Mahomet being the greatest 
geometricians of the world; and at a later period to the decorative treatment 
of constructional features, such as are shewn in the elaboration of the voussoirs 
of an arch and more especially in the so-called stalactitic vaulting, which, except 
in India, prevails throughout the Mahometan style. Originally evolved from con- 
structive features of small materials, such as brick, it was imitated in stone 
throughout Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor and Constantinople, in plaster in Spain 
and in all countries in wood. 

The titles of the several developments of the Mahometan style vary in the 
different countries: thus in Persia, it is recognised as Persian, in Syria and 
Egypt as Saracenic, or Arabian; in Tunis, Morocco and Spain as Moorish, in 
Turkey as Ottoman, and in India as Indo-Saracenic. In Persia, Syria, Egypt, 
and Asia Minor, and to a certain extent in India, the pointed arch, first in- 
troduced as an important constructional feature in the Mosque of Ibu Tulfln in 
Cairo 870 A. D., became eventually an emblem of the faith. In Syria and Egypt 
the pointed arches were also horse-shoe, that is to say, the arched from was 
continued below the level of the springing or centres. In Persia and Asia Minor 
the arches were generally four centred and not horseshoe and the same is found 
in India. In Tunis, Morocco and Spain the horseshoe arch with semicircular 
head would seem to have prevailed, this would appear to have originated at 
Kerouan in Tunis and was carried into Spain by the Moorish followers of 
Mahomet To the Moors, however, is due another development of the greatest 
importance from the ornamental point of view, they were the first to cusp the 
arch, in 970 A. D., in the sanctuary of the mosque of Cordova, and this, so far 
as decorative form goes, constitutes the leading characteristic of the Moorish 
style in Spain. 



200 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 112. 




L 



Plate 113. 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



201 




202 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 114. 




kA&MI 






4^ 


^B 


1 



M 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 203 

Arabian Ornament. 

Towards the middle of the 9th century the Islamites developed in Egypt a characteristic 
style of art of which the pointed arch was the distinguishing feature. 

Plate 112. 

Fig. 1—5. Columns and capitals from Cairo, 17th century (Prisse d'Avennes/la decoration 

Arabe). 
„ 6, and 13. Windows from the mosque Th6iay-Abou-Rezyq, 12th century (Prisse 

d'Avennes). 
„ 7. Parapet of the mosque of the Sultan Ibn Kalaom (Owen Jones, Grammar of 

Ornament). 
„ 8. Archivolt ornament from the same mosque (Owen Jones). 
„ 9, and 10. Wrought-iron door knocker from Cairo (Owen Jones). 
„ 11. Soffit from the mosque El Nasw (Owen Jones). 
„ 12. Stalactite ornaments from Cairo (Dolmetsch). 
„ 14. Frieze from the mosque Th61ay-Aboy-Rezyq (Prisse d'Avennes). 



Plate 113. 

Fig. 1—4, 8—10, and 13. Decorative details from the interior of the mosque of Ahmed- 

ibn-Tulfln. 9th century (Prisse). 
„ 5, 12, and 16. Wooden trellis work, 12th and 13th centuries (Prisse). 
„ 6. From a wooden ceiling in the mosque at Qous (Prisse). 
„ 7, and 11. Wooden trellis work from the mosque Th6Iay-Abou-Rezyq, 12th century 

(Prisse). 
„ 14. From the mosque Tekieh Cheikh Hacen Sadaka, 14th century (Prisse). 
„ 15. Interior window decoration from the mosque Queycoum, 14th century (Prisse). 



Plate 114. 

Fig. 1. Window of open-worked plaster in the Mosque of EI-Ashraf, 15th century 

(Prisse). 
„ 2. Sample of stuff in the museum at Utrecht, 14th century (Prisse). 
„ 3. Wall decoration in the mosque Sh^khun, 14th century (Prisse). 
„ 4. Wall decoration in the palace of Ismail Bey, 16th century (Prisse). 



Plate 115. 



Fig. 1—3. Samples of mosaic work, 16th century (Prisse). 
„ 4, 9, and 12. Helmet and arms from Toman-Bey (Libonis). 
„ 5. Lamp from the mosque of Kalaom. In the Cairo museum (Libonis). 
„ 6. Lamp from the mosque El-QhOri» In the Cairo museum (Libonis), 



204 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 115. 




MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



205 



Fig. 7. Mosaic frieze from the tomb of Bursbey, 15th century (Prisse). 
„ 8, and 13. Decorative fragment from tlie tomb of the Sultan El-Ghfiri (Prisse). 
„ 10, and 16. Wood carving from the mosque at Quos, 17th century (Prisse). 
„ 11, and 14. Border of wall-tiles, 16th century (Prisse). 
„ 15. Carved joist from the hospital of the Muristan, 13th century (Prisse). 




Enamelled glass lamp from the mosque of Sultan BarkOk 

14th century (Prisse). 



206 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 116. 




MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 207 

Moorish Ornament. 

In the wonderful buildings of the Moorish kings in Spain from the 9th to the 14th cen- 
turies, more especially in thd Cathedral at Cordova, the Alhambra in Granada, and in the 
Alcazar in Seville, Mahometan Ornamental work may by seen in its highest splendour. In 
the artistic interlacing and interwaeving of geometric and arabesque Ornament, Moorish artists 
show extraordinary talent, and give free rein to the wonderful powers of fancy and imagi- 
nation which they possessed in such a high degree. Despite the exuberance of the orna- 
mentation and the rich and vived coloured of the painting, Moorish Ornament never wearies 
or confuses the eye, the technical drawing and the colouring of each single system of Orna- 
ment beeing so clearly defined and so distinct, that each can be distinguished from the other 
easily and clearly. The fine arable lettering was often used by the Moors as Ornament. 



Plate 116. 

Ornament from the Caliphate in Toledo. 
In the old Synagogue, new the Church of St. Maria de la Bianca, Toledo. 
Fig. 1. Capital from the central aisle. 
„ 2. Capital of the lower story. 

„ 3. Stucco ornament from the arch of the central courtyard. 
„ 4—6. Console under the tie beams of the aisle. 
„ 7. Capital and springing of the arch. 
,, 8. Console of the gallery at the entrance. 
„ 9. Capital from the upper story. 



Plate 117. 

Ornament from the Caliphate in Granada. 
Fig. 1, and 2. Arch panellings in the Alhambra (Jungh^ndel). 
„ 3. Capital from the Alhambra (Junghandel). 
„ 4, and 5. Decorative details from the Alhambra (Junghandel). 
„ 6. Capital from the Alhambra (Dolmetsch). 
„ 7. Wall panelling from the Alhambra (Dolmetsch). 
„ 8. Taken from portal of the mosque in Tangiers (Uhde). 
„ 9. Beginning of arch in the Alberca Court, Alhambra (Uhde). 
„ 10. Beginning of arch in the Myrtle Court of the Alhambra (Uhde). 
„ 11. Corbels from Toledo. In the Archaeological Museum, Madrid (Uhde). 
„ 12. Cresting from the Alhambra (Uhde). 



Plate 118. 

Ornament from the Caliphate in Granada. 
Fig. 1. Wall panelling from the Alhambra (Dolmetsch). 
„ 2, and 3. Decorative details from the Alhambra (Junghandel). 
„ 4—6. Wall panellings from the Alhambra (Owen Jones). 



208 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 117. 




Plate 118. 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



209 




SPELTZ» Styies of Oriuimeiit 



14 



210 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT, 



Plate 119. 




MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



211 



Plate 119. 

(After Monumentos de Espaga.) 
ig. 1—3. Tile facings in the Hall of the Ambassadors, Granada. 
, 4. Taken from the lower part of the MIrador de Lindarija in the royal Alkazar 
of the Alhambra, Granada. 
5—7. Tile facings from the royal chamber of Santo Domingo in Granada. 



Plate 120. 

I ig. 1. Door from the Alhambra (Uhde). 

2, Boabdil's sword (Libonis). 

3, 10, and 11. Mosaic borders (Owen Jones). 

4, and 5. Plastic wall-border decorations (Owen Jones). 

6, and 8. Enamelled glass bottles (Libonis). 

7. Glass lamp from a mosque (Libonis). 
9. Corner ornaments (Owen Jones). 



FIlll^I l^I:Mt^:t:^tt^:^:T:^:T;^:i:^:T:^:t:^^:l:^^ 




^ f;T:i:T:i:;:^:T:i^:i:t:^:;:i:;:^:T:i:;:^:;:^;:^:i:^:;^^^^^^^^^^ 



7 



e 



) 



Cornice Impost from the Central Arch of the Court of Lions 
In the Alhambra, Granada (Monumentos de Espafta). 



212 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. pi^^e 1 20 




?mm:^smmm^mm 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



213 




214 MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Saracenic Ornament. 

The Saracens, who originally came from Northern Arabia, like the Moors of Hamitic 
origin, were both for a long time the chief standard bearers of Isbm art. When Sicily was 
conquered by the Normans, the Saracens placed their art at the disposal of the conquerors, 
in many cases Christian churches were ornamented and decorated by Mahometan artists. 
In this manner a peculiar Saracen-Norman style of art developed itself in Italy (see page 161). 
Unfortunately, there are so very few remains of Saracenic art in Sicily now existing that 
we cannot form any general view of what it really was. 



Plate 121. 

(After Kutschmann, Meisterwerke der sarazenisch-normannischen Kunst 
in Sizilien und Unteritalien.) 

Fig. 1. Fragment of a wooden ceiling in the National Museum at Palermo. 
„ 2, and 3. Panellings of a wooden door in the Martorana at Palermo. 
,, 4. Door soffit In the National Museum at Palermo. 



Ottoman Ornament. 



The term Ottoman is given to the Mahometan style as practised by the Turks in Con- 
stantinople. It has, however, a much earlier origin, having been fully developed by the 
Seljuk Turks, who towards the close of the 12t^ century had conquered a considerable 
portion of Mesopotamia, Syria and Asia Minor. One of their earlier buildings is the 
Medresseh, or Collegiate Mosque at Erzeroum, dating from the middle of the 12th century. 
All the arches are pointed and the capitals of the columns carrying them are decorated 
with stalactites. 

In this mosque and generally in those found at Konia, Nigdeh, Kaisariyeh and other 
towns, the principal feature is the entrance porch, which is surrounded by numerous 
borders, either elaborately carved with conventional designs and inscriptions, or covered 
with Persian tiles of brilliant colours in some cases probably exported from Persia, so that 
the influence of their design is noticeable in most of their work. Sometimes their mosques 
are preceded by an open arcade, with pointed arches, the voussoirs of which are alternately 
of black and withe marble At Kaisariyeh in the mosque erected by Houen in 1238 A. D., 
slightly horseshoe and ogee arches are found, but here, as also at Nigdeh, the most 
beautiful features are the octagonal tombs, in the former of the founder Houen and at 
Nigdeh of Havandah, the wife of Ala-ed-din of the 13th century. These tombs are enriched 
in profusion with elaborate carving; with stalactite cornices and conical terminations. Other 
Seljukian monuments are the four mosques at Sivas, built between 1211 and 1212. Amasia 
with 13th and 14th century examples, and Divrik, where the entrance doorway with its 
boldly relieved ornamentation is of great beauty. The power of the Seljuks lasted till their 
conquest by Timur in 14(X) A. D., who devastated the country, which eventually in 1453 A. D. 
passed into the possession of Mohamet 11 the conqueror of Constantinople. 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT 



215 



The Turks followed the example of all Mohametan rulers and adopted the architectural 

forms of Constantinople, the Church of Sta. Sophia, bum by Justinian becoming the model 

on which all their mosques in future were based. Previous to the conquest of Constantinople, 

the Osmanli Turks had already taken possession of 

Nicaea in 1330 A. D., where tere were many Seljuk 

mosques, to which they added and enlarged. It was, 

however, at Brusa, which they took m 1326, that they 

erected their finest mosques, such as the Great Mosque 

1360—1413, the Green Mosque 1420 A. D., a title 

given to it on account of the green glazed tiles with 

which its minarets and porch are covered, the tomb 

of Mohamet I, 1421 A. D and other structures, in 

some of which there is certain evidence of Byzantine 

influence, possibly due to the tact that Greek architects 

were employed. The employment of tiles encasing 

the porches and minarets gives a Persian character to 

all these mosques. 

The first great mosque built in Constantinople 

was the mosque of Mohamet II, built in 1663— 69 A. D. 

on the site of the church of the Holy Apostles, 

this was designed by Christodoulos, a Greek archi- 
tect. This was followed by the Bayezidiyeh, built 

1497—1505. the Selimiyeh 1520—26; the Suleimanie 

(1550—56) designed by Sinan, who is said to have 

been an Armenian architect, and the Ahmediyeh 

erected by Sultan Ahmed 1608—14 A. D. 

In all these mosques a central dome with great 

apses forms the chief feature, as in Sta. Sophia. 

The pointed arch, however, Was adopted throughout 

and the details were all based on the Seljukian style 

with stalactitic capitals, conventional foliage decoration, 

and inscriptions in fine cufic characters. In the 

18th century western Rococo architecture commenced 

to influence the design, and although, as in the 

Tulip Mosque 1760—67, the central dome is fine in 
j its contour, its details are of the most debased cha- 
I racter. — The Seljukian style was followed in the 
I palace and public monuments, amongst which the 
' numerous drinking fountains, with their rich orna- 
mental decorations in inlaid marble are the most 

remarkable. In the cemeteries adjoining Constantinople the tombs, consisting of vertical 

slabs of stone richly carved with ornament, are interesting examples of the Ottoman style. 




Tomb Stone at 
Constantinople (Normand). 



216 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 122, 




Plate 123. 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



217 




218 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT 



Plate 124. 






'SSMSkV 


— 1 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 2 1 9 

Plate 122. 

Elements of Ottoman Architecture. 
(After Sebah, Die ottomanische Baukunst.) 



Fig. 1, and 8. Stalactite capitals, after Sinan. 
„ 2, and 4. Pedestal of column, after Sinan. 
„ 3. Stalactite capital and principal cornice. 
„ 5, 6, and 7. Various capitals of piers. 



Plate 123. 

(After Sebah, Die ottomanische Baukunst.) 

Fig. 1. Frontal with ornamental Cufic characters from the Yeshil-Jami mosqe in 
BrOsa. This mosque was completed by the architect Ilias Aaii in the year 827 
Mahometan time, which in our time correspondends to the year 1424 A. D. 

„ 2. Border of a niche in the Yeshil-Jami mosque in Brfisa. 

„ 3, and 4. Portal borders from the same mosque. 

„ 5. Bronze trellis work in the Taouk Bazaar. 



Plate 124. 

(After Sebah, Die ottomanische Baukunst.) 

Fig. 1, and 2. Finials of Ottoman cupolas. 

„ 3. Stalactite mouldings on the large window of the Yeshil-Jami mosque in Brfls- 
„ 4. Glass window from the same mosque. 
„ 5. Decoration on bars of window in the same mosque. 
„ 6. Door panel from the same mosque. 



Plate 125. 

(After Sebah, Die ottomanische Baukunst.) 

Fig. 1. Frieze with glazed brick from the Yeshil-Jami mosque in Brfisa. 

2, 4, and 5. Iron mountings. 

3. Shaft of column from the tomb of Sultan Suleiman. 

6. Bronze lattice work. 

7. Window with pierced work dating from the time of Sultan Selim. 

8. Ceiling from the Yeshll-Jaml mosque in Brfisa. 

9. Paving-tile ornament. 



220 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 125. 




Plate 126. 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



221 




222 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 126. 

Fig. 1, 2, and 4, Taken from a fountain in Pera, Constantinople (Owen Jones). 
„ 3. From a tomb in Constantinople (Owen Jones}. 
„ 6, and 6. Fram the Yeni Jami mosque in Constantinople (Owen Jones). 
„ 7, and 8. Glazed clay ornaments from the tomb in Mouradieh (Dolmetsch). 
„ 9, 10, and 18. Glazed clay ornaments from the tomb of Mahomet 1. (Dolmetsch). 
,, 11—13, 16, and 19. Glazed clay ornaments from the mosque of Yeshil-Jaml at 

Brfisa (Dolmetsch). 
.., 14, and 15. From tomb of the Sultan Suleiman I., Constantinople (Owen Jones). 
„ 17.' Decoration of the dome Sultan Suleiman I. in Constantinople (Owen Jones). 




Ornamental Pea-tendril. 

Transitton from naturalistic to Ottoman Ornament 
(Sebah, Die ottomanische Baukunst). 



Plate 127. 



r^ ,^ r«J, jijco 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



223 




224 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 128. 




MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 225 



Persian Ornament. 

Although in its system of ornamentation Persian-Islamile art followed the fundamental 
principles of Mahometan art, still, its most marked c'.iaracteristic feature consisted in the 
employment of richly coloured glazed tiles. The extreme loveliness and beauty of the archi- 
tectural structures of the ancient Kaliphate under Haroun-al-Raschid in Bagdad and Ispahan 
are due to this method of ornamentation. Although the geometric Ornament in this style 
does not show such prolific combinations as that of the Saracens or the Moors, its vegetable 
Ornament, on the other hand, with its greater variety while keeping close to nature, more 
than makes up for it. Persian art reached its highest glory towards the end of the 19th century. 



Plate 127. 

From Ispahan. 

(After Dolmetsch, Ornamentenschatz.) 

Fig. 1, and 2. Spandrels from the college or Medresse of Madori-Chah-Sultan-Hussein. 

., 3. Openworked window-arch of stone. The dotted background is stained glass. 

„ 4, and 6. Finials. 

„ 5. Faience tile, 16th century. 

„ 7. Border of faience. 

„ 8. Openworked window-case of stone (belongs to Fig. 3). 

„ 9, and 11. Columns. 

„ 10. Minaret of the mosque Mesdjid-i-Chah. 

.. 12. Wall border. 



Plate 128. 

(After Friedrich Sarre, Denkm^ler der persischen Baukunst.) 

Fig. 1 Tile paintings from a palace of Shah Abbas the Great In possession of 
F. Sarre. 
„ 2. Wainscot in the dome of the Medress^ of the Kora Tai in Konia. 
„ 3, and 4. Wainscot in the Liwan of the Court of Medress6 SIrtscheh in Konla. 
„ 5. Brickwork mosaic from the mausoleum of Mumine Chatun in Nakhichewan. 
.„ 6. Inscription from the same mausoleum. 



Plate 129. 

(After Friedrich Sarre, DenkmMler der persischen Baukunst.) 

Fig. 1. Faience mosaic from the dome-chamber in the Blue Mosque at Tabriz. 
,„ 2. Brickworic mosaic in the mausoleum of Mumine Chatun at Nakhichewan. ^ 
„ 3—5. Mural decorations in the dome chamber of the Medress^ of Kari Tai, 
in Konia. 

SPELTZ. Styles of Ornament. '* 



226 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 129. 




Plate 130. 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT 



227 




!«• 



228 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 130, 

Fig. 1. Copper vessel from Kaschan (Dolmetsch). 

2, and 3. Ornaments from the British Museum (Owen Jones). 

4. Wall decoration of faience tiles (Dolmetsch). 

5, 11, and 12. Ornamental work on metal vessels (Dolmetsch). 

6. Glazed ball (Dolmetsch). 

7, and 8. Old-Persian faience plate In the Cluny Museum, Paris (Dolmetsch). 
9. and 10. Fragments of knives and forks (Dolmetsch). 

13. Persian carpet, 16th century (Dolmetsch). 

14. Manuscript painting from the Koran (Dolmetsch). 




Faience decoration from the mosque of Sheik Safi in Ardebil 

(F. Sarre). 



Plate 131. 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



229 




230 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 132. 




MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. . 231 



Indo-Saracenic Ornament. 

When Islamism made is appearance In India in the 12th century, it found already there 
an ancient style of art which was characterised by great elaboration, a distinction which very 
naturally became also associated later on with Indo-Saracenic ornamentation. The buildings 
erected at this period display, however, a peculiar splendour entirely their own, a splendour 
which very often rises into the most luxurious beauty. This styl6 of ornamentation, made 
up of ancient Indian elements and of Saracenic art, reached its highest glory in the 
l6th century, plants in natural style being preferred to the geometric ornament of the Moors. 
The Saracenic restriction laid down by the Koran that living animals should not be repre- 
sented artistically was not regarded either in the Indo-saracenic or Persian art. 



Plate 131. 

Fig. 1. From the temple at Vijayananagar, Dravidian style, 1434 (Uhde). 
„ 2, and 3. From a minaret in Ahmedabad, built in the years 1430—1450 (Uhde). 

Figure 2 is to be placed above fig. 3. 
„ 4. Principal entrance to the mosque at Jaunpur, 1438—1448 (Uhde). 
„ 5. Wood Carving from Burma (Dolmetsch). 



Plate 132. 

Fig. 1. Pierced-panelling in sandstone, from Futtipore-Sikri (Dolmetsch). 
„ 2. Window from a house in Amritza (Indian Architecture and Ornament). 
„ 3. Piers from the mosque 'Ranee Sipre in Ahmedabad (Indian Architecture and 

Ornament). 
„ 4. Column from the palace of the Shah Jehan in Agra (Indian Architecture and 

Ornament). 
„ 5. Arch from the palace of Amber (Indian Architecture and Ornament). 



Plate 133. 

Fig. 1. Copper flagon in the Munich museum (Libonis). 

„ 2. Dancer's costume from Ceylon (Libonis). 

„ 3. Mahout's lance (Libonis). 

„ 4. Embroidered quiver (Libonis). 

„ 5. Powder-horn (Libonis). 

„ 6. Faience plate (Libonis). 

„ 7. Battle-axe with etched ornataient (Dolmetsc|i) 

„ 8. Vase of incrusted silver (Libonis). 

„ 9. Faience jug (Libonis). 

„ 10. Damascened vase (Libon*s> 



232. MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 133. 




Plate 134. 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



233 




I 



234 



MAHOMETAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 134. 

Fig. 1, and 9. Ornament from damascened metal-work (Dolmetsch). 
„ 2. Mahout's lance, enamelled (Dolmetsch). 
„ 3. Gold embroidered State sunshade (Dolmetsch). 
„ 4, and 5. Embroidered fans (Dolmetsch). 
„ 6. Frieze from an iron, silver damascened, vase (Libonis). 
„ 7. Marble inlaid-work from the monuments of Shah Jehan and the Begum 

Muntdz-i-Mahal (Dolmetsch). 
„ 8. Ornamental work from metal vessels (Dolmetsch). 




Decorative work on a damascened shield, gold on steel, 
in the Ethnographical Museum of the Louvre (I'Art pour tous). 




GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



orthem France began to evolve the Gothic from the 
Romanesque style when this latter had arrived at 
its fullest development. The new style, which 
spread rapidly over England, Germany, Italy, Spain 
and other countries, owed its origin to that desire 
for a freer, more intellectual development which 
animated the peoples of Europe about the year 1200, 
and to a thorough change in the entire civilised 
life of the period. On one side were abstract 
intellectual ideas, on the other, intensive, impulsive 
emotionalism, and religious mysticism. These 
various feelings found their expression in the deve- 
lopment of the Gothic style, which, although it 
originally proceeded from Northern France, was 
ultimately regarded as the expression af a pure 
German style. With the exception of a few de- 
generate examples in later work, the Ornament in 
the Gothic style is always kept in strictest sub- 
ordination to the Form, It never overgrows or 
conceals the masonic substructure, but, on the contrary, is specially employed 
to supplement and complete the expression of the Form in a harmonious manner. 
The principal Ornament of Gothic is the leaf-moulding, the plants being always 
selected from native Flora, the manner in which they are worked being in nearly 
every case a pretty sure guide to the period in which they were produced. In 
Early Gothic, in the 13*^ century, the leaves were nearly always more or less 
conventionalized with a slight naturalistic leaning. Later on, the leaves were 
produced with more force and energy, becoming finally, in Late Gothic, much 
more naturalistic in their form. During this epoch they were thick set in appe- 
arance, and were also sometimes very much under cut, two circumstances which 
resulted, first in imparting stiffness and rigidity, and secondly, from the sharp 
contrasts of light and shade which the hollow leaves produced, in giving them 
constantly varying movement. In the selection of plants, symbolic allusions were 
also often taken into account. The figures of men and animals made use of in 



From an English 
14th century manuscript 

(Owen Jones). 



236 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

the Gothic were employed in very many cases in a humorous and exaggerated 
manner. The name Gothic has no connection whatever with the Goths. 

Already in the Romanesque style will be found nearly all the essential 
principles of the Gothic style, so much so that it was- at one time suggested 
to give the term of round arched Gothic to its complete development at the 
commencement of the 12^^ century; the title Romanesque is, however, that by 
which it is best known and therefore has been adhered to here. 

The term, however, is generally applied to all its phases, which vary in 
different countries; thus in North Italy the term Lombard is generally followed. 
In central and south Italy it is known as Central and Southern Romanesque, in 
Sicily as Siculo- Norman. In North Germany it is called Rhenish; in North 
France, Norman, in the South, Provencal or Perigordian, and in England as Saxon 
and Norman. These various developments were all based on constructional 
requirements and the materials employed, but these elements form no part of 
the province of this work, dealing as it does with ornament only. At the same 
time it is impossible to dismiss some of the early Evolutions which took place, 
as they form the ground work both in the Romanesque and Gothic styles for 
the ornament applied to them. The variety of the ornament which is found on 
the doorways and windows of the Norman style, such as are illustrated on 
Plates 81, 88, 93, 95 and 99, and which eventually led to that of the great 
portals of the French, Spanish and English cathedrals, and of which an example 
at Beverley is shewn on plate 1 58, cannot be correctly understood without some 
reference to their construction. In order to emphasize and give importance to 
the entrance doorway, a series of concentric arches were thrown one above the 
other, some times called "orders" each one projecting further than the one 
beneath, to this characteristic Sir Gilbert Scott gave the title of "subordination 
of the arches". The Roman, Byzantine, and many of the Italian Romanesque 
arches were all in one plane. In France, Germany and England, and especially 
in the latter country, there are many planes formed by the concentric rings of 
masonry one on the other, and these are all moulded and sometimes carved 
with the designs shewn on plate 99, but the subordination of arches led to a 
subdivision of the piers carrying them and to the employment sometimes of 
shafts or columns as a means of decoration and accentuation. On Plate 81, 
Fig. 3 for instance, are two angle shafts, each of which has a differently orna- 
mented capital, and the same on Plate 93, Fig. 3. In the Gothic style Fig. 1, 
3, n, Plate 136 are examples of the variety of design of the capitals on, 
compound piers arid in Fig. 1, Plate 158, are illustrated many slender shafts 
each with its respective capital, which gives variety and change to the main 
design. There is in fact in the evolution of the Romanesque and Gothic styles 
that characteristic to which reference has already been made, viz, that the orna- 
ment is specially employed to supplement and complete the impression of the 
Form in a harmonious manner. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 237 

In the earlier Gothic style, the foliage has a certain conventional character, 
which will be seen in plates 135 and 146. About the middle of the 13^** cen- 
tury it became more naturalistic, as shewn on plates 136 and 137, and this 
tendency increased in the 14*^ century, so that, as in Fig. 3, 4, and 9, Plate 162, 
the sculptor would seem to have imitated the natural leaves so far as the 
material would allow, this is specially the case in the porch of the Chapter 
House of Southwell Cathedral. At a later period, and especially in Germany, 
the ornament became very debased, and what were originally constructive fea- 
tures, such as the shafts of compound piers, were looked upon as decorative 
features, as, for instance, the columns of St. Blasius Cathedral in Brunswick, of 
the 15^^ century, Fig. 5, Plate 162, where they are carried spirally round the 
columns. The ribs of the tracery in panels were cut short, forming stumps as 
in Fig. 8, Plate 161, having no sense of fitness or beauty. 

On the other hand, in her wrought metal work Germany takes the lead in 
the 15*^ century and it would be difficult to find more magnificent specimes 
than those which are illustrated on plate 1 73, where the decorative forms follow 
closely the nature of the material in wrought iron or bronze. The Gothic let- 
tering engraved on the bronze plates of tombs, as illustrated on plate 1 75 shews 
how beautiful a surface or flat ornament inscription can become, having the 
additional value of being an historical record. In the German initial letters also 
represented on plate 174 there is a plethora of design of the most beautiful 
character. 




From a German 15th century manuscript (Dolmetsch). 



238 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 




Gothic Ornament in France. 



ery gradually from Northern France, where its origin is to be 
found, Gothic architecture spread over the whole of Christian 
Europe. After many constructive attempts made both at 
Autun and Vezelay, Abbot Suger finally erected in the years 
1141—1144 the ADbey Church of St. Denis. Although 
this church shows very many traces of Romanesque in- 
fluence, as do all Early Gothic buildings, and is a combi- 
nation of old architectural habits with new ideas, it is still 
the first and most important example of Gothic architecture. 
That great master-piece of Early Gothic, the cathedral of 
Notre Dame in Paris, was erected in the years 1163—1182. 
Towards the beginning of the IZ^ century the complete, 
fully-developed and fully-ripened form of the Gothic was 
finally arrived at, from which time it began to flourish until it developed at last 
into the period of its highest glory. The after-growths of the Gothic in the 
14th and 15th century were called, in Germany Late-Gotic, but were designated 
in France as the Flamboyant Style. The desire for greater lightness becoming 
now apparent, and the purity of design being neglected at the same time, it 
finally happened that the Ornament grew apace and masked the form, a fate 
v/hich in the end overtook almost all styles of architecture. 



From a 
14th century 
Manuscript 

(Racinet). 




Principal cornice from Notre Dame de Paris (Viollet le Due). 

Base from Paris Cathedral (Viollet le Due). 

Cornice from the Notre Dame at Chalons (Viollet le Due). 



Plate 135. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



239 








240 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 135. 

Fig. 1. Finial from the cathedral of Paris, end of the 12th century (Opderbecke). 

2. Gallery from Rouen cathedral, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

3. and 6. Crockets from a church in Rouen (Opderbecke). 

4. Gargoyle from Reims cathedral (Album de la Cathedrale de Reims). 

5. Eagle from the apse gallery in Reims cathedral (restored). (Album de la 
Cathedrale de Reims). 

7. Finial from the southern tower of Chartres cathedral, 12th century (Opderbecke). 

8. Cavetto ornament from the Abbey church at Larchant (Opderbecke). 

9. Finial from Amiens cathedral, 1230 (Opderbecke). 

10. Spire from the church at Poissy, 13th century (Opderbecke). 

11. Capital of pier from Notre Dame, Paris (0. Dehio, and G. von Bezold, Die 
kircliliche Baukunst des Abendlandes). 

12. Cross in Reims cathedral (Album de la Cathedrale de Reims). 



Plate 136. 

Fig. 1. Capital from Amiens cathedral, 1240 (Opderbecke). 

2. Capital from middle of 13th century, after Viollet le Due. 

3. Capital from the church of St. Chapelle, Paris, 1240 (Opderbecke). 

4. Capital from the church of St. Martin des Champs, Paris, 1220 (Opderbecke). 

5. and 7. Capitals from the cathedral at Bayeux, Calvados (Raguenet, Materiaux) 

6. Capital from the church at Sens (Salle synodiale), 1240 (Opderbecke). 

8. Capital from the church at Vezelay, middle of 13th century (Opderbecke). 

9. Base in crypt of the church at Rosnay (Aube), (Raguenet, Materiaux). 

10. Base of stair-baluster, Lyons (Raguenet). 

11. Capital from the cathedral at Nevers (Album der Kathedrale von Reims). 

12. Base from the church at Brou (Ain), (Raguenet). 



Plate 137. 

GotMc Flora. 

(From Viollet le Due, Dictionnaire Raisonne de I'architecture Fran^aise du Xle au XVIe siecle.) 

Fig. 1. Cavetto moulding, with vine leaves and grapes. 

„ 2, 4, and 10. Conventionalished arum. 

„ 3. Fig-leaf. 

„ 5. Leaf of the bellflower. 

„ 6. Cavetto mouldings, maple-leaf and flowers. 

„ 7. Cavetto mouldings, cress leaves and seed. 

„ 8. Parsley-leaf. 

„ 9. Conventionalised lily. 

„ 11. Leaf of the meadow-rue. 



Plate 136. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



241 




)111IN 
SPELTZ. Styles of Ornament. 



ic 



242 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 137. 




Plate 138. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



243 




J6< 



244 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 138. 

Fig. 1. Spandrll from the church of St. Sevcrin In Bordeaux, 1247 (Viollet le Due). 
„ 2. Stone vase, 13*^ century; found in Aix, Provence Raguenet, Mat^riaux). 
„ 3. Doorway of the church of St. Genest at Nevers, middle of the 12th century 

(Viollet le Due). 
„ 4. Boss of vault from the priory of St. Martin des Champs, Paris, 13th century 

(Raguenet). 
„ 5. Door-knocker from Cordes, Tarn (Raguenet). 
„ 6. Door-knocker from Bayonne, 13th century (Raguenet). 
„ 7, and 9. Boss of vault from the church of St. Severin, Paris (Raguenet). 
„ 8. Arcade from St. Chapelle, Paris, 15th century (Raguenet). 
„ 10. Doorway of the Episcopal palace at Beauvais, Oise, 16th century. 



Plate 139. 

(Gothic mural painting after P. G^lis-Didot et H. Laffillee, La peinture decorative en France 

du Xle au XVJe siecle.) 

Fig. 1. Stencil painting from the church of Chateloy near Herisson, Allier. 
„ 2. Frieze painting from Coney Castle (Aisne). 
„ 3. From the roof of the church at Cunault, Maine et Loire, beginning of the 

14th century. 
„ 4—6. Textile paintings in the chancel of Amiens cathedral. These patterns, which 

have had their origin, without any doubt, in the Orient, were also very frequently 

used in flat-painting. 
„ 7. From the chapel of St. Antony in the cloister of the Jacobines in Toulouse. 
„ 8. From the church of the Jacobins in Agen. 
„ 9. From the church at Romans (Drome). 
„ 10. From the chapel of Saint-Cr^pin in Evron (Mayenne). 
„ 11. From the church of Saint-Ours in Loches (Indre et Loire). 
„ 12. From the sacristy of the cathedral at Clermont. 
„ 13. From the chapel at Pritz (Mayenne). This represents the month of September, 

and is one of the 12 Panels which illustrate the twelve months of the year. 



Plate 140. 

Fig. 1, and 2. Belt with knife, 15th century (Viollet le Due, Dictionnaire raisonnd du 

mobilier fran^aise). 
„ 3. Reliquary, in the Cluny museum, a crystal cylinder with gilt copper mountings 

(Viollet le Due). 
„ 4. Coiffure of Queen Isabel of Bavaria, 1395 (Viollet le Due). 
„ 5. Buckle, 14th century (Viollet le Due). 

„ 6. Embroidered Prayer-book Bag, 14th century (Viollet le Due). 
„ 7. Purse, 15th century (Racinet, Le costume historique). 
„ 8. Lock of coffer Viollet le Due). 
„ 9. Harness, 15th century (Viollet le Due). 



Plate 139. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT 



245 




24^ 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 140. 




Plate 141 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 




248 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 141. 

Fig. 1, and 3. Textile pattern, 15th century (Oais-Didot et Laffillee). 
„ 2, and 8. Enamel-work on copper (Roger-Miles). 
„ 4. Armour, 14th century (Roger-Miles). 
„ 5. Glass painting from Bourges cathedral (Owen Jones). 
„ 6. Glass painting from Angers cattiedral (Owen Jones). 
„ 7, and 9. Textile patterns, 16th century (G^lis-Didot et Laffilt^e). 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 1. 

„ 2. 

„ 3. 

„ 4. 

,. 5. 

» 6. 

n 7. 

„ 8. 

„ 9. 

„ 10. 

„ 11. 

.. 12. 



Plate 142. 



Painting from a praycr-bool; in tlie National Library at Paris. The Latin text 

dates from the year 1398, the painting, which has been ascribed to Israel of Mekenen 

is, however, of a later period. 

Stall i Cluny museum, 15th century (E. Bajot, Collection des Meubles anciens). 

Credence table, 15th century (Raguenet). 

Stool from the bedroom of Louis XL 

Lorraine wooden coffer in the museum at Cluny, 14th century (Bajot). 



Plate 143. 

Napkin border, 16th century (Raguenet). 

Printed cloth, 15th century Raguenet). 

Goblet, with transparent enamel (Havard). 

Antique cameo, said to be portrait of King Charles V (Havard). 

Processional crucifix of beaten silver, chased and gilt (Havard). 

Silver cooling-tankard (Havard). 

Altar candlestick of chased silver (Havard). 

Prayer-book belonging to St. Louis (Havard). 

Bread-knife, In gilt silver filigree-worked sheath (Havard). 

Wine cup in Silver gilt, in the cathedral at Reims (Havard). 

Neck ornament and goblet of the Niveller rifle-corps (Havard). 

Ebony coffer in the Cluny museum (L'art pour tous). 




Rose window from the Abbey at Braisne (VioUet le Due). 
Base from the Cathedral of Manx (Viollet le Due). 



250 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 143. 




Plate 144. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 




252 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 
Gothic Ornament in the Netherlands. 




Initial from Israel of Mekenen 

(Hirth). 



nto the Netherlands, Gothic architecture soon made its 
way, a most natural circumstance considering how near 
that country lay to France, the land where the Gothic 
style had its origin. Varied specimens of Gothic archi- 
tecture appeared all over Belgium, but in Holland, where 
this style was latter on very strongly influenced by 
Germany, and where, for obvious reasons, plain brick- 
work architecture had to predominate, the examples 
are far more simple and not so varied. One very 
remarkable and most peculiar feature of the Gothic 
style in Belgium consists in the extreme care with which 
the entire decorative-work, even the very minutest 
details, is carried out. The most important cathedral 
in Holland, Utrecht was built by Bishop Henry of Vianden in the years 1251— 1267; the most im- 
portant Gothic monument in Belgium being the celebrated cathedral of Antwerp, which was 
begun by Jean Amel of Appelmans from Boulogne in the year 1352. The finest examples of 
Gothic architecture, however, were the Town Hals, the most beautiful specimen being in Louvain. 

Plate 144. 

(After Ysendyck, Art dans les Pays-Bas.) 
Embroidery-work from the frock of a king-at-arms, during the reign of 
Philip II. The Spanish coat of arms are embroidered in coloured silk on a foundation of 
carmine-red velvet. Two robes similar to this are still preserved in the arsenal at Madrid. 
Window from the cloister of St. Servais, Maestricht, 15th century. 
Chimney-piece in blue stone from the Pas-perdus Hall In Mons, 15th century. 
Balustrade of granite, 16th century. This is employed at present plinth for a 
copper grating in the church of Walburg in Fumes. 



Fig. 1. 




Wrought iron hinge on the door of the treasury chamber in the 
cathedral of St. Paul, Liege (L'art pour tous). 



I 



Plate 145. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



253 




254 



Fig. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 145. 

1. Flemish sculpture, 15th century (Raguenet). 

2. Brass wine goblet 15^^ century (Ysendyck, Art dans les Pays-Bas). 

3. Tabernacle door of wrought iron, 15th century (Ysendyck, Art dans les Pays-Bas). 

4. Wrought iron candlestick, 15th century (Llbonis). 

5. Lectern from the church at Tongres, 15th century (Raguenet). 

6. Fountain from Quentin-Matsys, Antwerp, 15th century (Raguenet). 



Gothic Ornament in England. 



y William of Sens, an architect of French origin, Gothic was 
employed in the Cathedral of Canterbury which was 
begun in the year 1175. Even in Westminster Abbey, 
which was erected in the years 1245—1300, French 
influence is also plainly discernible. Notwithstanding 
this, however, the Gothic style in England soon learned 
to move along on independent lines of its own. The 
English Gothic Tudor arch and the Ogee arch, are 
specially peculiar of late English Gothic. There are 
three Gothic periods in England. 

1. Early Gothic (Early English) in the 13th century, 
characterised by the Lancet Arch. 

2. The Decorated Style, so-called on account of 
its rich decorative development. 

3. The Perpendicular Style in the 15th century. 
In this style the Tudor and the Orgee Arch predo- 
minate, and the forms become gradually more and 

more fantastic. The vaulting is carried to its greatest elaboration, and therewith begins the 
decline of this style. 




From a 15th century 
manuscript (Owen Jones). 



Plate 146. 

Fig. 1. From Stone church, Kent (Owen Jones). 

2, and 4. From Wells cathedral, decorated style (Owen Jones). 

3. Rosette from Oxford (Pugin, Gothic Ornament). 
5, and 6. Capitals from Warmington church, Northamptonshire (Owen Jones). 

7. Capital from Wells cathedral, early English (Owen Jones). 

8, and 9. Leaf mouldings from Trinity Stratford-on-Avon (Pugin). 



Plate 146. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



255 




256 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 147. 




I 



Plate 148. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



257 





SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament. 



17 



258 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 147. 

(After Pugin, Gothic Ornament.) 

Fig. 1. Crocket from Winchester cathedral. 

2. Finial to a stall in All SouFs College Chapel, Oxford. 

3. Portion of Stone canopy from York minster. 

4. Crocket from Trinity church, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwick. 

5. Finial of a stall in New Walsingham church, Norfolk. 

6. Capital from St. Saviour*s church, Southwark. 

7. Stringcourse from Winchester cathedral. 



Plate 148. 

(After Pugin, Examples of Gothic Architecture.) 
Fig. 1. Turret over entrance gateway, East Barsham manor house, Norfolk. 
„ 2. Window from the Cloisters, New College, Oxford. 
„ 3. Monument of Sir Richard Carew, Beddington church, Surrey. 
„ 4. Oak Tracery at the back of stalls in All Soul's College chapel, Oxford. 
„ 5. Canopy to one of the stalls in St. Catherine's church. Tower Hill, London. 



Plate 149. 

(After Pugin, Examples of Gothic Architecture.) 
Fig. 1—3. Sin bracket, George Inn, Glastonbury. 
„ 4. Window in gable of the Abbot's Barn, Glastonbury. 
„ 5, 6, and 8. Details from the Abbot's Barn, Glastonbury. 
„ 7. Window from Raglan Castle, Monmouthshire. 
„ 9. Canopy on the west front of the chapel at Houghton-in-the-Dale, Norfolk. 



Plate 150. 

(After Pugin, Examples of Gothic Architecture.) 
Fig. 1. Panel from the Common room of the Vicar's Close, Wells. 
„ 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8. I>etalls from the banqueting hall of the Manor House, Great 

Chalfleld, Wilts. 
„ 4, 7, 9. Details from the western doorway of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
„ 10. Chimney-piece in the Bishop's palace. Wells. 



Plate 151. 

(After Pugin, Examples of Gothic Architecture.) 
Fig. 1. Oriel window on the north side of the quadrangle of Balliol College, Oxford. 
„ 2. Canopy in Falkenham church, Norfolk. 
„ 3. Door handle, temp Henry VII. 

,. 4. Doorway at the westend of Magdalen College chapel, Oxford, 
„ 5. Small lock for a chest, temp Henry VII. 



Plate 149. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



259 




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260 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 150. 








Plate 151 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 




262 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 152. 




Plate 153. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



263 




264 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Fig. 6. Fan vault from All Souls» College, Oxford. 
„ 7, 8, and 9. Moulded tiles from chimney stacks, East-Barsham Manorbou66. 

Norfolk. 
„ 10. Oak ceiling, New Walslngham church, Norfolk. 



Plate 152. 

(Talbot Bury, Remains of Ecclesiastical Woodwork.) 
Fig. 1—4. Roof of St. Mary*s church. Bury St. Edmunds. 
„ 5, and 6. Roof of Lavenham church, Suffolk. 
„ 7, 9, 11, and 12. Roof of Burford church, Oxfordshire. 
„ 8, and 10. Roof of Wantage church, Berkshire. 



Plate 153. 



1. Flnlal from Exeter cathedral, 14th century (Raguenet). 

2. Solid springer from the same cathedral (Raguenet). 

3. Rosette from Chester cathedral, IS^h century (Raguenet). 

4. Font from Bradfield church, Suffolk (Raguenet.) 

5. Pulpit in Bridgewater church, Somersethshire (Talbot Bury). 

6. Grotesque figure, Oxford (Pugin). 

7. Panel from the facade of Wells cathedral (Raguenet). 
8—10. Encaustic tiles, 14th century (Owen Jones). 



Plate 154. 

Fig. 1. From a stall in the church at Weston Zoyland, Somersetshire (Talbot Bury, 
Remains of Ecclesiastical Woodwork). 
„ 2. Chandelier from church at Piddletown, Dorset 
„ 3. Qoblet of silver gilt, 15th century (Libonis). 
„ 4, 7, and 8. From a manuscript of the Middle Ages (Owen Jones). 
„ 5. Coronation chair in Westminster Abbey (Libonis). 
„ 6. Stall in Wantage church, Berkshire (Talbot Bury). 
„ 9. Stained glass window in Merton College chapel, Oxford (Pugin). 
„ 10. Stained glass window Southwell minster, Nottinghamshire (Owen Jones). 



Plate 155. 

Fig. 1. Middle Gothic glass-painting in Norbury, Derbyshire. 

H 2. Lead glazing in Brabourne church, Kent. 

„ 3. Head of Queen of Sheba in window at Fairford. 

„ 4, 6, and 8. Grisaille glass from Salisbury cathedral. 

„ 5. Late Gothic glass-painting in Wells. 

„ 7. Glass painting, with figure of Edward the Confessor, St Mary% Ross* 



Plate 154. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



265 







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266 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 155. 




Plate 156. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



267 




CJOTHIC ORNAMENT 




GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 269 

Plate 156. 

Fig. 1. Coffer in the sacristy in Louth church, Lincolnshire (Colling). 
„ 2. Panel from the church at Trull, Somersetshire (Colling). 
„ 3, and 4. Panels from the font in the church at Great Concrby* Lincolnshire 

(Colling). 
„ 5. Gilt iron lock from the hall of Beddington Manor House, Surrey (Pugin). 



Plate 157. 

(Franklin A. Crallan, Gothic Woodwork.) 

Fig. 1. Bench end, Breadsall church, Derbyshire, 15th century. 

„ 2. Stall from St. Andrew Gatton, Surrey. 

„ 3. Canopy over the tomb of Edward 111. in Westminster Abbey, 1380. 

„ 4. Door from the church of St. Laurence, Norwich. 

„ 5. End of a seat from Witley, Surrey, 15th century. 

„ 6. Panel in Tudor Style from the South Kensington Museum. 



Plate 158. 



Fig. 1. West doorway of St. Mary*s church, Beverley (Colling). 

„ 2. Gate of the Bishop's Chapel in Ely cathedral (Bailey Scott Murphy). 

„ 3. Doorway of the Presbytery at North Petherton, Somersetshire (Colling). 

„ 4. Door of the church at Bocking, Essex (Colling). 



Plate 159. 

(Henry Shaw, Mediaeval Alphabets and Devices.) 

Fig. 1. Lettering from the monument of Henry III. in Westminster Abbey, 1272. 
„ 2-4, 6, and 7. Letters from the monument of Richard II. in Westminster 

Abbey, 1400. 
„ 5. Letters from a benedictional, 1480. 
„ 8. Grotesque lettering from a printed book, 16th century. 
„ 9. Signature of a wood-engraver, 15th century. 
„ 10. Initial from a manuscript in the British Museum. 



Fig. 


I. 


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2. 


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3. 


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4. 


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5. 


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6. 


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7, 



Plate 160. 

Ornament on English Monuments, 

(From C. A. Stothard, The monumental effigies of Great Britain.) 

From a tombstone in the Ingham church, Norfolk. 
Crown of the Earl of 'Arundel, died 1487. 
Ladies* coiffure, 15th century. 

Sheath of dagger belonging to Lord Hungerford, died 1459. 
Crown of Queen Berengaria, wife of Richard Coeur de Lion. 
Shoe of Henry III., died 1272, from a tomb in Edward the Confessor's chapel, 
and 8. Bag and brooch of Queen Berengaria. 



270 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Fig. 9. Necklace, 15th century. 
„ 10, and 11. Heads of Sir Edmund de Thorpe and Lady in Ashwelthorpe church, 

Norfolk. 
„ 12. Spur of Sir Hugh Calvely, in Bunbury church, Cheshire. 
„ 13. Belt buckle of the Earl of Warwick. 
„ 14. Hilt of sword belonging to Sir John Peche, from his tomb in the church at 

Lullingstone, Kent. 
„ 15, and 16. Sword-hilt and sword-belt belonging to John de la Pole, Duke of 

Suffolk. 
„ 17. Shoe of Edward HI., died in 1377, taken from his tomb in Westminster Abbey. 
., 18. End of sword-belt, 14th century. 
„ 19. Coiffure of the Countess of Westmoreland. 
„ 20. Glove of Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, from his tomb in Staindrop 

church at Durham. 




Head-dress of Beatrice, Countess of Arundel. 

From a statue in Trinity church. Arundel, 13th century (VioUet le Due). 



Plate 158. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENf. 



271 




272 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 159. 









2. 



3. 









Plate 160. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



273 




SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament 



274 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Gothic Ornament in Germany and Austria. 




soon as the Gothic Style had well entered on its 
victorious march throughout England, it began also 
to make its way gradually throughout Germany, 
where, on account of its French origin, it became 
generally known under the title of "OPUS FRANCI- 
GENUM". Although it had not completely won the 
victory over Romanesque Art until about the commence 
of the 14th century, it was nevertheless, at this time, 
fully perfect in all its forms. The Early Gothic con- 
tinued up until the beginning of the 14th century. 

^ ^^*u X . 5 X The oldest Gothic building in Germany is the Choir 

From a 15*^ century Manuscript ., xu^j^, „i ^n a u u- u 

r^ ^ m the cathedral at Magdeburg which was conse- 

^ ^* crated in the year 1234. The most beautiful specimens 

of the Gothic are however to be found in the Rhineland where the Gothic Style reached 

its highest perfection, the Cathedral at Cologne, which was begun in the year 1248, being 

its noblest work. 






Coat of Arms from the Rosette 

Town Hall at Liineburg. from Neubrandenburg. Rosette from Stargard. 

(Fritz Gottlob, Formenlehre der norddeutschen Backsteingotik.) 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



275 




18 



276 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 16K 

(After Heldeloff, Oraamentik des Mittelalters.) 

Fig. 1. Frieze from the passage between the Nicholas Chapel and the cathedral- 
church at Aix-la-chapelle, 1480. 

„ 2. Finlal from the fountain in the market square at Rottenburg on the Neckar» 
late Gothic. 

„ 3. Crocket from St Kilian*s church at Hellbronn. 

„ 4, and 8. Balustrade, and inscription from the court -yard of the house 
Adier Str. L 308, Nfiremberg. 

M 5. Capital from Cologne cathedral. 

„ 6. Finial from a stone Tabernacle in the Hospital church, Esslingen, the work 
of MatthMus von B5blingen. 

„ 7. Finial from the shrine of St. Sebald in NQremberg, wrought in bronze by 
Peter Vischer and his son (1508—1519). 

„ 9. Corbel of vault from the Lilienfeld Cloister near Vienna. 

„ 10. Baptismal font in MOnnerstadt on the Lauer. 



Plate 162. 

Fig. 1, 3, and 6. Capitals from the cathedral church of St Peter at Wimpfen in the 
valley near Hellbronn (Zeller, St. Peter zu Wimpfen i. T.). 

„ 2. Capital from the church of the Cistercian Cloister Lilienfeld near Vienna. 

„ 4. Capital from the cathedral at Frankfurt on the Main, 14th century (Raguenet). 

„ 5. Column from the St Blasius cathedral, Brunswick, 15th century (Hartung» 
Mittelalterliche Baukunst in Deutschland). 

„ 7. Capital and base from the princes* tomb in the Holy Cross church near 
Vienna (Heideloff). 

„ 8. Capital from a window of the Saalburg on the Saale (Franconia) (Heideloff). 

„ 9. Capital from the cathedral at Worms (Raguenet). 



Plate 163. 

Fig. 1. Door from Ober-Kranichfeld (Heideloff). 
„ 2. Late Gothic door from Coburg fortress (Heideloff). 
„ 3. Portal of the Elizabeth church in Marburg (Hartung). 
„ 4. Bridal door on the north side of the choir in the church of St Sebald, 
Nflremberg, 14th century. 



Plate 164. 

(After Heideloff, Omamentik des Mittelalters.) 

Fig. 1—4. Late Gothic ornaments In flat wood relief in the gallery balustrade of 

a house in the Hauptmarkt, Nuremberg. 
„ 5, and 8. Wood-carving from a writing-desk in the rectory of St Lorenz, 

Nflremberg. 
„ 6, and 7. Panelling from stone gallerv in the choir of the Cloister church in 

Blaubeuren. 



Plate 162. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



277 




278 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 163, 




Plate 164. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



279 



^ * "o vy 




280 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 165. 




GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



281 



Fig. 9. From a stall in the Cloister church off St. Clara, Naremberg. 
„ 10, and 11. Wooden rosettes ffrom the rose chamber In the Princes House, Coburg 

Castle. 
„ 12. Window head in the St. Lawrence rectory, NQremberg, 1458. 
„ 13. Window head off a private house in NOrdiingen. 
„ 14, and 15. Window heads from the ruined Hospital in Essllngen. 



Plate 165. 

Fig. 1, and 3. Glass window ffrom the church at Hundelshausen (Ungewitter, Land- 

und Stadtkirchen). 
„ 2. Relief over the door off the chapel tower in the Parish church, Rottwell 

(Heideloff). 
„ 4. Stained glass ffrom the cathedral at Regensburg, now in the National Museum 

at Munich (Dolmetsch). 
„ 5. Glass painting from the Frauenkirche, Essllngen (Dolmetsch). 
„ 6. Pulpit from the church of the Ursuline Convent in Fritzlar (Ungewitter). 
„ 7, and 8. From the Cathedral church off St. Peter in Wimpffen-im-Tal (Zeller, 

St. Peter zu Wimpfen-im-Tal). 




Window ffrom the Gable at the Market From the South Chapel 

Stargard Gate, side off the Town Hall off the Katharinen 

New Brandenburg. off KOnigsberg. church, Brandenburg, 

(Frit? Oottlob, f ormenlehre der norddeutschen Packsteingolik.) 



282 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 166. 




Plate 167 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



283 




284 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 166. 

German Gothic Brickwork, 
(After Fritz Oottlob, Rormenlehre der norddeutschen Backstefngotik.) 

The Romanesque Brickwork of North Qermany, which had its origin in North Italy, 
becamei naturally, when Gothic Architecture developed and became prevalent, gradually 
changed into the Gothic style. The marked differences between the two were due, to the 
different materials used, and to the manner in which these materials, stone and brick, had 
to be treated. The Brickwork was very probably prior to the Stone Gothic, and in the level 
plains of North Germany, where sandstone is scarce, there gradually arose a special style 
of Gothic Brickwork quite in keeping with the peculiarity of the building material and the 
character of the people. 
Fig. 1. Window from the Nikolai church in Wismar. 

„ 2. Window from the Town Hall of Lfibeck. 

„ 3. North doorway of the church of St. Mary, K5nigsberg, Prussia. 

„ 4. Buttress in the same, church. 

„ 5. Rose window from the church at Prenzlau. 

.. 6. Principal doorway in the Cloister church, Berlin. 



Plate 167. 

(After Heideloff, Omamentik des Mittelalters.) 
Fig. 1. Glazed heating stove in Burg Ffissen on the Lech. The stove contains the 
following inscription „Dieser Ofen Wol-gestalt ward gemacht do man zallt 1514 jar 
bey Hannsen Seltzmann Vogt zu Oberndorf". — This stove was made in 1514 by 
Hannsen Seltzmann, Steward at Oberndorf. 

2. Quiver, after a painting from Albrecht Durer, showing Hercules conquering 
the Harpies. At present in the Burg at Nflremberg. 

3. Late Gothic double goblet in silver gilt, in possession of the family Knopf in 
Nflremberg. 

4. Monument to Graf von Henneberg, done in bronze by Peter Vischer» from a 
sketch by Albrecht Dflrer. 

5. Arms of Wflrttemberg and Savoy, from a tomb in the Stifts church in Stuttgart. 

6. Late Gothic ornament from the bridal-carriage of Agnes of Hesse, wife of 
Duke John Frederick of Saxe-Coburg (1555), in flat relief, carved in wood and gilt. 

7. Eagle from panelling of the door of the Emperor*s room in Scheurlis House, 
Nflremberg. 



Plate 168. 

(After F. Paukert, Tiroler Zimmergotik.) 
Fig. 1. Wood ceiling in Jochlsturm, Sterzing. 
„ 2. Tiles from the Burg in Meran. 
H 3. Marquetry from a table. 
„ 4—7. From a wood ceiling in Freienstein. 

S— 11. Tie-beams of a wood ceiling in St. Martin, AhrntaL 



Plate 168. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



388 




286 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 169. 




Plate 170. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



287 




288 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 169. 



Gothic ornamental Iron-work from Nuremberg Museum, 

Fig 1. 4, 7, 9, 11. 13, and 16. Door handles. 

„ 2, S, and 10. Lock mountings. 

„ 3, 5, 12, 14. and 15. Door mountings. 

„ 6. Wood door with iron mountings. 



Plate 170. 

Fig 1. Late Gothic crozier, from a tombstone in the cathedral at Regensburg (Heideloff). 
„ 2. Late Gothic candelabrum of bronze from the church of Kraftshof near 

Nfiremberg (HeidelofO. 
„ 3. Gilt wooden cross, from an altar in the church of St. Mary at Hersbruck (Heideloff). 
„ 4. Gothic cradle (Heideloff). 

„ 5, and 7. Manuscript painting, 15th century (Dolmetsch). 
„ 6. Coffer from Bozen (Paukert, Zimmergotik). 
„ 8. Late Gothic balcony soffit from St. Michael's church, Hildesheim (Ebe, Die 

Schmuckformen der Monumentalbauten). 




Gothic Wood Carving. 



Plate 171. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



289 




SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament 



19 



290 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 172. 




Plate 173. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



291 







19* 



292 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 171. 

Fig. 1. Late Gothic arm-chair from the ancient armoury In NOremberg. 
„ 2. Arm-chair from Tyrol, IS^h century. 
„ 3. Door from Kunkelstein Castle (Paukert). 
„ 4. Late Gothic lectern from the Stifts church at Herrleden, near Ansbacb 

(Heideloff). 
„ 5. Stall from the Elizabeth church, Marburg (E. Wasmuth, Alte und neue Klrchen- 

mObel). 
„ 6. Table from the Rhlneland, 15*^ century (Falke, Mittelalterliches Hausmobiliar). 
., 7. Church stall In oak. In all probability this belonged to the rival Kaiser Wilhelm 

of Holland, and is therefore from the 13*^ century; i* is now in the Wartburg 



Plate 172. 

Gothic Flat Ornament. 
(After E. Paukert, Tyroler Zimmergotik. 

Fig. 1, and 3. Ornament from Kunkelstein Castle. 

„ 2, 4, and 6. Stuff patterns after paintings In the castle of Trotzburg. 

„ 5. Ornament from Neustift. 

„ 7, and 8. Wall-paper, printed on linen. 



Plate 173. 

Fig. 1. Wrought-lron candelabrum, end of the 15th century, in the National Museum 

at Munich (Hirth). 
„ 2, 7, and 8. Crown and details In a picture of the Blessed Virgin in the church 

of St. Martha, Nflremberg (Heideloff). 
„ 3. Late Gothic goblet in silver gilt (Heideloff). 
„ 4. Rosette of sheet-iron on the knocker of the sacristy door In the church 

of St. Lawrence, Nflremberg (Heideloff). 
„ 6. Badge of the confraternity of the "Holy Mount'*, with the symbol of St. Aegidius 

(Heideloff). 
„ 6. Late Gothic censer, from a copperplate by Martin Schongauer (Heideloff). 
„ 9. Chain of the order of the Swan (Heideloff). 
„ 10. Spout of a water barrel (Heideloff). 



Plate 174. 



Fig. 1—8. Late Gothic Inltals, from different parchment manuscripts (Hirth, Formenschatz), 
>, 9—13. Early Gothic letters, from Rhenish manuscripts (Dr. Karl Lamprecht, Initial- 
Ornamentik). 



Plate 174. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



293 




294 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 175. 












GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



295 



Plate 175, 

(After Wllhelm Weimar, Monumental-Schriften.) 

1. From a bronze plate in the Monastic ctiurcli at Baden-Baden» 1497. 

2. From the bronze tomb of Bishop Tilo of Trotha in the cathedral at Merse- 
burg, died 1514. 

3. Inscription, engraved in bronze, from the tombstone of Anna von Wiers- 
hausen (died 1484) in the church of St. Elizabeth, Marburg. 

4. From the engraved bnmze tomb-plate of the Scholt in Nuremberg, who 
died in 1469. In the church at Langenzenn near Furtn. 

5. Bronze tomb-plate of Jakob von Oulpen (died 1455) in the St. Gumbertus 
church, Ansbach. 






f 



Window in Bebenhausen Convent, 
Wurtemberg. 

Window from the Town Hall 
at Nfiremberg. 



Window in the Reichenbach 
Cloister, Ulm, Wfirtemberg. 

Window from the gable of the 

now ruined Preacher's church 

in Nuremberg. 



(Heiddoff. Omamentlk des Mitt^Alteri;) 



296 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 176. 




y.-^^^^<^-^'^-^-^oy'^''^y^'-^-K'^^ 



I »^ 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



297 



Plate 176. 

Gothic Ornament in Hungary. 
(After Dr. B6la von Czobor and Emmerich von Szaley, Die historischen Denlcmcller Ungams.) 

Fig. 1. Helmet of Banus from Croatia and Helden, by Szigetvar Nikolaus Zrinyi 

(died 1566), in tlie Court Armoury Collection, Vienna, 
„ 2. Helmet of Georg Castriota Skanderbeg, Duke of Albania (1403—1467), m 

the Court Armoury Collection, Vienna. 
„ 3. Goblet of silver gilt, 15th century, was presented in 1640 to the Protestant 

church in Miskolcz by Gregor von Miskolcz. 
„ 4. Horn vessel for holding oil, silver gilt mountings, property of the Eszertom 

cathedral. 
„ 5. Reliquary Hermes of St. Ladislaus, of silver gilt, ornamented with chain mail. 

Hungarian 15th century work. In the cathedral church at Gy6rer. 




Bronze Baptismal Font, made in 1484 for Menardt church 
by Johannesi von Novavilla. 



298 GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Gothic Ornament in Italy. 



;nto Italy Gothic art made its way at about the same time as it did into 

Germany. This style of an first received the title of Gothic- in Italy, a 

word which was used by the Italians at that time to signify barbarian, or 

anything coming from the north. In Italy more importance was placed 

on the horizontal than in either Germany or France, and it was only very 

seldom that the vertical predominated in that country. The Italians did 

From a "°^ P^y "^"^^ attention to the development of the tower, which very 

14th century °^*^" stands quite apart from the church altogether. The Franciscan and 

Manuscript Dominican Orders played a very important part in the spread of the 

(Racinet). Gothic throughout Italy. The Italian Gothic, however, could never free 

itself from Classic, Romanesque and Byzantine reminiscences, and Italian 

Late-Gothic is mixed with noumerous Renaissance motifs. Classic art had taken too strong 

a hold on the Italians, it was so much a part of their life, they had become so imbued 

with its spirit that they really found it impossible to become true lovers of the Gothic. As 

a consequence, Gothic art rapidly declined, and, in the 13th century, a decided movement 

to break away altogether from the style of the period, and to turn back again to the old 

Classic Art began to make itself evident. 




Plate 177. 

(From Rohault de Fleury, La Toscane au Moyen Age.) 

Fig. 1, and 5. Arch of the Loggia of the Palace of the Signoria, Florence. 
„ 2. Painting by Plero. di Guido (1386) representing Charity, in the Loggia of 

the Palace of the Signoria, Florence. 
„ 3. Lion from the city wall in Pisa. 
„ 4. Pillar from the corn-market in Florence. 
„ 6. Mural painting from the city hall, Florence. 



Plate 178. 

Fig. 1. Window from a house in the Synagogue Street in Trani, 13th century (Raguenet). 
„ 2. Crest of the church of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, 14th century (Raguenet). 
„ 3. Bronze knocker from Florence, 14th century (Raguenet). 
„ 4. Window from the Convent of St. Theresa in Trani (Raguenet). 
„ 5. Mosaic floor from Florence cathedral (D'Espouy, Fragments d'architecture du 

Moyen-age). 
„ 6, and 7. Mural painting and pUlar from the Castle of Pandino, 14th century 
(Camillo Boito, Arte Italiana). 



Plate 177. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT* 



299 




^^^^^M^M 



300 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



pmq im 




Plate 179. 



GOTHIC Or^NAMENT. 



301 




■!IIMIfHW'iri.»iHiii^«.Magi!^|yil||f|f^)yimiMiif MM 



30e GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 179. 

Fig. 1, and 2. Altar in the church of Or San Michele (D'Espouy). 
„ 3. Band-pattern, 15th century (Raguenet). 
„ 4. Door border from Florence, 15*^ century (Raguenet). 



Plate 180. 

Fig. 1—4. Locks and keys from the National Museum, Florence (Boito;. 
„ 5. Credence from the Villa Reale del Poggio near Florence, 15th century (Raguenet). 
„ 6. Fragment of a fresco-painting by Jacopo Avanzi in the Oratorium of the 

St. Giorgio church in Padua (Boito). 
„ 7. From a monument by Bonjacopo Sanoita in the choir of the St. Antonto 

Convent, Padua (Boito). 



Plate 181. 

Fig. 1. Tunic from the Museo Civico in Turin, made of carmine-red velvet on a gold 

ground, 15th century (Boito). 
„ 2. Carpet pattern from a tempera painting by Niccolo Alunno (1466) in the 
Pinakotheca at Perugia (Dolmetsch). 

3. From a tomb in Fano (D'Espouy). 

4. Mural painting from the Castle of Pandino, end of the 14th century (Boito). 

5. Table-cloth border, 15th century, the pattern is blue (Raguenet). 

6. Railing round the Scaliger monument in Verona (D'Espouy). 

7. Reliquary in the treasury of the Pitti palace, Florence, end of the 14th cent- 
ury (Boito). 



Plate 182. 

The Venetian Gothic. 
(After Cicognara. Monumenti di Venezia.) 

Fig. 1. Capital and base from the court-yard of the Ck d'oro palace. 

2. Balustrade in the first story of the same palace. 

3. Window Ornament, capital and base, in the first story of the same palace. 

4. Capital and base from the second story of the same palace. 

5. Capital and base in the first story of the Doges palace. 

6. Ground plan of No. 5. 



Plate 180. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



303 




304 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 181. 




Plate 182. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



305 




SPELTZ. Styles of Ornament 



20 



306 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 183. 




GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



307 



Plate 183. 

Fig. 1—8. Manuscript paintings from the 14«h and 15th centuries (Racinet, L'Ornement 
polychrome^. 




Stuff pattern from an altar in Milan, with the badge of the Duchess 
Bonne of Savoy. At present in the Museum Poldi Pezzole, Milan 

(L'art pour tous). 



308 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



Plate 184 




310 



GOTHIC ORNAMEN?. 



Gothic Ornament in Spain, 




fery soon after it had begun to reach its highest development 
in France, that is. in the first half of the 13th century, 
and about the year 1225, Gothic was introduced from 
France into Spain. It did not, however, undergo here that 
change in accordance with the national ideas of the 
people which it underwent in Germany and Italy, the 
very extensive number of Moorish remains still existing 
in the country having made their influence felt. One 
of the oldest Gothic monuments in the Peninsula is 
the cathedral of Burgos which was built under Northern 
French influence in the 13*^ century. The Western 
From a 15th century Manuscript tower of this cathedral was completed in the years 
(Monumentos de Espafta). 1442—1456 by Meister Johann of Cologne. 



Plate 184. 

Transition Style (estilo mudelar). 
(After Monumentos arquitect6nicos de Espafia.) 

Fig. 1, and 3. Door and window heads from the Palace de los Ayalas In Toledo. 

„ 2. Door head from the chapel of Santiago of Santa Maria In Alcala de Henares. 

„ 4. Details from the house called de Mesa In Toledo. 

„ 5. Decoration over the door In No. 2. 

., 6. Crest of the church of St. Mark, Seville. 



Plate 185. 

(After Monumentos arquitectdnicos de Espana.) 

Fig. 1, and 2. Window from the house Lonja in Valencia. 
„ 3. Window from the cloister of St. Juan de los Reyes in Toledo. 
„ 4. Middle column of a double window from the tower of the Lonja house In 

Valencia. 
„ 5. Stair newel from the Hospital de la Latlna In Madrid. 
„ 6. Tombstone of King Don Alphonso VIII and his Consort Donna Leonor, hi 

the choir of the chuich of Santa Maria La Real de Huejgas in Burgos. 



Plate 186. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



311 




a ih'Jii I . Ill- -- fUvUK-~i//'. • ~i 1 mSrr^ -. 



312 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

Plate 186. 



Fig. 1—3. Details from the cloister of St. Juan de los Reyes in Toledo (Monumentos 

de Espaiia). 
„ 4. Balcony from the court-yard of St Gregorio in Valladolid (Raguenet). 



Plate 187. 

Fig. 1. Finial from transept of the church of St Juan de los Reyes In Toledo 

(Monumentos de Espafla). 

„ 2. Linen hanging, 16th century, blue pattern on a red ground (Raguenet). 

„ 3. Wrought iron chandelier from Tarrasa, province of Barcelona, 13th century 
(Mira Leroy). 

„ 4. Window panel from the cloister of St Juan de los Reyes in Toledo (Monu- 
mentos de Espaiia). 

„ 5. Back of a stall seat in the cathedral of Leon, 15th century (Mira Leroy). 

„ 6. Ceiling of the cloister of St Juan de los Reyes in Toledo (Mira Leroy). 




Painted balustrade In the interior of the tower of Santo Domingo, 
called the Hercules Tower in Segovia 

(Monumentos de Espafia). 



Plate 187. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



313 




314 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 










GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 



315 



Plale 188. 

The Manoel Style in Portugal. 
(After Frei Luis de Souza, Church of Batalha.) 

An extremely peculiar Gothic, influenced by Moorish, and other foreign forms, deve- 
loped in Portugal, its most beautiful example being the church at Batalha with its monument 
erected to the memory of king Manoel. On the 14th august 1385 Dom Joao, King of 
Portugal at the time, found himself opposed to a very powerful Spanish army, far superior 
to his own in numbers, under the command of Don Juan, King of Spain. Dom Joaa turned 
fo the Virgin for help in this critical situation, and promised, if She would give him the 
victory, that he would erect a building in her honour which would far outshine In size and 
beauty any similar structure throughout Christendom. As the Portuguese did actually beat 
the Spanish, and gained an overwhelming victory over them, Dom Joao immediately proceeded 
to carry out his promise. He called together the foremost architects and artists from all 
parts of Europe, and in the very same year, 1385, in which he won his great victory, close 
to the scene of battle, laid the foundations of the famous and beautiful church at Batalha. 
The mausoleum erected to king Manoel, who reigned later, is the most beautiful item in 
this structure. It was, however, never finished and is still incomplete. 
Fig. 1. Arch over the door of the mausoleum to King Dom Manoel. 

„ 2. Arch of one of the chapels in the same. 

„ 3. Principal cornice of the same. 

„ 4. Spire of the tower in the north facade of the church at Batalha. 

„ 5. Entrance door to the mausoleum. 




Shaft and band on the South front off the church off Santa Maria in Bel^m 

(Haupt, Baukunst der Renaissance in Portugal), 




CHINESE ORNAMENT. 



Chinese 
Ornamental Frame 

(Racinet.) 



Although the earliest record of Chinese archi- 
tecture dates back to the 23 century B. C, when 
the Baku tribes emigrated east from Elam and Baby- 
lonia, and introduced their systems of building, there 
are no examples of their architectural ornament 
existing earlier than tiie 13^ century A. D., owing 
to the ruthless destruction which has taken place at 
all periods of her history. In their temples and halls 
they would appear to have adhered to one universal 
type of design, the eariiest example still existing of 
which, is that which was first built in Japan in 607 
A. D. by Koreans. It was then a completely deve- 
loped style, consisting of wood columns, carrying 
open timber roofs covered with tiles, and the principal ornaments were those 
found in the groups of brackets which carried the overhanging eaves and the 
ridge and hip rolls of their roofs: all in glazed terracotta of bright colouring. 
Owing to the peculiar nature of the construction of their roofs (of which an 
example is shewn in Plate 159, Fig. 2), the horizontal beams, instead of being 
carried on the tops of the columns are tenoned into them. There are therefore 
no capitals so that the Chinese and Japanese are the only nations in the worid 
to whom the capital — the principal ornamental feature of all styles— is unknown. 
At an eariy period also the Chinese discarded in their pagodas the timber con- 
struction which they introduced into Japan and built them in brick, covering them 
sometimes with porcelain and glazed terracotta plaques of the greatest beauty, 
and it is in this branch of art and in their ceramics that they excel, and in 
the plates devoted to Chinese ornament are represented some of the finest works 
of this kind. In bronzes also they are very great masters, as also in gold 
and silver embroideries. 



Plate 189. 



CHINESE ORNAMENT. 



317 




318 CHINESE ORNAMENT. 

Plate 189. 

Fig. 1. Pillar crest of the Pagoda of Ho-nan. The Chinese column has no capital, ttie 
beams and brackets being tenoned in at the sides (Chambers, Designs of Chinese 
Buildings). 
„ 2. From the colonnade In the court-yard of the Pagoda of Cochin-China 
(Chambers). 

3. Corbel of a Pagoda in the eastern suburb of Canton (Chambers). 

4, 5, 9, and 10. Chinese 17^^ century furniture (Chambers). 
6, and 7. Bases of the colums in No. 2. 
8. Roof crest of a small temple in the western suburb of Canton (Chambers). 

11. Spire of a Pagoda on the Ta-Ho, between Canton and Hoang-Pou (Chambers). 

12. Upper part of a Pagoda in Cochin-China (Chambers). 

13. Part of a curtain of a canopy bed, embroidered hi gold and silk, 15^ century 
(Dolraetsch). 



Chinese Ceramics. 



In his history of Chinese Ceramics, Ernest Grandidier divides the products of Chinese 
Ceramics, chronologically, into five epochs: 

1. Under the dynasty of Sung (960—1260) and the dynasty of Yonen (120—1368). 

2. Under the dynasty of Ming (1368—1620). 

3. From the end of the latter dynasty to the death of K'ang Hsi (1620—1722). 

4. Under the reign of Yung-Chfing and Kien-Long (1722—1796). 

5. The modern epoch. 



Plate 190. 

Fig. 1. Censer, used by the Emporer Fon-HI when making offering to the spirits of Heaven 

and Earth, dates from beghming of the 18*^ century. 
„ 2. Vase with the mythological dragon, from the Yung-Tschlng epoch (1723—1736). 
„ 3. Vase with the goddes Si-wang-mow, Goddess of a long life, from the same 

period. 
„ 4, and 5. Tea-pots, from the Ming epoch, 1368—1620. 
„ 6. Vase, from the K'ang Hsi epoch, 1662—1723. 
„ 7. Statue of Konan-lnn, goddess of Charity. 
„ 8. Antique vase in the Museum Adrien Dubouchet, Limoges. 



Plate 191. 



Fig. 1, and 2. Vases from the Yung-Ch^ng epoch. 
„ 3. Vase from the ICang Hsi epoch. 
„ 4. Wine-can from the K*ang Hsi epoch. 
„ 5. Vase from the Sung epoch 960—1260. 



Plate 190. 



CHINESE ORNAMENT. 



319 




320 



CHINESE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 191 




Plate 192. 



CHINESE ORNAMENTv 



321 




SPELTZ. Styles of Ornament. 



21 



322 



CHINESE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 193. 




CHINESE ORNAMENT. 



323 



Plate 192. 

rig. 1. Escutcheon from the K'ang Hsi epoch. 

2. Cup from the same epoch. 

3. Vase from the Sung epoch. 

4. Plate from the Kien-Long epoch. 

5. Vase from the same epoch. 

6. Fragment of table plate from the K*ang Hsi epoch. 

7. Vase from the Yung-Chlng epoch, with raised gold meander, which, it is more 
probable to suppose, was discovered by the Chinese themselves, lather than an 
imitation from the Greek. The other patterns on the vase relate to Buddhist 
Mythology. 



Plate 193. 

(After L'art pour tous.) 
Fig. 1—3, and 8. Ornamental butterfly from an antique porcelain plate, in the 
Gasnault collection. 

4. Antique gold censer, in the possession of Admiral Coupvent des Bois. 

5. Antique tea-pot, from the Gasnault collection, now in the Museum at Limoges. 
., 6. Antique bronze vase from M. Desaye's collection. 

7, and 9. Bronze vases from the period of the Ming dynasty, in the Bing 
collection. 
„ 10. Antique bronze candle-stick^ 




Ornament for laquer painting (Racinet). 



21 



324 CAMBODIAN ORNAMENT: 



Cambodian Ornament. 

In the countries lying between India and China an extremely peculiar and very ancient 
art developed into existence, which may be regarded as a transition from Indian to Chinese 
ait It is but very little studied and was first made l<nown in Europe on the formation of 
the Mus^ des antiquit^s cambodgiennes by M. Louis Delaporte, Lieutenant in the French 
Navy -Similar to Indian architecture, the Cambodian is overloaded with ornament, but this 
overloadmg Is, however, made op for in the regularity and harmony which cliaracterises it 



Plate 194. 

(After L'art pour tous.) 
Fig. 1. From the sanctuary of the Temple of Angjkor Vat, lO^h century. 
„ 2. Upper portion of podium In the same sanctuary with mask of the God 

Rheon. 
M 3. Bas-relief carved on the exterior of the same sanctuary. 
„ 4. Mural decoration in the ame with the Brahma Gods. 



1 



Plate 195. 

(After L'art pour tous.) 

1. Doorway of the temple of Loley, 11th or 12th century. 

2. Square pier and entablature with sculptured frieze representing the Apsaras 
(celestial dancing girls) from the Temple of Angkor Vat 

3. Balustrade window of the Temple of Angkor Vat. 



I 



Plate 194. 



CAMBODIAN ORNAMENT. 



32S 




326 



CAMBODIAN ORNAMENT. 



Plate 195 





JAPANESE ORNAMENT. 



espite the fact that Japanese art had its origin in 
China, it nevertheless represents a decided 
individuality peculiar to itself. This is due to 
the less strict manner in which they divided 
their work. The Japanese Ornamentation is not 
so conventional as the Chinese, as they took 
their models more from nature than the latter. 
It is perhaps remarkable and worthy of note 
that the Japanese have adhered to the original 
models introduced from China through Korea, 
whereas the Chinese in some cases have entirely 
departed from them. Thus the Japanese Pagoda 
represents the same type of design as that which 
was first built by Korean carpenters at Horiuji 
in 607 A. D. and is still carried out at the 
present day, whereas the Chinese gave up the 
timber structure a few centuries later, and in- 
troduced one built in brick, which in their country, 
at all events, was not liable to be overthrown by 
earthquakes, as it might have been in Japan. 
In both China and Japan the general tendency 
has been to over-elaborate the decoration, and 
in their temples the ornament applied to their 
columns and beams is very much the same in 
both countries. In their halls of state and domestic buildings the contrary is the 
case, those in China are overloaded with ornament, the great halls being painted 
and }2:ilded in profusion and the residences of the Mandarins enrk:hed with 



The actor Tomedjuro 

Nakamura in the role of the 

Kaishi. Painted by Tori-i-Kiyo- 

nobu 1750 (Bing). 



328 



JAPANESE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 196. 




i 



JAPANESE ORNAMENT. 329 

marbles of various kinds and elaborate carved woodwork whereas in Japan the 
greatest simplicity is observed, in the paiaces of the Mikado andr Shogun the 
woodwork is simply polished, shewing the grain of the wood, with mounts in 
gilt bronze. 

The oldest Japanese Art report dates from the 6*** century A. D., when the 
Buddhist religion was introduced into the country from China through Korea: 
shortly afterwards the Fujiwara family engrossed the power of the state for 
nearly four centuries, when they were displaced by the Taira and Minamoto 
clans. The former were ovjerthrown at Danno-ura in 1185 A. D., when Yoritomo 
te chief of the Minamotos obtained from the Mikado and his court the title of 
Shogun (generalissimo). Later on, the Ashigawa family ruled as Shoguns from 
1338 to 1590 A. D., and they were succeeded by the Tokflgawa family whose 
head lyeyasu was a scion of the Minamoto family. They held power till 1868, when 
the Shogunate was abolished and the Mikado again recovered his power and 
position as ruling sovereign. In 1542 the Portuguese missionaries entered Japan 
and endeavoured to convert the people, but they had brought discord into the 
country, so that in 1624 lyemitsu, the third Shogun of the Tokflgawa Dynasty 
expelled the missionaries and closed the country to all foreigners, the Dutch 
only being allowed to carry on trade which was confined to the Island of 
Deshima. During the two and a half centuries of exclusion, the Japanese made 
rapid advances in Art and their lacquer and metal-work reached a perfection 
unknown in any other country, whilst their painting and printing, greatly in- 
fluenced by the Chinese school, are now recognised as the finest works of 
their kind. 



Plate 196. 

Fig. 1. Lock mounting (L'art pour tous). 

,. 2. Scabbard mounting (L'art pour tous). 

„ 3. From the eastern door of the temple Shin-Shiu Sect in Kioto (Uhde, Kon- 

struktionen und Kunstformen der Architektur). 

„ 4, and 6. Ancient Japanese vases (L'art pour tous). 

„ 5, and 7. Sword scabbard and hilt (L'art pour tous). 

,. 8. Altar Shrine in the temple of Miyo-Jin-Akagi (Uhde). 



330 



JAPANESE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 197. 




Plate 198. 



JAPANESE ORNAMENT. 



331 




332 



JAPANESE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 199. 




JAPANESE ORNAMENT, 333 

Plate 197. 

(After Justus Brinkmaim, Kunst and Handwerk in Japan.) 

Fig. 1. Wooden ceiling in tli€ temple off Shogun Tokugawa lyemitsu at Uyeno 

near Toklo. 
„ 2. Posts at the entrance of the principal door of the temple Nishl-Hongwanji 

in Kioto. The bases of the post and the cross bars are encased in bronze. 
„ 3. Roofed public lantern In the province Ise. 
„ 4. Open timber roof of the Hondo from O-baku-san in Uji valley. 
„ 5. Painted drapery on a wooden column of a Nikko temple. Above, is the 

three-leaved Holly-hock of the TokugawaxlShoguns. 
„ 6. Bronze nail-head from the castle of Himeiji. Shows a branch of the Holly 

hock (Asdrum caulescens). 
„ 7—11. Nail-heads from an old temple and old castlea. 
„ 12. Rolled-up window-blind, front and back views. 



Plate 198. 

Fig. 1. iron sword guard (Tsuba) from the chaser Kinai, 18th century (Bing, Japanlscher 

Formenschatz). 
„ 2. Painting on an ancient beaker-shaped vase (Dolmetsch). 
„ 3. From an embroided silk robe, 16th century (Bing). 
„ 4. Cloisonne inlay from a copper dish decorated on both sides (Racinet, Tomement 

polychrome). 
„ 5—12. Japanese lacquer painting. 



Plate 199. 

Fig. 1. Domestic cock, from the book Y6-hon sha-h6-fu-Kuro, beginning of 18th century. 
The text gives the names of the different colours (Brinkmann). 

„ 2. Ridge-tile, Oni-g^wara from the temple of Horiuji, 7th century (Baltzer, Das japa- 
nische Haus). 

„ 3. Ornamental phoenix head as ending of a projecting timber (Baltzer). 

„ 4. Leaf of screen, from the designs of the artist Kdrin 1700 which were published 
by Ho-itsu (Brinkmann). 

„ 5. Helmet of Minamoto Yoshi-Iye, called also Hochinamen-Toro, conqueror of the 
Tairi, about the year 1 180 A. D., at present in the temple treasury of Itsukushima. 
The rounded, turned-down sides of this helmet are of leather, on which is stencilled 
a picture of the God Indra who is surrounded with flames. Taken from the Itsuku- 
shima meisho published in the year 1842 (Brinkmann). 

„ 6. Young girl painting, from a wood-cut in the Ehon Tama Kadzura by Nishigawa 
Sukenobu. 1736. 



334 



JAPANESE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 200. 




JAPANESE ORNAMENT. 



335 



*|Pig. 7. Border-tile ornamentation (Baltzer, Das japanische Haus). 
„ 8. Border-tile ornamentation, with chrysanthemum and water waves, the arms of 

the renowned hero Kusunoki (Baltzer). 
„ 9, Bronze vessel, chased, for storing the utensils used for smoking (Brinkmann). 



Plate 200. 

Japanese Textile Designs. 
(After L'art pour tous.) 



Fig. 1, and 4. Carpet patterns. 
„ 2, 3, 5, and 7. Stuff patterns, 17th century. 
„ 6. Pattern from the mantle of a Bonze, or priest. 




Sword and scabbard of a Dalmlo, from the Arlma Family, 

18th century (Bing). 



336 



JAPANESE ORNAMENT. 








Pier decoration from the temple of Angkor Vat 

(L'art pour tous). 




SPELTZ, Styles of OrMmeat. 




Belgian Tea Urn in beaten Copper* Ghent 

(Ewerbeck und Neumeister, Die Renaissance in Belgien und Holland). 



RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 




From an Italian Manuscript 

(Dolmetsch). 



The Renaissance in Italy in the 15*^ cen- 
tury may be regarded to a certain extent as 
a revolution in art, a peaceful revolution, of 
which the seeds had already been germinating 
for many years in Painting and Sculpture, 
showing the tendency to revert to that earlier 
classic art, many of the masterpieces of which 
still existed and in greater profusion than at 
the present day. Whilst in other countries 
the Gothic style had always represented in its 
gradual development the true feelings of the people who produced it, in Italy 
its principles had never been understood or appreciated, and although in the 
\A^^ century in Florence, Venice, Verona, Pisa and in the towns further south 
magnificent examples of Gothic ornament were evolved, which hold their own in 
comparison with those in other countries, their beauty consisted chiefly in their 
I exquisite detail as apart from the general desigin of the structures which they 
adorned and enriched. 

On the revival of letters in the 15*^ century, the Italians began to recognise 
that they were the national descendants of those who had produced the master 
pieces in ancient Italy, the art practised by them was not a foreign importation 
like that of the Gothic style, but their, own, an art which had been developed 
in their own country, which recalled the history of their own people, who were 
jat one time the conquerors of the whole world. Beyond this there were other 
I changes, among which the advance of civilisation, the Reformation in Religion, 
I the printing press etc., all of which contributed to new requirements, whilst the 
j patronage of men of letters, such as those of the Medici in Florence and later 
I on that of the Papal court in Rome, all tending therefore and leading to the 



k 



22' 



340 RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 

evolution of a new interpretation of Classic art. All these considerations, ho- 
wever, belong more to the History of the Renaissance style rather than to the 
actual results, the ornamentation which constitutes the principal object of this work. 

It has already been pointed out that the Painters and Sculptors were the. 
first who in their works showed a tendency towards the resuscitation of classic 
art and this is specially the case with the latter, who, not only in Italy but in 
France, Spain, England, Germany and in the Netherlands showed in tombs and 
other works of a decorative character how complete was the change in con- 
ception and execution. In architechire the construction forms of the Gothic style, 
the traditional craft of the mason could not be thrown aside at once, but for 
a tomb in which, as an ideal subject uninfluenced by questions of utility or con- 
struction, the artist was free to mould his design in accordance with his imagi- 
native powers there was no restriction. Hence we find that not only in Italy, 
but in other countries the eariiest examples of the Renaissance are to be found 
in tombs, as in those at Le Mans and Nantes in France and in England, in 
Torregiano*s work at Westminster Abbey, 1516. 

It was in the eariier Renaissance that ornament received its chief develop- 
ment both in design and beauty of execution, and this not only in Italy, but in 
France and Spain. The examples on plate 205 from the Miracoli church in 
Venice (1480—89) by Pietro Lombardo, those on plate 207 from the facade 
of the Certosa near Pavia (1473) by Burgognone and the pilasters of the Town 
hall at Brescia are among the more remarkable in Italy, whilst in France, in the 
choir stalls and screens of some of the cathedrals and churches and in the< 
chateaux of Blois, Chambard, and Azay-le-Rideau on the Loire and in the South 
of France at Toulouse and Rodez (Fig. 3 Plate 216), and in Spain in the Uni- 
versity of Salamanca (Fig. 3 Plate 253) will be found a richness and variety 
of design which is characteristic of the period. 



ITAUAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. ^41 



The Renaissance in Italy. 



The Early Renaissance commenced in the first quarter of the 15*^ century in Florence, 
. whence it spread to Milan, Venice and other towns in the North of Italy, and towards the 
I end of the 15*^ century to Rome. The first architect who studied seriously the monuments 
j of classic art and transmitted their spirit into his own work was Filippo Brunelleschi> an 
I artist of powerful genius, who in the construction of the cupola of the Cathedral at Florence 
(1220—34) and the churches of St. Lorenzo and St Spirito in the same town showed his 
great qualities as an artist and builder. He was followed by Michelozzo, to whom we owe 
the Chapel of St. Peter (1460) in St. Eustorgio, Milan, and the Riccardi (1430) the first 
Renaissance example of a palace of which the second waTthe Strozzi palace 1489 by Majano 
(1442—97) and Cronaca (1454—1509). Then followed Alberti (1404—72), whose chief work 
was the front of the church at Rimini (1446 — 54) and the church of St Andrea at Mantua 
(1472), Giovanni de San Gallo (1445—1516), Antonio de Sangallo (1455—1534), Bramante 
d'Urbino (1444 — 1514) the architect of the church at Todi but better known in connection 
with his work of St. Peter's, Rome, which he commenced in 1505 and the Cancellaria Palace 
in the same city. Peruzzi (1481—1531), the architect of the Massimi palace in Rome; the 
Lombardi family in Venice, Pietro Lombardo (1430—1515) the architect of the Miracoli church, 
Sante Lombardo (1504—1560) who designed the Vendramini Palace and Tullio Lombardo 
(1452—1537) the Comaro-Spinelli Palace. To these must be added San Micheli (1494—1559) 
the architect of the Bevilacqua palace at Verona and the Grimani palace at Venice; Sanso- 
vino (1477—1570) who designed the Library and the Loggia at Venice, Vignola (1507—73) 
whose chief work was the castle of Caprarola, *40 miles from Rome, and Palladio (1519—81) 
the architect of the Basilica and other palaces at Vicenza. 

Illustrations of the work of some of the architects above mentioned are given in the 
plates. Thus in plate 201 Michelozzo and San Gallo are represented, and in plate 203 San 
Gallo and Sansovino. In plate 204 illustrations from the Loggia of the Vatican are given 
which was painted by Raphael, who drew his inspiriation from the rich decoration in painting 
and stucco found in the Golden House of Nero, which had been buried beneath the Thermae 
Df Titus. To this type of decoration the title Raphaelesque is frequently given. Pietro 
Lombardos work is shown on Plate 205, end Burgognone's on Plate 207. 



342 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 201. 




ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 343 

Plate 201. 

Florence. 
Florence was the principal centre of the Early Renaissance and developed a type of 
palace which become the standard for all Italy. 

Fig. 1. Window from the court-yard of the Palazzo Riccardl. This palace was designed 
and begun in the year 1430 by Michelozzo Michelozzi. The court-yard was built 
by Bartolomeo Amanati. (Schiitte, Ornamentale und architektonische Studienbiatter 
aus Italien.) 
„ 2. Principal cornice of the facade of the Riccardi palace (Schutte). 
,, 3. Octagonal column in stucco-work from the Palazzo Vecchlo. This palace 
was built in the year 1298 by Arnolfo di Cambio, but enlarged in 1434 by Michelozzi, 
and in 1550 by Vasari. The stucco-work of the column was done in the year 1565 
by Marco da Faenzo on the occasion of the marriage of Francesco de Medici (Schutte). 

4. Capital of column in the court-yard of the Palazzo Gondi. The palace was 
commenced in 1481 by Giuliano de San Oallo (Schutte). 

5. Sepulchral slab from Santa Croce, Florence (Dolmetsch). 

6. Prom a monument in the church of the Holy Apostles in Florence (L'art 
pour tous). 

Plate 202. 

Florence, 

Fig. 1. Facade in sgraffito-work from the palace of Montalon (D'Espouy, Renaissance). 
„ 2. Detail of a cornice from the Hall of the Two Hundred in Palazzo Vecchio 

(Schatte). 
„ 3. Door border in the Hall dell'Orologio in the Palazzo Vecchio (Schutte). 
„ 4. Sketch for a folding-door, from a pen and ink drawing by Giovanni da Bologna. 

In the Florence (Hirth, Formenschatz). 
„ 5. Coat of arms curved in stone from the Palazzo Feroni (L'art pour tous). 



Plate 203. 

Rome. 

In the development of the Early Renaissance Rome played no part at first, the style 

Deing introduced from Florence. 

rig. 1. From the tomb of a prelate in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo* 
This tomb, which was built by Andrea Tatti called Sansovino, is, according to 
Burkhardt, the most perfect work which has ever been produced by the union of^ 
Decoration and Sculpture (Hirth). 

2. Balustrade of a balcony in the Sixtine Chapel (Holtzinger, Geschichte der 
Renaissance in Italien). 

3, and 4. Details from the facade of the Palazzo Farnese, built by San Gallo in 
the years 1470—1546 (Schutte). 

5. and 6. Flat-reliefs from a tomb in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo 

(Dolmetsch). 
7. From a tomb of a prelate In the church of Santa Maria del Popolo. This, 

the same as Fig. 1, was built by Andrea Tatti called Sansovino in the years 

1460—1529. These tombs in the choir of the church are the tombs of the two 

Prelates Basso and Sforza Visconti (Hirth). 



344 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. p|ate 202 




i 



Plate 203. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



345 




346 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 204 







Plate 205. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



347 




' VMjwaiaiaia:^ 




rKXXSKVVVS^^K^^ 




348 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 206. 




ITAUAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 349 

Fig. 8. Sgraffito-work from the house No. 82, Via Giulia (Dolmetsch). 
„ 9. Sgraffito- work from the house No. 148, Via del Coronari (Dolmetsch). 
„ 10. Sgraffito-work from the house No. 4, Borgo al vicolo del Campanile (Dolmetsch). 



Plate 204. 

Rome. 

Fig. 1. Marble frieze in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo (Holtzinger). 

„ 2. Mural painting from the Raphael Loggia In the Vatican (L'art pour tous). 

„ 3. Sgraffito-work from the house No. 82 Via Oiulio (Dolmetsch). 

„ 4. Mural painting by Annibale Caracci in the Palace Farnese (Hirth). 

„ 5 Painting in the Raphael Loggia in the Vatican (D'Espouy). 



Plate 205. 

Venice, 
The Renaissance did not make its appearance in Venice until the year 1450, but in 
combination with the older architecture native to the city developed into a peculiar and 

characteristic style. 

(After Cicognara, Monumenti di Venezia.) 
Fig. 1, and 2. Column and archivolt in the Presbytery of the church of Santa Maria 
dei MiracoH. 

Plate 206. 

Venice. 

(After Cicognara, Monumenti di Venezia.) 

Fig. 1. Monument of Generosa Orslna, erected by her husband in the church of 

Santa Maria Oloriosa dei Frari. 
„ 2. Door border from the Royal Chapel in St. Marks. 

3. Equestrian statue by Bartolommeo Colleonl on the Piazza of San Gio and 
Paolo. 
„ 4. Mantel piece in the Sala del Collegio in the Ducal Palace. 



Plate 207. 

Certosa of Pavia. 
(After Hirth, Formenschatz.) 
Fig. 1. Pillars from the niche with principal facade. The material used is white marble. 
The principal sculptor was Ambrogio da Fossano, called Borgognone, but the work 
was begun in the year 1473. In this master work of the Italian Early Renaissance, 
however, which was completed at the end of the 15th century, other sculptors 
also took part, amongst them being Giov. Ant. Amadeo, Christoforo da Roma, Andrea 
Fusina, Christoforo Solari called il Gobbo and Agostin Busti called Bambaja. 
„ 2. Window in the principal facade, Burkhardt calls it the Triumph of all Deco- 
ration Work. 
„ 3. Pilaster, frieze, and principal cornice. 



350 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 207. 




Plate 208. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



351 




352 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 209. 



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ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT 353 

Plate 208. 

Sicily. 
(After J. J. Hittorff et L. Zanth, Architecture Moderne de la Slcile.) 
Fig. 1. Door from the_ Benedictine Cloister in Catania. 
,, 2, and 5. Fountain* in tlie cathedral Square at Messina. 

3, and 6. Reliefs from the large fountain on the cathedral Square, Messina. 

4. Window from the Benedictine Cloister in Catania. 

„ 7. Statue of Neptune from the large fountain on the quay at Messina. 



Plate 209- 

Fig, 1. Doorway from the church of St. Andrea in Mantua (Nicolai, Ornament der 

italienischen Kunst des 15. Jahrhunderts). 
„ 2. Glass painting in the Library at Florence, painted by Giovanni da Udine 
(1494—1564), (Hfrth). 

3. Small column from the Palazzo Municipale in Perugia (Raguenet). 

4. Inlaid marble-work in the floor of the cathedral of Siena (Dolmetsch). 

5. Flat-relief from the Vendraminl tomb in the church of San Giovanni e Paolo, 
Venice (Dolmetsch). 

„ 6. Wrought-iron railing from Venice (L'art pour tous). 

„ 7. Telamonic support from the Palazzo Durazzo in the Via Novissima, Genoa 

(Raguenet). 
„ 8. Ceiling in the Ducal Palace in Mantua (Nicolai). 
„ 9. Stairs of a Palace in Florence (Raguenet). 



Plate 210. 

Fig. 1. Intarsfa work from a Stall in the church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence 

(Teirich, Intarsien). 
„ 2. Coffer in the Parish Picture Gallery in Spoleto, 10th century (Boito). 
„ 3. Table, Italian-work, from the 16th century, at present in the Arts and Crafts 

Museum in Berlin (Boito). 
„ 4. Bronze knocker from the Strozzi Palace, Florence (D'Espouy). 
„ 5. Wooden panel from the Castle of Salmes. Piedmontese work of the 16th century. 
„ 6. Intarsia work from a Stall of the Certosa near Padua (Teirich, Intarsien). 



Plate 211. 

Italian Majolica, 

Fig. 1. Faience dish from Urblno (Roger-Mil^). 

„ 2. Majolica dish by Maestro Giorgio da Gubbio, in the South Kensington Museum. 
Dates from the year 1525. The Arabesques of this Master are generally executed 
in yellow and green (J^nnicke, Keramik). 

SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament. 23 



354 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 210. 




Plate 211, 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



355 




23' 



356 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT 



Plate 212. 




ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 357 

Fig. 3. Apothecary's vase from Castel Durante. In the British Museum (J^nnicke). 

,, 4. Majolica can by Maestro Giorgio da Gubbio (Jannicke). 

,, 5. Venetian dish. In the South Kensington Museum (Jannicke). 

„ 6. Floor with marble mosaic in the cathedral of Siena. The work of Beccafumi 

from the year 1372 (Raguenet). 

,, 7. Apothecary *s pot from Siena. In the South Kensington Museum (Jannicke). 

,, 8. Caffaggiolo. In the South Kensington Museum (Jannicke). 



Plate 212. 

Fig. 1. Sweetmeat tazza, after a drawing ascribed to Benvenuto Cellini (Havard). 

2, and 4. Venetian glasses from the Murano glass works, 17th century (L'art 
pour tous). 
,, 3, 10, and 11. Venetian glasses (Roger-Miles and Havard). 

5, and 6. Ewer. of enamelled gold, at present In the Uffizien, Florence (Dolmetsch). 
7. Goblet of beaten silver, gilt and chased, said to be the woirk of Benvenuto Cellini. 
,, 8, and 9. Cut glass tazza with enamelled cover, \6^ century (Havard). 



Plate 213. 

Fig. 1. Court mantle 4)f embroidered silk ('Roger-Miles). 

,, 2. Crotchet-work, 16^h century (Roger-Mil^s). 

„ 3. Venetian embroidery with raised embroidered flowers (Roger-Mtl^s). 

,. 4. Application embroidery, 16^^ century (Dupont and Auberville). 

,, 5. Silk damask, 16^^ century (Dupont and Auberville). 

,, 6. Genoese velvet pattern (Dupont and Auberville). 



Plate 214. 

Fig. 1. Book-marker from the Milan Chronicles of Bernardino Corlo. Milan, Alexander 
Minutiano, 1503 (Hirth). 

2. Alphabet for embroidery from the year 1529. From the work "Esemplario di 
Lavon" by Nicolo Zoppino, a Venetian drawer and copper-engraver (Hirth). 

3. Initial of Johannes Reglomontanus, taken from his work "Epitoma in Alma- 
gestum Ptolemei", Venezia 1496 (Hirth). 

.. 4. Head-dress, 16*^ century (Roger-Mil^s). 

„ 5. Initial of the printing-office of Ottavio Scoto. Venice 1490—1510 (Hirth). 

,, 6. Leaf from the works of Nicolo Zoppino, see Fig. 2 (Hirth). 

7. Venetian embroidery pattern from the year 1543. From the work "Esemplario 
di Lavori" by Oiovanandrea Vavassore (Hirth). 



358 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 213. 




Plate 214. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



359 




360 



ITAUAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 215. 




ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



36 1 



Plate 215. 

(After Hirth, Formenschatz.) 

Fig. 1. Panel decoration (Dolmetsch). 
,, 2. Venetian bellows, 16th century. 

3. Sword, said to be given by Francis I to the Graf von Lannoy, Vice-Regent of 
Naples. It is, however, Italian work. 
,, 4. Design for a harp, after a water-colour drawing in the Uffizi in Florence. 

5. Helmet of the Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol. Italian gold-damascened orna- 
mented work of the year 1550. In the Art Historical Collection of the Imperial 
House in Vienna. 




Window from the Laurentian Library In Florence 

(Dolmetsch). 



362 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



The Renaissance in France. 






Printing initial 

(Dolmetsch). 



ext into France during the last quarter of the 15^h century the influence 
of the Renaissance movement spread; but owing to the still lingering 
vitality of the Flamboyant Gothic Style, at first it was able only 
to modify the decorative details, forming that which is known as 
a transitional style, which lasted during the first quarter of the 
16^b century. On the accession of Francis 1st, the new art was 
devoted more to secular than to ecclesiastical architecture, and then 
arose the magnificent palaces and chateaux of the Loire at Cham- 
bord, Blois, Azay-le-Rideau, etc., which must be regarded as the 
masterpieces of the early French Renaissance; it was also gradually 
employed in domestic architecture throughout the towns of France. Here also, as in Italy, 
the individuality of the architect or master mason became a real factor and the woric pro- 
duced was connected with their names. Thus we have Hector Sohier, the architect of the 
chevet of the. church of St. Peter's at Caen (1520); the Chambiges, uncle and nephew, 
Pierre Lescot (1510—1578), the architect of the Louvre. Robert Lerou, Pierre Fain, Phillbert 
de rOnne (1515—1570), who designed the Tuileiies for Marie de Medicis, Jean Bullant 
(1520—1598), and others, bringing us down to the close of the 16^^ century. Shortly 
afterwards follow the periods of Louis XUI. and Louis XIV., whose work comes more under 
the range of the Later Renaissance. In the latter part of the reign of Louis XIV., when pomp , 
and display were the fashion, the Renaissance ornament degenerated, leading the way toi 
the last change, viz, that of the Rococo period. 




Embroidery Pattern (Roger-Mil^). 



I 



Plate 216. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



363 







364 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 217. 




FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 365 

Plate 216. 

(After Raguenet, Materiaux.) 

Fig. 1. Door Head in Hotel Lallemand, Bourges, 16*^ century. 
„ 2. Window of a house in the Rue des Focques, Dijon, 16th century. 
„ 3. Decoration of pierced panel in the choir of the cathedral, Rodez (Aveyron). 

From 16th century. 
„ 4. Door of a private house in Langres, Haute Marne, 16th century. 



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Plate 217. 

Frieze ornamentation of a room in the Louvre (Raguenet). 

Door at angle of house in the Rue de la Grosse Horloge in La Rochelle, 

Charente Inferieur, 16th century. 

Capital from the Baptistery of Louis XIIL in the Palace at Fontainebleau 

(Dolmetsch). 

Doric Renaissance Order after Philibert de TOrme (Mauch). 

Ceramic panel (Raguenet). 

Fire-place in the Ducal Palace, Nancy, Meurthe et Moselle, 16th century (Raguenet). 

Cresting of the stalls ia the church of Arques near Dieppe, 16th century 

(Raguenet). 

Hermes in the Hotel d*Assezat, Toulouse, from the time of Henry II. (Dolmetsch). 

Bas relief in the Hotel Carnavalet, Paris, 16th century (Raguenet). 



Plate 218. 

(Pfnor, Palais de Fontainebleau.) 

Fig. 1. Capital of marble in the Palace of Fontainebleau. 

„ 2. Exterior pilaster in the Chapel of St. Satumin. 

„ 3. Pedestal from the Chapel of St. Saturnin. 

„ 4. Porte Dauphine. 

„ 5. Pilasters from the Baptistery of Louis XIII. 



Plate 219. 

Fig. 1. Ornament of the time of Francis I, (Racinet). 

„ 2. Ornament of the time of Henry II. (Racinet). 

„ 3. Ornament of the time of Charles IX. (Racinet). 

„ 4. Ornament of the time of Henry III. (Racinet). 

„ 5. Decorative motif by Jean Cousin, from his book on Perspective '(Racinet). 

„ 6. Border from book (Hirth, Formenschatz). 

„ 7. Decorative panel in the Louvre, time of Henry IL (Dolmetsch). 

„ 8. Coffered ceiling from the ancient Grand Chamber of the Parliament of Nor- 
mandy in the Law Courts at Rouen (Racinet). This building, which was erected 
by order of Louis XII. and the Cardinal of Amboise, was begun in 1499 and com- 
pleted in 1514. The ceiling is of oak. 



366 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 218. 




I 



Plate 219. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



367 




368 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 220. 





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Plate 221. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



'369 




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SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament 



24 



370 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 222. 




i 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 371 

Plate 220. 

Furniture. 
(After Bajot, Musees de Louvre et de Cluny.) 
Fig. 1, and 2. Arm chair, 16th century. In the Louvre. 
„ 3. Oak Buffet, 16*^ century. In the Cluny Museum. 
„ 4. Cabinet in walnut, from the time of Louis XIII. (L'art pour tous). 
„ 5. Arm chair, 16th century. In the Cluny Museum. 
„ 6. Table, 16tt» century. In the Cluny Museum. 



Plate 221. 

Fig. 1. Mural decoration in glazed terra-cotta, 16th century. In the Louvre (Havard, 

Dictionnaire de I'ameublement et de la decoration). 
„ 2. Faience diih, by the celebrated potter Bernard Palissy, Agen (JJhmicke). 
„ 3. Jug in Oiron faience. In the South Kensington Museum (JSnnicke, Grundriss 

der Keramik). 
„ 4. Terra-cotta figure. In the Louvre (Jannicke). 
„ 5. Stoneware jug, 16th century (Havard). 
„ 6. Small jug by Bernard Palissy, Agen (Jannicke). 
„ 7, and. 9. Inlaid floor-tiles after Viriot-Woeriot (Roger-Mil^). 
„ 8. Faience jug, Bernard Palissy, Agen (Roger-Miles). 



Plate 222. 

Fig. 1, 4, and 5. Halberds from the Early Renaissance (1453—1515) with distinctly 

marked Gothic reminiscences (Roger-Miles). 
„ 2, and 3. Helmet and sword hilt, probably owned by Francis I. (Roger-Milte). 
„ 6. Sword hilt, from the 1st half of 16th century (L'art pour tous). 
„ 7. Wrought-iron candle-stick, 16th century (Havard). 
„ 8. Silver warming-dish (Havard). 
„ 9. Pair of scissors, 16th century (Havard). 
„ 10. Tankard with cover, 16th century (Havard). 



Plate 223. 

|Fig. 1, 8, 10, and 14. Silver knife, fork and spoon (Havard, histoire de I'orfeverie fran^alse), 
; „ 2. Neck pendant after Viriot-Woeriot (Roger-Miles, Comment discemer Ics styles). 

„ 3. Enamelled crystal glass (L'art pour tous). 

„ 4. Figures engraved glass (L'art pour tous). 

„ 5. Wine decanter of rock-crystal, ornamented with precious stones (Havard). 

„ 6, and 9. Fork and spoon, silver gilt (Roger-Mil^s). 

„ 7. Enamelled plate, ascribed to Meister Jean P^nicaud (Havard). 

„ 11. Helmet of Charles the Bold, set with pearls and precious stones. From a drawing 
in the Arsenal Library (Havard). 

„ 12. Dagger-sheath (Racinet). 

„ 13. Costume as emblem of the Jeweller's Art, after Larmessln (Havard). 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 223. 




Plate 224. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



373 




374 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 225. 




Plate 226. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



375 




376 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 224. 

Fig. 1. Valenciennes Uce. Maflles doubles. In the Dutuit Collection. 
,t 2. Valenciennes lace. Mailles rondes. In. the Dutuit Collection. 
„ 3. Silk pattern, 16th century (Dupont-Auberville, Collection of Decorations). 
„ 4. Wall tapestry in the Palace of Fontainebleau, 16th century (Dohnetsch). 
„ 5. Embroidery from the time of Catherine de Medicis, Point coup^, that is, 

embroidery sewn on fine Cambric (Roger-Mil^). 
„ 6. Embroidery from a bed. Presented to the Trappists near Montague by Heniy IL 

on his departure from the Monastery (Dupont-Auberville). 
„ 7. Velvet pattern, 16th century (Dupont-Auberville). 
„ 8. Gold embroidered cushion, 16th century (Havard). 



Plate 225. 

Fig. 1. Ivory fan, 17th century. In the Louvre (Hirth). 
„ 2. fiand mirror from a design by Etienne de Laune. From a copper engraving 

from the year 1560 (Hirth). 
,» 3. Key by Mathurin Jousse de la Fleche, of the year 1625 (Hirth). 
„ 4. Book cover with the arms of Henry 11. (Dolmetsch). 
„ 5, 6, and 7. Dagger hilts etc From designs by Antoine Jaequard, copper engraver 

and armourer in Poitiers, 1st half of the 17th century (Hirth). 



Plate 226. 

Fig. 1, 3—6, 9, and 10. Painted ornament from the Castle of Chevemy near Blols 

(Eugene Rouyer, L'art architectural en France). 
„ 2, and 7. Engraved frontispieces from the Th^^tre des bons Engins, published in 

Paris in 1539 by Guillaume de la Perrieire, and dedicated to Queen Margaret of Navarre. 
„ 8, and 12. Inlaid, gold in wood, from the castle of Ecouen (Eugene Rouyer, L'art 

architecture! en France). 
„ 11. Inlay from the Cardinal's Room in the Castle of Ancy-Le-Franc. 




Typographic ornamentation of the time of Louis XIII. (Dolmetsch). 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE OKNAMENT. 



377 



Renaissance Ornament in Spain and PortngaL 




Initial by Juan de Yciar (Hirth). 



pain accustomed by Moorish Art to fantastic forms 
and configurations, worked the new italics, which 
came into the country from France and Italy to- 
wards the end of the 15*^ century, at first into 
the Plateresque or Goldsmith's Style in which form 
the Early Renaissance appeared in Spain. It was 
not until the time of Philip II., after Charles V. 
hid a palace built by Malchuca in the Alhambra, 
that a pure Renaissance Style, called by the Spa- 
niards, the Graeco-Roman, came to be established. 
The most magnificent structure of "this period is 
the Escurial (1563 — 1581), which was built by 
Gian Baptista de Toledo, and his successor Juan 
de Herrera. 



Plate 227. 

(After Monumentos de Espafia.) 

Fig. 1. Head of a nail from the door of the University of Salamanca. 
„ 2. Corner-piece from the tomb of Cardinal Ximenez or Cisneros as he is best 

known in Alcaic de Henares. 
„ 3, and 9. Pilasters from the door of the University of Salamanca. 
„ 4 — 8. Details of the facade of the University In Alcaic de Henares. 



Plate 228. 

(After Monumentos de Espafla.) 

I Fig. 1. Figure from the facade of the University in Alcald de Henares. 
„ 2. Finial in tkie Court of the Archiepiscopal College, at present the Irish College, 

in Salamanca. 
3. Finial from the door of the vestibule of the ancient Hospltales Santa Cruz 

in Toledo. 
„ 4. Doorway of a house In Palma, Majorca (Prentice). 
,. 5. Pilaster capital from the gate of the University of Salamanca. 
» 6. Bracket capital of the gallery in the Archiepiscopal Palace In AlcaU de 

Henares. 
.. 7. Cartouche from a house In Palma, Majorca (Prentice). 



378 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 227. 




Plate 228. 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 




380 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 229. 




Plate 230. 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



381 




382 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 231 



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t^^gl^^^^^^^^^^e^^^^^^ 




Plate 232. 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



383 




384 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 233 



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LLT R A S 




V IZ CA.YN Q/Tsy^h^. 



>Al|i 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 385 

Plate 229. 

Fig. 1, and 5. Details of the north facade of the Royal Alcazar in Toledo (Monu- 

mentos de Espafia). 
„ 2. Order from the altar In the cloister of Poblet, said to be the work oi the 
Spanish Sculptor Berruguette, a pupil of Michael Angelos (Andrew' Prentice, Renais- 
sance Architecture in Spain). 



Plate 230. 

(After Andrew N. Prentice, Renaissance Architecture and Ornament in Spain.) 
Fig. 1, 4. 7 and 8. Ceilings in carved wood In the vestibule of the Archlepiscopal 

Palace in Alcald de Henares. 
„ 2. Column of a wrought-iron grating in the cathedral of Cuenca. 
„ 3. Pillar from the Stairshouse in the cathedral of Burgos. 

5. Coronal of an iron trellis-work in the baptism-chapel of the cathedral of 
Toledo. 

6. Panel of a door in the palace of the Duke of Alba in Peiiaranda. 
„ 9. Cornice of the Consistory in Palma, Majorca. 



Plate 231. 

(After Andrew N. Prentice, Renaissance Architecture and Ornament in Spain.) 

Fig. 1. Inner gallery of Polentina House in Avila. 

2. Gateway from Avila. 

3. Iron railing from Cuenca. 

4. Frieze from the stone door of the cathedral of SigOenza. 

5. Iron railing from the cathedral of SigOenza. 

6. Balcony from Palma, Majorca. 



Plate 232. 

Fig. 1 . Helmet from the Armeria in Madrid (L'art pour tous). 

2. Secretaire, 16th century. In the South -Kei^sington Museum. Transition period 
(Libonis). 

3. Folding chair from the cathedral of Toledo. Of black wood incrusted with 
ivory, 16th century (Raguenet). 

4. Embroidered carpet, end of 16th century. In Platersque style, from tne Collection 
of Domingo Guerrero y Polo in Barcel (Mira Leroy). 

5. Reading-desk of wrought chased iron, end of 16th century (Mira Leroy). 

6. Pendant ornament (L'art pour tous). 



Plate 233. 



Fig. 1—5. Lettering from designs by Juan de Yclar, Painter and Writing Master, 
born 1525 in Durango, Biscaya: "Arte subtilissima por la qual se esenna a escrivir 
perfectamente, Saragossa, 1550" (Hirth, Formenschatz). 



SPELTZ. Styles of Ornament. 



58C 



SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 234. 




SPANISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



387 



Plate 234. 

(After Albert Haupt, Die Baukunst der Renaissance in Portugal.) 
Fig. 1. Silver filigree cross from the Treasury in Beleiti. 
„ 2, and 4. Balustrades from the chapel of the new Cathedral in Cimbra. 
,, 3. Window column in transept of the cloister dos Jeronymos, Belem. 
K 5. Tile wainscotting in the chapel of St. Roque, Lisbon. 
■, 6. Mosaic in a chapel in Penha Verde near Cintra. 
,, 7. Court-yard in the Benedictine cloister in Porto. 

„ 8. Wall tiles from the church of St. Maria da monte in Penha Verde near 
Cintra. 




Application Embroidery, 16th century 
(Dupont-Auberville). 



25 < 



388 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



The Renaissance in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. 




(Dolmctsch.) 



lefore the new style of art, which was introduced from France into 
Germany, became firmly established in the latter country, a long 
period of time was necessary. Although at the period the new 
humanist movement carried on by Johannes Reuchlin, Erasmus of 
Rotterdam, and Ulrich von Hutten, was already in full activity 
in Germany, still it was more in a theological and philosophic 
rather than in an artistic direction. The foundation for the Renais- 
sance of Art was far less favourable in Germany than in France. 
German architects were so tied to Gothic work that they strongly 
resisted the introduction of the Renaissance. The painters, however, 
Albrecht Dtirer being the foremost amongst them were more amen- 
able. Even though in his works one may notice the tendency 
not entirely to disregard the Gothic, still, on the other hand, his 
fine constructive sense and understanding for the new Italian Forms can also be clearly dis- 
cernible. The first who really gave themselves up entirely to the Renaissance were Hans 
Burkmair and Hans Holbein. The engravings produced by these artists were circulated 
throughout the country, and even though they did not understand thera, were the source 
from which builders and artistic handworkers took the elements of the new art. This fact 
explains the bizarre character which distinguished the Renaissance in Germany from that of 
Italy. It was only when an intimate connection was established between the German and 
Italian artists, when Italian artists came into Germany, and Italian works on architecture became 
known and read in that country, that the German artists first began to really understand 
what the Renaissance was. The Thirty Years War, however, which broke out at this time, 
put an end to all artistic activity throughout the greater part of Germany. Besides this. 
Protestantism, which also appeared, was an enemy to all kinds of decoration, and prevented 
the use of the Renaissance for monumental Ecclesiastical Buildings. The people therefore con- 
fined their work to the building of Castles and Town Halls. For this reason, the German 
Renaissance lacks monumental force of form, but shows instead of that, a picturesque 
grouping and decorative talent. 

The most celebrated Masters of the German Renaissance were, Albrecht Dttrer, Burkmair, 
the two Holbeins, Peter Fischer and his son, Manuel Deutsch, Joseph Graf, and Peter FlOtner. 
The German Renaissance did not succeed in developing into a homogenous Style or 
characteristic System, a circumstance due to ruling loeal conditions which rendered it 
impossible to do what was done in France, namely to unify the prevailing style of Archi- 
tecture peculiar to the Middle Ages with the Antique forms. In all the numerous centres 
of art in Germany, the new Style developed in a different manner, according as it wis 
influenced from France, Italy, or the Netherlands. 



Plate 235 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



389 




390 GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 

The German Renaissance possesses no monumental aspect its chief power lying in the 
artistic grouping and ornamental treatment of details. It was only in a later period that a 
correct architectural tendency became apparent, which, however, was brought to a sudden 
termination by the Thirty Years War. 

The German Renaissance dates its commencement from the year 1525, and it lasted up 
to 1620, the oldest German Renaissance Monument, however, the Entrance Gateway of the 
Castle of Mahrisch-Trflbau, dates from the year 1492, as do also some other Doorways. 

In Germany as in Italy, three periods are distinguished, the Early, High, and Later 
Renaissance, or Rococo, the first dating from 1525 to 1570, and the second down to 1680.' 



Plate 235. 



Fig. 1. Column from Ensisheim (Lambert & Stahl, Motive der deutschen Architektur). 

„ 2. Hermes from the Armoury in Brunswick (Lambert & Stahl). 

„ 3. Wooden column from the Town Hall at Munden (Ortwein). The construction 
of this building was begun in 1603. 

„ 4. Cartouche from the pulpit in St. George's xhurch, Wismar (Ortwein). 

„ 5. Fountain column from Berne (Lambert & Stahl). 

„ 6. Capital from the fountain in the market-place at Berne (Lambert & Stahl). 

„ 7. Portal from the Royal Mews in Berlin. In the year 1665, the Royal Mews 
was burned, but afterwards rebuilt by Kurfiirst Friedrich Wilhelm, who purchased 
the house of Herr von Ribbeck which lay next to the Mews, and whose facade 
remained uninjured. The doorway here given is found in this facade (Ortwein.) 

„ 8. Wooden pillar from church in Cologne (Ortwein). 

„ 9. Plinth from the arcade of the church Buildings in the Castle at Baden- 
Baden (Ortwein). 



Plate 236. . 

Fig. 1. Window from transept in the cathedral at Ratisbon (Lambert & Stahl). 

., 2. From the Organ Gallery in St. George's church, Wismar (Ortwein). 

„ 3. Coat of Arms from the monument to Duke Johann in Gels (Ortwein). 

„ 4. Inner gateway of the castle at Wismar, built in the years 1553—1555 

(Lambert & Stahl). 

„ 5. Gable of a house in Heilbronn (Lambert & Stahl). 

„ 6. From an epitaph in St. George's church, Wismar (Ortwein). 

„ 7. Font in the Parish church, Gflstrow (Ortwein). 

„ 8. Balustrade of the pulpit in the Jakob church, Goslar (Ortwein). 



Plate 237. 

Fig. 1, and 2. Console brackets from the ceiling of the Prince's Hall In the Town 

Hall at Augsburg (Leybold, Rathaus von Augsburg). 
„ 2. Wall-paper in the Town Hall at J)anzig (Ortwein). 
„ 4. From the staircase -of ^he Town Hall at Bremen (Ortwein). 
,, 5. Finial from the Town Hall at Bremen (Ortwein). 
„ 6. Portion of wood ceiling from the Town Hall at GOrlitz (Ortwein). 



Plate 236. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



391 




392 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 237, 




Plate 238. 



GERMAN'RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



393 




394 GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 

Plate 238. 

(After Ortwein, Deutsche Renaissance.) 

Fig. 1, and 2. Chairs in the Historical Museum, Dresden. 
„ 3. Cabinet with inlaid worl<. This cabinet, which is in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum 
datfes from the year 1599, and is made .od seven woods, oak, sycamore, beech, and 
others each stained of a different colour. 

4. Consol from the Kaiser House in Hildesheim. 

5. Ornament from wall-panelling in the Civil Service Office in Luneburg. 

6. Panel from a stall in the Ludgeri church at Manster. 

7. Door of the tabernacle in the church of St, Gereon, Cologne. 

8. Panel from a screen in Hildesheim. 

9. Cake mould in Luneburg Museum. 



Plate 239. 

Fig. 1. Stove in the Prince's Hall of the Town Hall at Augsburg (Leybold). 

2. Stone jug from Cologne. The ornamentation is done in blue glaze .(Ortwein). 

3. and 6. Terra-cottas from the Castle in Schwerin (Ortwein). Originally inten- 
ded for the Furstenhof in Wismar. 

4. Stone jug in the Museum at Munich, from the beginning of the 17tb' century 
(Hirth). 

5. Tin jug, 17th century. In the Museum at Lubeck (Hirth). 
7. Chimneypiece in the Town Hall at Mfinden (Ortwein). 



Plate 240. 

Fig. 1. Mural painting in the Golden Hall of the Town Hall at Augsburg (Leybold). 

The Town Hall at Augsburg was begun in the year 1615, the architect beiqg the 
Municipal Architect Elias Holl (1573—1646). It was completed, all except the interior 
fittings, in 1620. These latter were, however, not carried out in accordance with 
HoU's designs, but from designs by different masters, the most renowned of whom 
were the painter Peter de Witt, called the Candid, the Jesuit Matthaus Rader, and 
the Augsburg painter Matthias Kager. 

„ 2. Painting on ceiling in the Knights Hall of Trausnitz Castle near Landsbut 
(Ortwein). These paintings date from the years 1578—1580, the building itself being 
originally constructed in Gothic, and later on changed to the Renaissance style. 

„ 3. Glass painting from the cupola of the chapel in the Royal Residence in 
Munich. 

„ 4. Book binding, 17th century, gilt and painted. In the Nuremberg Museum (Hirth). 

„ 5. Pilaster panel from Wertheim Castle (Ortwein). 



Plate 239. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



395 




396 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 240. 




Plate 241. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



397 




vaaa/\aaaaaaaaa;\aaaamaaaaaa^/vwvipaa/) 



398 GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 

Plate 241. 

Fig. 1, and 2. Bracket candle -sticks from the Upper Hall of the Town Hall at 

Augsburg (Leybold). 
„ 3. Silver spoon in the Luneburg Museum (Ortwein). 
„ 4. Key in the Munich Museum (Hirth). 
„ 5. Figure of a woman holding a candlestick in the Stertzing Town Hall, Tyrol. 

The figure, which represents Lucretia dying, is carved in wood, and tastefully 

painted and gilt. It dates from the 1st half of the 16th century (Hirth). 
„ 6. Chandelier in the church of St Mary at Zwickau (Ortwein). 
„ 7. Iron cloth -shearing comb with etched design (Hirth). Belongs to the Early 

Renaissance. 



Plate 242. 

Fig. 1. Hinge on door of the Town Hall at Augsburg (Leybold). 
„ 2. Lock on the door of the Prince's Hall of the. Town Hall at Augsburg 

(Leybold). 
„ 3. Door hinge from the principal doorway of the Town Hall at Augsburg 

(Leybold). 
„ 4. From the lock of a chest in the Munich Museum, iron plate carved and 

engraved (Hirth). 
„ 5. Finial from the Castle at Munden (Ortwein). 

„ 6, and 7. Wrought iron railings, 16th century. In the Salzburg Museum (Hirth). 
„ 8. Railing in the tower staircase, Castle Yard, Dresden (Ortwein). 
„ 9. Door knocker from Rostock (Ortwein). 



Plate 243. 

(After Hirth, Formenschatz.) 
Fig. 1. Hunting spear, 16th century. In the Imperial Collection in Vienna. 
„ 2, and 6. Ornament of a halbard, etched in iron, from the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury. In the Munich Museum. 
„ 3. Ornament by Peter FlStner (1549). In the Copper Engraving Cabinet, Munich. 
„ 4. Black and white drawing by Albrecht DOrer. Shows a cavalier an horse back 
in the triumphal procession of Emperor Maximilian. The original is in the Am- 
brose Collection in Vienna. 
„ 5. Bridle-bit from Scutters "Bit Book", Augsburg 1584. 



Plate 244. 

(After Hirth, Formenschatz). 
Fig. 1. Small book-cover of engraved silver plate with velvet ground. 
„ 2, 6, and 9. Sketches for gold ornaments. Black and white drawings in water 



colour from Hans Holbein in the British Museum. 



J 



Plate 242. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



399 




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P^2| 


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400 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 




Plate 244. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



401 








!aijs^'ia^]s 




SPELTZ, Styles o( Ormment. 



« 



402 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 245. 




Plate 246. GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



403 




2&* 



404 GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 

Fig. 3. Gentlewoman of the 16<h century, after a drawing by Hans Holbein. 

„ 4. Gold chain with enamel-work. Augsburg work of the 16^^ century. 

„ 5.. Jewel of enamelled gold, 17th century. 

„ 7, and 8. Samples of work of the goldsmith Jacob von der Heyden, from the 
year 1620. Taken from the book "Suite de dessins d'ornements pour bijoutiers 
meilleurs et ^mailleurs sur fond noir", published in Strasburg. 

„ 10, and 11. Samples of lace-work from the book "Neues Modellbuch" by Johann 
Sibmacher, Copper Engraver, who died in Nuremberg in the year 1611. 

„ 12. Ornament pendant by Paul Birckenhultz. 



Plate 245. 

(After Hirth, Formenschatz.) 
Fig. 1. Bronze clock with engraved and chased ornamentation, made by Benedict 

Ffirstenf elder at about the middle of the 17th century. 
„ 2. Hock glass, 17th century. In the National Museum, Munich. 
„ 3. Wedding goblet of gilt silver, 16th century. The large goblet is formed by the 

hooped farthingale, the small one is moveable round its own axis. The bridegroom 

was obliged to drink from the large goblet and empty it without spilling any out 

of the small one. The bride drank from the small goblet. 
„ 4. Silver spoon and fork, 16th century. In possession of the owner of the Possen 

Estate, Kurland. 
„ 5. Chalice by Wenzel Janitzer. 

„ 6. Silver knives and forks from Nflremberg (L'art pour tous). 
,, 7. Silver drinking-jug, strongly gilt, NQremburg work from the 16th or beginning of 

17th century. 



Plate 246. 

(After Hirth, Formenschatz.) 
Fig. 1. Carpet pattern, from an oil painting by George Pencz in the Royal Museum, Berlin. 

From the beginning of the 16th century. The colours, exclusive of the black outlines, 

are a dark and a light moss green. 
„ 2. Pattern of a gold brocade, from a picture by Roger van den Weyden "Das 

Christkind erscheint den drei heiligen KOnigen" — The Christ Child appearing to 

the three Kings — in the Royal Museum at Berlin. 
„ 3. Gold brocade on black velvet, from a picture of the Cologne School, in the 

Royal Picture Gallery, Munich. 
„ 4. Green velvet on a green silk ground, 16th century. In the National Museum, 

Munich. 
„ 5. Black velvet on gold brocade, from a picture by Dirk Bouts in the Royal Picture 

Gallery Munich. 
„ 6. Gold embroidery on black velvet, from the mantle worn by the Pfalzgraf Wil* 

helm beim Rheyn on his marriage with Renata von Lothringen, on the 22"^ February 

1568. In the National Museum, Munich. 



Plate 247. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



405 





3 :6 

rflfiporimirniitirir 
ipiifflffs.rtipiortra 

tmn^alttP(ntf.t)tt^ 




406 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 248. 




A 



Plate 249. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



407 




4QS C5ERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMmT. 

Plate 247. 

(After Hirth, Formenschatz.) 

Fi|^ 3, and 3. Initials by Lucas Kranach, 
„ 2, 4, and 5. Letters from Caligraphic Work of Paulo Franken, writing-master 

and arithmetician in Memmingen. From the year 1601. 
„. 6. The Hohenzollern Arms by Jost Amman, 
„ 7. Ornaments from the work Imperatorum Romanorum Imagines, published in 

Zurich in 1559 by Gessner, and drawn in all probability by Christoph Schweitzer. 
„ 8,9, 11, and 12. Written text from the album of Wolfgang Fugger, NOrem- 

berg, 1553. 
„ 10. Letters for embroidery, from the book: "Ein new getruckt model Buchli au! 

aussuchen und bartten wicken", 1529. 
„ 13. Initials of Lucas Kilian, engraver at Augsburg. 



Plate 248. 

(After Wilhelm Weimar, Monumentalschriften.) 

Fig. 1. Engraved Solnhofer stone slab, of the year 1636, formerly in the "Getreide- 
kasten zum leeren Beutel", Ratisbon, at present in the Municipal Museum in the 
same city. 

„ 2. Engraved Solnhofer stone slab, from the year 1592. In the Collection of the 
Historical Society of the Oberpfalz in Ratisbon. 



Swiss Renaissance Wood Buildings. 
Plate 249. 

(After E. Gladbach, Holzbauten der Schweiz.) 

Fig. 1. Leaf-table from Fllisur in the Engadlne, 1672. 

„ 2. Door of the hospital in Frutigen, Canton Berne. 

„ 3. Wall panelling in the drawing-room of the Baron von Reding-Biberegg in Schwyz, 

„ 4. View of the granary in Langnau, Canton Berne, dated 1519. 



Plate 250. 

(After E. Gladbach, Holzbauten der Schweiz.) 

Fig. 1. Panelled ceiling of the drawing-room of the Baron von Reding-Biberegg, Schwyz. 
(See also plate 249, Fig. 3.) 
„ 2. Detail from the same room. 
„ 3, 5, and 7. Carving from Glion in Canton Waadt. 
„ 4, and 6. Back of a child's chair in Rflti, Meiringen. 
„ 8. Inn table in Canton Schwyz. 



II 



Plate 250. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



409 




410 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Fig. 9. Corbel strut from Langnau, Canton Berne. 

10. Old House at Langnau. 

11. and 15. Sawn-out work from same. 

12. Back of chair from Canton Berne. 

13. Table from Rothenthums in Schwyz, 

14. Stool in Schwyz. 




Wood carving from the facade of Hutte's House in HOxter 

(Oftwein). 



Plate 251. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



411 




41t 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 
/Renaissance Ornament in Hungary. 



Plate 25L 

(After Dr. B^a Czobor und Emmerich von Szaley, die historischen Denkmaier Ungams.) 

fig. 1. Bishop's mitre of red pearl-worked embroidery, 15* century. In the Trea- 
sury of the Cathedral Church, GyOr. 

„ 2. Saddle of red velvet with gold embroidery, 17*^ century. 

„ 3. State armour of Stefan Bithory (1533-1586). In the Art Historical Museum 
in Vienna. 

„ 4. Cross worn by the Cardinal Archbishop Peter Pizmdny of Esztergom, 
16th century. 

„ 5. Cavalry broadsword, 16th century. 

„ 6. Richly ornamented partisan, 16th century. 

„ 7. Richly ornamented regal sword, 16th century. In the Royal Collection of Arms, 
Vienna. 

„ 8. Richly ornamented sword from the Siebenbflrger Museum. 
> „ 9. Tiara from Knisedole cloister, 15th century. 




Agraffe of gold and enamel, 17th century. 
(L'art pour tous.) 



Plate 252. 



DUTCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



413 







414 DUTCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Renaissance Ornament in the Netherlands. 



n Belgium, Renaissance Ornament did not develop to the same standard as Gothic 
Ornament. The earliest work of the Renaissance in Belgium is the palace of 
Margarete of Parma in Malines, built about the year 1520 by the French 
Architect Beauregard. The most renowned is, however, the Rathhaus, or Town 
Hall of Antwerp, built in the years 1561—1565 by Cornelius de Vriendt or 
Floris, a pupil of Giovanni da Bologna. The cities of Ghent, Ypres, Fumes, 
and others, possess also remarkable specimens of Town Halls in this style. 
The Renaissance appeared in Holland later than in Belgium, the most impor- 
tant buildings in Holland being also the Town Halls, that of the Hague 
(1564—1575), and Lcyden (1597— 1604). The most celebrated architects of 
this period were Hendrick de Kayzer (1567—1621), and his colleague, Corne- 
lius Dankerts (1561—1634), who succeeded in Holland in directing Art along 
Italian lines, while in Belgium the Renaissance degenerated much sooner. 
There developed, therefore, in Holland, a specific, Dutch Style which spread 
also through North Germany and Scandinavia. 

Door Handle jjj consequence of the epoch-making introduction of the modem system 

from Ghent ^j oil-painting by the brothers Hubert and Jean van Eyck, which rendered it 
(Ewerbeck). possible to give true reproductions of nature, so absolutely necessary for the 

development of Realism, painting developed in a most magnificent manner in the Netherlands. 

Having its beginnings in Flanders it grew to be the mling style and fashion. 



Plate 252. 

(After F. Ewerbeck und Neumeister, die Renaissance in Belgien und Holland.) 

Fig. 1. Glass painting of the year 1549. In the Museum at Middelburg. 

„ 2. Stone arm-chair from the year 1609. In the Museum at Briiges, originally in 
the church at Damme near Brtiges. 

„; 3. Console from a fire-place in the Town Hall at Venlo. 

„ 4. Column o! the pulpit in the cathedral at Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-duc). 

„ 5. Iron tee on a house in Zalt-Bommel. 

„ 6. Southern ornamental gable of the abattoir in Haarlem. This is the most' 
valuable monument of Renaissance Architecture in the Netherlands. It was completed 
1603, but the- name of the architect is unknown. i 

„ 7. Capital from a stall in the large church at Dortrecht. 



Plate 253. 



Fig. 1. Shaft ot column after Vries, 16th century (Libonis). 

„ 2. Cartouche from the atlas of Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp 1583 (Hirth. Formenschatz). 

„ 3. Brflges guipure lace in the Grunthuze Museum. 

„ 4. Cartouche from the atlas of Waghenaer, Amsterdam 1583 (Hirth). 






Plate 253. 



DUTCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



415 




416 



DUTCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 254. 




Plate 255. 



DUTCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



417 








5. 





SPELTZ, Styles of Ornaipent 



r3I 



418 



DUTCH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Fig. 5. Brussels lace. Point delBruxelles, "Drocher, foundation. From the Dutuit Collection. 
„ 6. Oak cabinet, 1 6th century. In the Cluny Museum (Bajot). 
„ 7. Table, 17th century. In the Cluny Museum (Bajot). 



Plate 254. 

(After Ewerbeck and Neumeister, Die Renaissance in Belgien und Holland.) 

Fig. 1. Balcony of the Town Hall at Furnes, 17th century. 

'„ 2. Wrought-iron door furniture, in the Haller Tor Museum, Brussels. 

„_ 3. Wrought-iron fire-dog, etc, in the Haller Tor Museum, Brussels. 

„ 4. Stalls in the Stadtor of Dortrecht. 



Plate 255. 

(After Ewerbeck and Neumeister, Die Renaissance in Belgien und Holland.) 

Fig. 1. Wooden table in the Town Hall at Oudenarde (L'art pour tous). 
2, 3, and 5. Glazed wall tiles of Delft. 
4. Gold medallion (L'art pour tous)» 

6. Gold pendant ornament (L'art pour tous). 

7. Delft plate (L'art pour tous). 

8. Brass fire dog (L'art pour tous). 




Table from the Salvator church in Brfiges (Ewerbeck). 



NORTHERN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



^1^ 




Ornament of the Northern Renaissance. 



N the Scandinavian Lands the Renaissance style of art did not become 
properly prevalent until the 16^^ century, being introduced into Denmark 
from the Netherlands, and into Sweden from the Hansa Cities which 
were also, in a like manner, subject to Netherland influences. It did 
not, however, develop in any of these countries into a characteristic 
style. The Early Renaissance in Sweden extends up to the year 
1630, and the Later Renaissance, which in consequence of the deeper 
study given by the artists, approached more the Italian forms of Art, 
from 1630 to 1720. 

P^^^^Js;^^ The Renaissance did not begin to make itself felt in Norway 
until the beginning of the 17th century. Considering the lively commer- 
cial intercourse with Holland which obtained at this period, it is easy 
to understand that Norwegian Woodwork Architecture, besides being 
subject to Swedish, German, and Danish influences, was also especially influenced by 
Dutch Renaissance motifs, motifs which the skilled Norwegian peasants knew well how 
to handle independently, and to transform, by grafting them on the ancient native forms 
peculiar to the country. ^^ 



Book Ornament 
(Dahlerup). 



Plate 256. 

(After Dr. John BOttiger, Hedvig Eleonoras Drottingholm.) 
Fig. 1. Door. 

„ 2. Ceiling in drawing-room. 
„ 3, and 4. Frieze of Chamber of state. 
„ 5. Chimney-piece in the lower Retainer's Hall. 
„ 6. Ceiling in the South Tower. 
„ 7. Pilaster from the upper Retainer's Hall. 



Plate 257, 

Fig. 1—7. Norwegian wood ornaments of the 17th century (Dietriclison und Munfhe 

Die Holzbaukunst Norwegens). 
„ 8. Bronze chandelier with console of the year 1668. 

„ 9. Fire-dog from Noergaard, Denmark, of the year 1588 (Dahlerup, Holm und 
Stork, Tegninger af aeldre nordisk Architektur). 




27* 



420 



NORTHERN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 256. 




i 



Plate 257. 



NORTHERN RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



421 




422 



SLAVONIC RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 




Slavonic Renaissance Ornament. 



Baptismal Font In 
the Family Chapel 
of the Firlej near 
the Parish church 
in Bejsce, 1600 
(Odrzywolsky). 



NTO Russia, and also into Poland, the Renaissance was introduced by 



Italian artists who had been invited into both countries. These 
artists, however, (were unable to resist subordinating themselves to 
the Oriental influences already prevalent especially in Russia, the 
result being the development of a native, national Style, whose prin- 
cipal characteristics were the Imperial Roof and the Ogee Arch. The 
wood Architecture was also brought by the Renaissance to a high 
state of perfection, to which result Scandinavian and Lower Saxon 
influences very probably also contributed. 

In Polish Art, where local influences were not so powerful, the 
evidences of Italian Renaissance influences are far more apparent 
than in Russia. 



Renaissance Ornament in Poland, 



Plate 258* 

(After Slawomir Odrzywolsky, Die Renaissance in Polen.) 

Fig. 1. Gold reliquary, 16th century, in the Treasury of Cracow cathedral. 
„ 2. Silver candle-stick from the Sigismund chapel in Cracow cathedral, dates 

from the year 1536. 
„ 3. Choir stalls in the King Stefan Bathory chapel, Cracow cathedral. In all 

probability the work of Santi Gucci. 
„ 4. Dutch-tile stove in the Castle of Podhorce. Contains the arms of the Rzewuski 

Krzwada Family, very probably Danzig work. 



i 



Plate 258. 



SLAVONIC RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



423 




424 



SLAVONIC RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



fig. 5, and 6. Turret crest over the Sigismund chapel, Cracow cathedral. The angels 
and the crown are cast in copper, the cross and ball of wrought copper, all are 
richly gilt 




Window of the Royal Castle in Cracow (Odrzywolsky). 



Plate 259. 



SLAVONIC RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



425 






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426 



SLAVONIC RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 260 




I 



(SLAVONIC RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



427 



Renaissance Ornament in Russia. 
Plate 259. 

Fig. 1, and 2. From a Croatian peasant-house in Progar near Semlin, Symrina 

(Uhde, Die Konstruktionen und die Kunstformen der Architektur). 
„ 3. Gable of a peasant's house in Fataroff, Russia (Uhde). 
„ 4. Window from the south side of the church at Tscherewkowo, Russia 

(Sonslow, Ancienne Architecture Russe). 
„ 5, 6, and 10. Door wood-carvings, 17"» century (Sireitschikoff). 
„ 7 to 9. Table and ornaments from the Nicolo Mocky church (Gagarin, Russische 

Ornamente). 

Plate 260. 

(Alter N. P. Sireitschikoff et D. K. Treneff, Ornements sur les monuments de I'ancien art Russe.) 

Fig. 1. Chased ornament from a chandelier, 17th century. 

„ 2, 3, and 5. Enamel ornaments, 17th century. 

„ 4. Painting from a holy picture, end of 16th century. 

„ 6. Painting from a holy picture, painted by Simon Ouchanoff in 1683. 

„ 7. Painting from a holy picture, painted by Ninite Pauloff in 1677. 

„ 8. Decorative design, of the year 1492. 

„ 9. Silver mounting from a holy picture, end of 16th century. 

,, 10. Wood-carving from a door, 16ih century. 







^^')fiV^,V > jo, 






Mitre of a Patriarch, 17 th century, in the Museum of the Kreml in Moscow, 
Shows marked Byzantine influence (L'art pour tous). 



428 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 




Ornament over the window in Winchester School. 

(After Belcher and Macartney, Later Renaissance Architecture in England. 



Renaissance Ornament in England. 




Initial, 17th century 
(Gotch). 



the Gothic style in England retained its vitality much later 
than in other countries, and in its last phase known as the 
Tudor Style, had already affected in Domestic Architecture 
the principal changes in plan and design which transformed 
the castle into the country mansion, the transitional period 
lasted for a much longer period. The first attempt to open 
the way for the introduction of the Renaissance in England 
was made by the Italian Pietro Torrigiano with the erection 
in the year 1519 of the beautiful monument to Henry VII. 
and his wife, and that to Margaret of Richmond, both in 
Westminster Abbey. The employment of the Renaissance 
in England was however for a long time confined to the enrichment of the principal entrance 
doorways of mansions. The artists Toto dell' Nunziata, Theodore Haveus and John of Padua 
also helped in bringing the new style into England. 

The real, characteristic English Renaissance did not begin to develop itself until the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558—1603) when it was known under the title of the Elizabethan 
Style, which was a transition style from the Tudor or Late Gothic to the Renaissance, similar 
to the transition in France of the style of Francis I. from the Gothic to the French Renaissance. 
The English style resembled the German and French Early Renaissance, in so far as it too, 
in a similar, way confined itself more to secular buildings, castles and country houses, than 
to ecclesiastical, while, on the other hand, the latter were of the very greatest importance 
to the Italian Renaissance. Even although the development of the Elizabethan Style was 
much influenced by Italian art, still it cannot be denied that it possesses a genuine, national 
character peculiar to itself. As Queen Elizabeth brought German and Flemish artists in the i 



I 



Plate 261, 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



429 




430 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



country for the building of the castles of the period, it is clear that German and Flemish 
influences had also their effect upon the English Style. The architect John Shute, and the 
designer de Vries of authory contributed much to the development of the Elizabethan Style. 

Under the reign of Elizabeth's successor, James I. (1603—1625), the Renaissance took 
on a still more classic form, owing to the more intimate and deeper study of classic architecture, 
to the removal of all Gothic reminiscences, and to the labours of the architect John Thorpe. 

The English Renaissance was rendered completely free of all Gothic elements by the 
two famous architects Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren, who may be considered as the 
founders of the pure Italian Style. Inigo Jones (1572—1652) studied in Italy, especially in 
Vicenza, under the personal supervision of Palladio, and when be returned to England after 
a second journey to Italy in the year 1612 he succeeded in introducing complete change in 
the architecture, and became the founder, in England of the pure classical School after 
Palladio. Sir Christopher Wren (1632—1723) was professor of astronomy and mathematics 
in Oxford, and, when London was almost destroyed by fire in the year 1666, designed a 
plan for its reconstruction which although it was not carried out led to his employment in 
the rebuilding of London. In consequence of his studies in Paris, there is more of French 
than Italian influence in Wren's work. At this period, when Vignola exercised great in- 
fluence in France, and Palladio in England, Wren attempted to unite both styles. His prin- 
cipal work is St. Paul's cathedral, London, which with his numerous other works, is now 
included in the Later Renaissance Style. 



Plate 261. 

Fig. 1. Detail of Tomb of Henry VII., Westminster Abbey (H. O. Cresswell in Archi- 
tectural Assoc. Sketch Book). 

2. Balustrade Audley, End, Essex (Richardson). 

3. Garden Porch, Coombe Abbey, (Richardson). 

4. Carved Baluster, Blickling Hall, Norfolk (Shaw). 

5. Detail of Balustrade, Audley End, Essex (Richardson). 

6. Ceiling of great chamber in an old ouse formerly in Gravel Lane, Honnds- 
ditch, London (Richardson). 



Plate 262. 

(After Gotch, Architecture of the Renaissance in England.) 

Fig. 1. Door of Dining-room in Gayton Manor House, Northamptonshire. 

„ 2. Top of Bench end in Leeds church, erected in the years 1631—1633. 

„ 3—5. Ceiling Decorations from the Manor House, South Wraxall, Wiltshire. 

„ 6. Staircase Clare College, Cambridge, erected after^the year 1635. 

,. 7. Balustrade to terrace, Claverton. 

„ 8. Chimney-piece in Bolsover Castle, Derbyshire, 17th century. 

„ 9. Gable of Rushton Hall, Northamptonshire, from the year 1636. 

„ 10. Balustrade to porch, Cold Ashton. 

„ 11. Gatewey in Garden wall, Stibbington Hall, Huntingdonshire, erected in 1625. 



Plate 262 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



431 




432 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 263. 




ii 



ENQUSH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 433 

Plate 263. 

(After Qotch, Architecture of the Renaissance in England.) 

Fig. 1. Panel from a pew in Leeds church. 
„ 2. Part of Arcade of screen in Leeds church. 
„ 3. Panel from a wood chimney-piece in Burton Agnes Hall, Yorkshire. Erected 

in 1610. 
„ 4. Carved wood string from the Neptune Inn, Ipswich, 1620. 
„ 5. Newel of Staircase, Aston Hall, Warwickshire. 
„ 6. Wood work from Astbury church. 
„ 7, and 8. Balustrade in the Library of Merton College, Oxford. 



Plate 264. 

Fig. 1—3. Carved wood strings from houses in fpswlch (Gotch). 
„ 4. Arch at end of terrace Bramshill House (Gotch). 
„ 5. Pillar and vaulting in Hall, Bolsover Castle, Derbyshire (Gotch). 
„ 6. Wood panelling over a fire-place in Hull, 1550 (The Builder). 
„ 7. Door to Library of SL John's College, Cambridge (Gotch). 
„ 8. Boss to vaulting in Porch at Bolsover Castle, Derbyshire (Gotch). 



Plate 265. 

(Gotch, Architecture of the Renaissance in England.) 

Fig. 1. Roof of the hall, Wollaton Hall, Nottinghamshire. 

2. Base to wood pilaster South Wraxhall Manor-House, Wiltshire. 

3. Balustrade from St Catherine's Court House, Somersetshire. 

4. Panel from font cover in the church of St Mary-the-less, Cambridge. 

5. Pew front Lanteglos church. 

6. Panelling from Burton Agnes Hall, Yorkshire. 



Plate 266. 

Fig. 1. Portion of Canopied Chair, Convocation House, Oxford (J. Gillespie in Archi- 
tectural Assoc. Sketch Book). 

„ 2. Carved Detail from Chimney-piece in old House formely In Lime Street, 
London (Spiers and Birch). 

„ 3. Carved baluster pier, Claverton, Somersetshire. 

„ 4. Staircase at Dorfold, Cheshire (Richardson). 

„ 5. Portion of Ceiling, Sexton's House, St. James's, Bristol (Richardson). 



SPELTZ. styles of Ornament 



434 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 264. 



^mmmsm mm^mms 




Plate 265. 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



435 




436 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 266. 




Plate 267. 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



437 




438 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 268. 




ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 439 

Plate 267. 

Fig. 1. Detail of Tomb, Westminster Abbey. 

„ 2. Terminal to Catepier, Claverton, Somersetsliire (Richardson). 

„ 3. Balustrade, witli Vase, Duke's House, Bradford-on-Avon (Riciiardson). 

„ 4. Carved Frame, Crewe Hall (Richardson). 

„ 5. Balustrade Audley End, Essex (Richardson). 

„ 6. Portion of Ceiling at Dorford, Cheshire (Richardson). 

„ 7. Detail from Crewe Hall (Richardson). 

„ 8. Detail from St Lawrence church, Kent 



Plate 268. 



Fig. 1. Toft plate. From the Bateman Collection (Jannicke). 

„ 2. Fulham pottery (Stoneware). From the Reynolds Collection (Jannicke). 

„ 3. Drinking-beaker. From the Mayer Collection (Jannicke). 

„ 4. Stoneware jug. In the Geological Museum, London. 

„ 5. Bed of Oliver Cromwell, carved In oak (Bajot, Encydop^die du meuble). 

„ 6. Red stoneware by Elers. South Kensington Museum (Jannicke). 



Plate 269. 

Fig. 1. Oak Cabinet at Wingfield Manor (Sanders, Carved Oak Woodwork). 

2. Chair 17th century (A, E. Chancellor, Examples of Old Furniture). 

3. Head of Oak cradle, nth century (Chancellor). 

4. Armchair from Hampton Court, 17th century (Chancellor). 

5. Looking-glass in Elizabethan style (Chancellor). 

6. Oak chest, 17th century (Sanders). 

7. Table and scholar^s seat from the Charterhouse, 17th century (Chancellor). 



Plate 270. 

Fig. 1. From a damask chair-cover at Knole Park, Kent. From the time of James I. 
(Owen Jones). 

M 2—4, and 13. Wood diapers, from the time of James I. (Owen Jones). 

M 5, and 11. Applique needlework, from the time of James I. (Owen Jones). 

,. 6. Portrait of Jane Seymour, wife of Henry VIII., by HoH)ein. In the Vienna 
I Gallery (Hirth). 



440 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 269. 




Plate 270. 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



441 




442 



ENGLISH RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Fig. 7, and 8. Needlework tapestry from a tomb in Westminster. From the time of 

Queen Elizabeth (Owen Jones). 
„ 9, and 12. Diapers from Burton Agnes, Yorkshire (Owen Jones). 
„ 10. Plaster diaper from an old house near Tottenham. From the time of Queen 

Elizabeth (Owen Jones). 




Renaissance Chair (Bajot). 



LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



The term Later Renaissance is the title given to the second phase of the 

Renaissance and is applied to those buildings which were erected subsequent to 

the attempt made by Sedio, Vignola, and Palladio, to formulate principles which 

should govern the employment of the Classic Orders. In the earlier work of 

Brunelleschi, Michelozzo and Alberti, the architectural design was ruled more or 

less by an adherence to those principles which would seem to have guided the 

Roman architects, ornament was only sparingly introduced, and then only in such 

features as in the capitals of columns and friezes which required more decorative 

treatment. The tendency, however, in other work and more especially in those 

which were entrusted to sculptors, who paid but little attention either to the 

structural design of the building, to its setting out or to the principles of the 

classic models which they tried to reproduce, was to overload . their structures 

with ornament. This would seem in the second half of the 16th century, to have 

led a reaction in art by the theorists, who attempted to formulate the tradition 

I of classic art on fixed principles and to establish rules for the employment of 

Ipurer architectural forms. This movement was probably influenced by the example 

set by Vitruvius, who in his manuscript, "de re aedificiatione", written about 

l25 B. C. laid down rules for the employment of the Orders of architecture. At 

all events it led to the publication of similar works, of which the first would 

lappear to have been by Seriio (1475—1582), who in 1542 published a work 

3n the Orders, followed by Vignola in 1563 and by Palladio in 1570. Vitruvius's 

manuscript, discovered about the middle of the 15th century, was accompanied 

^y illustrations which have never been found; to supplement this loss these 

talian authors mtroduced Orders of their own, based on the monuments of the 

I'irst three centuries of our era, instead of those of Greece, which Vitruvius had 

llescribed, as in his time the monuments of Imperial Rome had scarcely been 

pommenced. Vitruvius had described three Orders only, the Doric, Ionic and 

porinthian, to which he had added a primitive form of the Doric Order, which 

|ie called Tuscan. The Italians included that as a definite Order, and added a 

lifth, called the Composite Order. These publications henceforth constituted a copy 



444 



LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



bock which became a standard universally adopted throughout France, Spain, 
England, and Germany and led to what used to be called the Italian revival, 
but which is now generally known in England as the Later Renaissance, and in 
Germany as the Barocco or Barock; as this latter term is unknown in England, 
that of the Later Renaissance has been adhered to in this work. Although in 
France the earliest influence in the Louvre and at Fontainebleau was that which 
must be attributed to Serlio, in later times Vignola became the chief authority, 
notwithstanding the fact that one of the greatest architects of the French 
Renaissance, Philibert de I'Orme had published a similar standard work in 1567. 
In England Palladio was generally recognised as the chief authority, owing pro- 
bzbly to the influence of Lord Burlington, until Sir William Chambers in 1759 
brought out his work on "Civil Architecture", which has since been regarded as 
the chief standard. As on the whole the five orders of Vignola are looked 
upon as better authorities not only in France but in America, they have been 
here reproduced. 




The five Orders after Vignola.*) 



*) This numbers given in the drawing are millimetres on the supposition that the totali 
height Is a normal height of one metre, divided into 1000 millimetres. To find the dimen- 
sions In centimetres which correspond to this number simply multiply such with the height. 
For details see, "Speltz. SMulenformen der Jlgyptischen, griechischen and 
fOmlschen Baukunst". 






ITAUAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



445 




Later Renaissance Ornament 
in Italy. 



As with the Earlier Renaissance, the names of the 
architects were always associated with the buildings 
they designed, so that the individuality to which re- 
ference has already been made existed in all their 
works. The chief followers of this school were Do- 
minico Fontana (1543—1607) the architect of the lateral 
facade of St John Lateran, Scamozzi. (1552— 1616) 
who continued Sansovino's work along the South side 
of the Piazza de San Marco and published a work on 
the Orders in 1615, Carlo Mademo (1556— 1629), Ber- 
nini (1598—1680) the architect of the peristyles in front 
of St Peter's, Rome, Borromini (1599—1661 and Pietro 
da Cortona (1596—1699). 



Coat of Arms in the chorch 
Sainte Agnise by Borromini Rome, 

16th century. 



j Plate 271. 

I Fig. 1. Door in the entrance-hall of the Palazzo Cornaro della Ck grande in Venice 

(Gurlitt, Geschichte des Barockstils in Italien). 
„ 2. Corner pilaster-capital from the Palazzo Nonfinito in Florence, commenced 

by Briontolenti and continued by Scamozzi (Guriitt). 
„ 3. Canopy over an altar in Rome, 18th century (Raguenet). 
„ 4. Balcony support from the portal of the Palazzo Fenzi !n Florence, by 

Raffaele Curradi, of the year 1580 (Hirth). 
„ 5. Garden gate at Frascati near Rome (Raguenet). 
„ 6. Window finial of a palacr in Genoa in the Via Loncellini, W^cttitmy 

(Raguenet). 
„ 7. Gate pier from the Villa Lodovisi near Rome, 18th century (Raguenet). 



.446 



ITALIAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 271, 




Plate 272. 



ITALIAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT^ 



447 




448 



ITALIAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 273. 




L 



ITALIAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT, 



449 



Plate 272. 

(After Raguenet, Mat^riaux.) 

fig. 1. Balcony and door-head from St. Domenico Square in Nice, 18tt» century. 

2. Shield from the Palazzo Riccardi in Florence. 

3. Balustrade in the interior of the St. Martino Cloister in Napless, built by 
Fansaga. 

4. Stair balustrade from St Domenico and Sixto in Rome, built by Bernini. 

5. Door-knocker in Florence (L'art pour tous). 

6. Fountain in front of Brescia cathedral, 17th century. 



Plate 273. 

Fig. 1. Coat of arms from a palace in the Via Ponta Rossa in Florence. Marigno 

sculpture from the end of the 17th century (Hirth). 
„ 2, and 4. Lace work in the Mus6e des Arts d^coratif, Paris (L'art pour tous). 
„ 3. Faience Vase by Savona, from the Gasnault Collection, Paris (L'art pour tous). 
„ 5, and 6. Furniture from the Mansi Palace at Segromigno near Lucca fL'art 

pour tous). 



Plate 274. 

Fig. 1. Arm chair from .the Cloister of St Martino in Naples, in the Museum at 

Naples, 18th century (Raguenet). 
„ 2. Hanging lamp from Bologna, 17th century. Made of painted iron-plate, in the 

form of a 30 sided polygon. At present in the Arts and Crafts Museum in Berlin. 

(J. Lessing, Vorbilderhefte aus dem kgl. Kunstgewerbemuseum.) 
„ 3. Hanging lamp, beginning of the 18th century. Made of gilt iron. At present In 

the Arts and Crafts Museum -in Berlin (Lessing). 
„ 4. Cresting of a cupboard in the Parma Museum, 17th century (Raguenet). 
„ 5. State carriage, 18th century. In possession of Senator Davia in Bologna (Hirth). 
„ 6. From a bronze mantel-piece figure, 16th century. From Giovanni da Bologna 

SchooL At present in the National Museum in Florence (Hirth). 



SPELT Z. styles of Ornament 



139 



450 



ITALIAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT 



Plate 274. 




Plate 275. 



ITALIAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



451 




29* 



452 



ITALIAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 275. 

(Aifter L'art pour tous.) 

Fig. 1, 2, and 4. Venetian lace collars, 17th century. 
„ 3. Gold embroidery table cover, 17*^ century. 
„ 5. Embossed Genoese velvet, 17th century. 
,. 6. Genoese work, silk on gold ground, 17th century. 




Wheel of a State Carriage 

by Fillppe Passarini, bom in Rome, 1638 (Hirth). 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



453 



Later Renaissance Ornament in France. 

(Louis XIV. Style.) 




nder the influence of Debrosse (c. 1580 — 1641) and his pupil Le* 
mercier (1585—1634), the former the architect of the Luxem- 
bourg palace (1611—16) and the latter of the Sorbonne, a new 
development began at the commencement of the 17th century, 
to which the title of the Later Renaissance has been given. 
The germs of the movement may really be traced in the Louvre 
(where Pierre Lescot would seem to have been influenced 'by 
Serlio), but it took a more decided form in the Luxemoourg 
palace, and in the palace of Versailles and the Chateau of Mai- 
sons-sur-Seine by Francois Mansard (1599—1660). Then follow- 
ed Perrault the architect of the East facade of the Louvre 
which marks a return to classic principles, Lemaire (1670 to 
1745) the architect of the Hotel Soubise, Marot (1630—1679) who designed the Hotel de 
Noailles, and Jules Hardouin Mansard (1645—1708), the nephew of Francois Mansard, who 
may be said to have been the creator of the Louis XIV. style, a style better fitted for 
rich internal decoration than for the exterior of a mansion. 



Initial Louis XIV. (Petzen- 
dorfer, Schriftenatlas.) 



Plate 276. 

(After C^sar Daly, Motifs Historiques d'architecture et de sculpture d'omement) 

Fig. 1, and 2. Balcony and doorhead from the house No. 27 Rue St Andr6 des 
Arts, Paris. 
„ 3, and 5. Small consoles from Versailles. 
„ 4. Mask from the Place Venddme in Paris. 
„ 6. Balustrade from Versailles. 
„ 7. Console braclcet in Paris. 



Fig. 






Plate 277. 

(After C^sar Daly, Motifs Historiques d'architecture et de sculpture d'omement.) 

1. Side door of the church of St. Nicolas-du-Chardonnet, Paris. 

2. Door of the Hotel Beauvais, Rue St. Antoine No. 62, Paris. 



454 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 276. 




m^^W^^^^ 









Plate 277. 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



455 










456 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 278. 




FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 457 

Fig. 3. Balustrade parapet and dormer window Rue Si Ouillaume No. 22, Paris. 
„ 4. Attic window trom ttie Marble Court of the palace ol Versailles. 



Plate 278. 

Hg. 1, 2, and 3.- Console brackets from a hotel in the Rue St. Louis en Hie, No. 51, 
Paris (Daly). 

4. War trophy in the Park at Versailles by Francois Girardon, bom 1627 or 1630 
in Troyes. died 1715 in Paris (Hirth). 

5. Ornament in wrought-iron, by Hugues Brisville, Paris (Hirth). 

6. Door of a Confessional from the church of St. NicoIas-du-Chardonnet, Paris (Raguenet), 

7. and 8. Vases from the park at Versailles. Cast in Bronze by Claude Ballin 
(1615—1678) (Raguenet). 



Plate 279. 

Fig. 1. Handle of an vase, by Coyzevox, bom in Spain, but worked in Paris from 1640 

to 1720 (Hirth). 
„ 2. Acanthus of the later Renaissance (Raguenet). 
„ 3. Mural decoration, after Johann Berain, bora at St. Mihiel, Lorraine, in 1639, died 

in Paris, 1711. Taken from his work on omamant (Hirth). 
„ 4. Ceiling decoration, from an engraving by Daniel Marot, 1650—1712. Architect 

and Designer in Paris (Hirth). 



Plate 280. 

Fig. 1. Door-knocker from Bordeaux, Cours de rintendance No. 19, 18th century 

(Raguenet). 
„ 2, 3, and 5. Ornaments for rifle mountings, from an engraving by Jean Berain 

(Hirth). 
„ 4, 6, and 7. Locksmith's handiwork by Hugh Brisville, from an engraving by 

Jean Berain. Brisville was a locksmith in Paris about the year 1663 (Hirth). 



Plate 281. 

(After Hirth, Formenschatz.) 

Fig. 1. Mural decoration by Jean Berain. 
„ 2. Design for ceiling, from an engraving by Nicolas Loir, Painter and Engraver 

in Paris, 1624—1679. 
„ 3. Design for mural decoration by Gilles Marie Oppenort Period of the Regency. 
„ 4. Design for mural decoration by Daniel Marot 



458 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 279. 




Plate 280. 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



459 






MJK^^. 


^^^^?^^^^S^ 






^^^m 






^1^^^ 


^^m 








8k ^ 


^ Mfa^^J^^e^ 


y^ 


^^^ i 


^^^^M^^g|i\. 


^^^^^^^ 


Jl^^s. 



460 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Piate 281. 




Plate 282. 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



461 






462 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 283. 




FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 463 

Plate 282. 

Fig. 1. Door-knocker (L'art pour tous). 
„ 2. Reading-desk of wrought-iron, from the Le Secq Collection of the Tournelle 

(Champeaux). 
„ 3. Candelabrum of gilt wood« 17th century. From the Collection of the Duke de 

I la Tremouille (Champeaux). 

, 4. Console for a mantel-piece in chased, gilt bronze, from the period of the Regency. 
^ From the Collection of the Museum of Decorative Art, Paris (Champeaux). 

> 5. Sedan chair (Havard). 
I Plate 283. 

g. 1. Chest of drawers after Jean Berain (Hirth). 
„ 2. Bracket-candlestick from the palace of Versailles, probably after Berain (L'art 

pour tours). 
„ 3. Cupboard of ebony with copper open-work. Meuble de Boule from the 18th century 

(Bajot, Encyclop^die du Meuble). 
„ 4. Chair of carved wood in the Mobilier national, Paris (Champeaux, Portefeuille 
des Arts decoratifs). 



Plate 284. 

Fig. 1. Window mantle by Daniel Marot, Architect, Paris, 1650—1712 (Hirth). 

2. Canopy bed by the same artist (Hirth). 

3. Design of a Candelabrum by Gilles Maria Oppenort (Hirth). 

4. Console table, Jean Berain (Hirth). 

5. and 6. Spinet with double keyboard, 18th century (Bajot). 
7. Emblem by Gilles Maria Oppenort from the period of the Regency (Hir.th). 



Plate 285. 

j Fig. 1. Beaten and chased silver ewer, by Daniel Marot, from the year 1700 (Hirth). 
„ 2. Faience jar of the apothecary of the Duke of Orleans, beginning of 18th century. 

In the Gasnault Collection (Jannicke). 
„ 3. Faience dish from Moustiers. In the Gasnault Collection (JMnnicke). 
„ 4. Faience jug from Rouen (Jannicke). 
„ 5. Dish of beaten and chased silver, from a drawing in the Robert Colle Album 

in the Cabinet des Estampes, Paris (Havard). 



Plate 286, 



Fig. 1. Embossed velvet (Havard). 
„ . 2, and 3. Stuff patterns by Daniel Marot (Hirth). 
„ 4. Curtain by Daniel Marot (Hirth). 



464 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 284^ 




I 



Plate 285. 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



465 




SPELTZ, styles pf Ornament 



dO 



466 



FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 286. 




FRENCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



467 



5. Curtain with ornament appliqu6 (Champeaux). 

6. Carpet pattern, designed by Robert de Cotte for the Manufacture de la Savonnerie 
at the beginning of the 18th century. The drawing is now in the Cabinet des 
Estampes, of the National Library, Paris (Champeaux). 




Vase in the Park at Versailles (Daly). 



30- 



468 



GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Later Renaissance Ornament in Germany, Austria, 
and Switzerland. 




ne of the greatest enemies to the development of Art 
is War. As soon as the horrors of the Thirty Years 
War were to a certain extent overcome, Art began 
again to bestir itself in Germany. The Palladian Classic 
Style which ruled in Holland established itself in North 
and South Germany, on the Rhine, and in Austria. 
Dutch Classic was introduced into Germany by Johann 
Arnold Nering, who died in 1605, in his famous 
building the Berlin Armoury, whose architectural re- 
putation is only excelled by the work of his successor 
Andreas Schlflter. SchlUter, bom in Hamburg 1664, 
died in St. Petersburg 1714, is the real founder of! 
the Rococo style in Berlin. In Dresden, the foundation of the same was laid by George i 
Baehr, 1666—1738, in the church known as the Frauenkirche which was commenced im 
the year 1726, and by Matthaus Daniel Pdppelmann, 1662—173.5, in his building of the( 
Zwinger Palace. The Court church in the same city was built by Gaetano Chiaveri oi 
Rome, 1689—1770. 

The Later Renaissance dominated Catholic South Germany, where It was introduced 
by Gaspare Luccali, 1629—1680, in his building of the church called the Theatinerkirche 
in Munich. In Austria it was specially influenced by the architects Dientzenhofer, and their, 
pupil Johann Bernhard Fischer from Erlach, 1650—1723. But in consequence of the powerful 
position held by France at the period, the influence of the French Louis XIV style became 
felt in Austria also. 



Vase before the Bridge 
In Kuppenberg (Ohmann). 



Plate 287. 

Fig. 1. Carved wood door from the Armoury in Berlin, about the year 1700 (Comeliuj 

Gurlitt, Das Barock- und Rokoko-Ornament). 

„ 2, and 5. Bracket and cresting from Archiepiscopal Palace in Salzburg (Ohmann 

Barock). 
„ 3. Pilaster and entablature in the Imperial Belvedere in Vienna (Ohmann). 
, 4. Mask of a warrior from the Berlin Armoury. By Andreas SchlUter, 1662—171' 
(Hirth). 



Plate 287. 



GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMEN'i. 



469 




470 



GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 288. 




^1 



Plate 289. * GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



471 




472 



GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 290. 




GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 473 

Plate 288. 

(After Ohmann, Barock.) 

Fig. 1. Window of a dwelling-house in Stein on tlie Danube. 

2. Balcony in the Court Library in Vienna. 

3. Window-head from Wendish Seminary in Prague. 

4. Window and door of a dwelling-house in Prague. 

5. Wrought-iron candelabrum from Elsgrab, Austria. 

6. Window from a house in Krems on the Danube. 



Plate 289. 

Wrought iron grille in the Serviten church in Vienna (Dr. A. Ilg and Dr. Heinrich 
Kabdebo, Wiener Schmiedewerke des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts). 

2. Lock of the principal door in the church of St. Charles Borromeo in Prague 
(Ohmann). 

3. Fan-light fnom the church of St. Clementine in Prague (Ohmann). 

4. Wrought iron gate of the Guild-hall at Meise in ZQrich, from the W^ cen- 
tury (Oberhausli, Aufnahmen alter schweizerischer Kunstschmiedearbeiten). 

5. Hinge of door in the church of St. Charles Borromeo In Prague (Ohmann). 

6. Door handle of the same (Ohmann). 



Plate 290. 

Fig. 1. Grandfather's clock from the Klosterneuburg Monastery on the Danube 

(Ohmann). 
„ 2. Chandelier of wrought iron, 18th century. In the Arts and Crafts Museum in 
Berlin (Lessing). 
3. Reliquary from the church in Heiligenkreuz, Lower Austria' (Ohmann). 



Plate 291. 

(After Fr. Ohmann, Barock.) 

fig. 1, and 2. Gilt console tables from the Imperial Palace in Vienna. 

3. Armchair from the Emperor's room in the Klosterneuburg Monastery on 
the Danube. 

4. Stool in private collection. 

5. Brass lock mount in the Imperial Court Library in Vienna. 

6. Upper part of fire screen from the Emperor's Room in the Klosterneuburg 
Monastery on the Danube. 



474 



GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. piate 291. 




Plate 292. GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



475 




476 



GERMAN LATER' PiENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 293. 




GERMAN LATER. RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 477 



Plate 292. 

Fig, i_4, and 6. Goldsmith's work designed by Friedrich Jacob Morisson, Draughtsman 

and Goldsmith in Vienna and Augsburg, 1693—1697 (Hirth). 
„ 5. Silver gilt jug, the vfoik of the Augsburg goldsmith Johann Heinrich Mannlich, 

who died in 1718. In the Imperial Palace at Laxenburg (Dr. Albert Ilg, Sammlung 

kunstindustrieller GegenstUnde des AUerhOchsten Kaiserhauses). 
„ 7. Sword hilt. From the work "Neu inventi5se Degengefafi" by Georg Heumann, 

Cutler in Nuremberg, who died in 1691 (J. E. Wessely, Das Ornament und die 

Kunstindustrie). 
„ 8, and 10. Goldsmith's work from "Neues Groteskenwerk", engraved by L. Beyer 

(Wessely). 
„ 9. Plant ornament by J.. Honervogt, Draughtsman and Copper Engraver who lived 

towards the end of the 17th century (Wessely). 
„ 11. Door handle by J. C. Reiff, Copper Engraver in Nuremberg in the 18th century 

(Wessely).. 
„ 12. Goldsmith's work, acanthus leaf work in the form of a goat by Wolfgang Hie- 

ronymus v. Bemmel, Goldsmith, end of 17th century (Wessely). 



Plate 293. 

Fig. 1. Monstrance, end of 17th century. In the Cathedral Treasury in Limburg on the 
Lahn (Hirth). 
„ 2. Carved relief on door in the Rochus church, Vienna (Ohmann). 
„ 3. Church candlestick. In the Deanery church in Klattau (Ohmann). 
„ 4. Nautilus goblet, end of 17th century. In the Grunen GewOlbe in Dresden. (Hirth). 
„ 5. Carved mirror frame in the Glankirchen in Upper Austria. 



Plate 294. 

Fig. 1. Embroidered vestment in the Collection of Vaterlandischer Altertumer, Stuttgart 

(Dolmetsch). 
„ 2. Pattern of material dating from the end of the 17<h century. In the Pfalz 

Arts and Crafts Museum in Kaiserslautern (Hirth). 
., 3, and 5. Wrought-iron candlesticks, 1660—1680. In the Nuremberg Museum 

(Hirth). 
„ 4. Watch. In the Munich Museum. Nuremberg work, beginning of the 18th century 

(Hirth). 



478 



GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. Plate 294. 




Plate 295. 



GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



479 



m 




mmieiQestdin 
musmc tiimuli 

Xst 

oaum^T^ere 
e)^ aratiosus 

CatfiearaMs 

. . d'^cjueslvts 

^c(esui0lien}atcemHauois ^^^ 

^A?«, As^K^XJiVi 7\1A.0L:1 1 L,1V1 U. /AllllU IN 

ytTATISaiB-LXXI 








QBLIQATISS:COLLEGll/M.STRAUBI> 
QVOD MAGNA EX PARTE fl/N 

Tu Viator 

Defuncti tnanibus, crtern^e lalutis 
[n patria, precar 




480 



GERMAN LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 295. 

Fig. 1. Initial letter after Lucas Kilian (1627) (Petzendorfer). 
„ 2. Initial letter (Petzendorfer). 
„ 3. From an etched Solnliofer stone plate, in the "Getreidekasten zum leeren Beutel"' 

Regensburg, 1718 (Weimar). 
„ 4. Engraving on bronze by Franz Christoph von Rosenbach, f 1687. In Wurzburg 

cathedral (Weimar). 
„ 5. Etched on stone tomb of Thomas von Pirnitz, f 1691. In the Jesuist church 

ai Straubing (Weimar). 




Lantern in wrought iron 

(L'art pour tous) 



DUTCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



481 




Later Renaissance Ornament in the Netherlands. 



Initial from the 

Printing Works of 

J. Covens and C.Mor- 

tier, Amsterdam 

(Ysendyck) 



arly in the 17th century began the great Art Epoch calkd into existence 



by Peter Paul Rubens. This development favoured the introduction 
of the Later Renaissance Style into the Netherlands. Cardinal Granvella, 
who introduced Italian artists into Belgium, was most active, and 
succeeded in erecting a most important series of architectural con- 
structions. The Jesuits erected also a number of most magnificent 
buildings in the Rococo Style; in Holland, however, where rigid 
theology ruled, there was a tendency to more classical work, for 
which reason the former style never took root in the country. The 
chief exponent of the purer Italian style in HollaQ,d was Philip 
Vuyboons (1608—1675). 



Plate 296. 

(After Ysendyck, Art dans les Pays-Bas.) 

Fig. .1 Cartouche, c. 1639, engraved by Peter de Jode for the portrait of the Holland 

painter G. Flinck. 
„ 2. Wall-paper from a sample book of the factory in Mah'nes. In the Royal 

Antiquarian Museum, Brussels. 
„ 3—5. Carriage of the Duke of Ossuna used when entering Utrecht 1713 as 

Extraordinary Ambassador from Philip V: of Spain. From an engraving by 

Picart, Amsterdam 1714 



Plate 297. 

(After Ysendyck, Art dans les Pays-Bas.) 

Fig. 1. Lace from the 18<h century. Is called "Point de Buiche*', and is made with the 

spindle alone in one piece without any relief. 
„ 2. Arm-chair from the book by Crispin van den Passe, printed in Amsterdam in 

the year 1642 under the title of "Boutique Menuiserie" by M. W. Silvius, Antwerp. 
M 3. Chimney-piece. From the work "Chemin^es hollandaises" by G. de Gaendel, 

drawer, born in Middelburg. From the year 1730, published by Martin Gottfried 

Crosphius. 
.. 4. Wrought iron door knocker. 



SPELTZ. Styles of Ornament. 



31 



482 



DUTCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 296. 




Plate 297. 



DUTCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



483. 




3|« 



484 



DUTCH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT, 




DUTCH LATER RENAKSANCE ORNAMENT. 



485 



Plate 298. 

(After L'art pour tous.) 

Fig. 1—3. Sign o! the old Irin "A rEtrille" in the Market Place at Brflges, From 

the 17th. century. 
„ 4—8. Wall tiles of Delft from the Inn '*Le Diable au corps'* in Brussels. From 
the 17th century. 




Delft Faience goblet in the 
Collection Gasnault (Jaenicke). 



486 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. Plate 299. 







ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



487 



Later Renaissance Ornament in England. 




As alread> stated in the introduction tc. English Renaissance 
Ornament (page 429) the Later Renaissance, which used to be known 
as the pure Italian style, was introduced into England by Inigo Jones 
(1573—1652), The first building of importance erected in that style 
bemg the Banqueting House in Whitehall (1620). The style was further 
developed by Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723). Sir John Van- 
Initial Letter burj^h (1666 — 1726), Nicholas Hawksmoor (1666 - 1736), James Gibbs 
17th century (Belcher). (1674 - 1754), William Kent (1684-1742), G. Leoni (1686-1746). John 
James of Greenwich (? 1687—1746), Thomas Archer (? 1690—1743), 
Colin Campoell (? 1690—1734); George Dance (1695-1768). Henry Flitcroft (1697-1769), 
John Wood of Bath (1704—1754), Sir Robert Taylor (1714-1788). John Carr of York (172c- 
1807), James Paine (1725-1789), Sir William Chambers (1726-1796), Robert Adam (1728— 
1792), Henry Holland (1746-1806), James Wyatt (1746-1813) and John Nash (1752-1835). 



Plate 299, 



(From John Belcher and Mervyn E. Macartney, Later Renaissance Architecture 

in England.) 
Fig. 1. Capftal and cornice ot the Bastards' House, Blandford. 
„ 2 Details of stalls, Trinity Qpliege chapel, Cambridge. 
„ 3. Capftal and cornice of the "Red Lion", Blandford. 
„ -4. Details of windo\v. Town Hall, Blandford. 
„ 5 Gate pier, from a house in West Street, Chichester. 

6. Lead rainwater head from the Great Hall of Winchester College. 



Plate 300. 

I Fig. 1. Detail of overdoor in Carved oak and cedar, Clifford's Inn, London (Henr>' 

Thomson in "Building News"). 
„ 2 Detail of Entablature of Reredos, St. Stephen's, Walbrook, London (E. H. 

Sedding). 
„ 3. Detail of Pulpit Shaft, St. Stephen's, Walbrook (E. H. Sedding). 
„ 4. Detail of Altar Rail, St. Stephen's, Walbrook (E. H. Sedding). 
„ 5, and 6. Carved Panel, S. Margaret's church Lothbury, London (H. Inigo Triggs 

in Archl. Assoc. Sketch Book) 
, 7. Detail of chimney-piece, Clifford's Inn (John Barbour in "the Builder"). 
„ 8. Detail of Frieze, North Porch, St. Pauls Cathedral, London (R. W. Schultz 

in Archl. Assoc. Sketch Book). 
,. 9. Carved panel in Chancel screen St. James's church. Piccadilly, London, 

1683 (C. L. Gill in the Archl. Assoc Sketch Book). 



488 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. pjate 300. 




Plate 301. 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



489 




490 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 302. 




r- 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 491 

Plate 301. 

Fig. 1. Sundial from Wrest, Bedfordshire (Belcher and Macartney). 

2. Hexagonal revolving lectern in Pembroke College chapel, Cambridge (Belcher 

and Macartney). 
3—5, and 7. Details of stall Ends in St. Paul's Cathedral, London (George 

H. Birch, London churches of the 17th and 18^^ centuries). 
6. Carved open -worked wooden panel from St. Mary Abchurch, London 

(George H. Birch). 

8. Organ in St. Mary, Woolnoth, London (George H. Birch). 

9, and 10. Details of soffit of the Gallery of the Senate House, Cambridge 
(Belcher and Macartney). 



Plate 302. 

(From James Gibbs, A Book of Architecture 1728.) 

Fig. 1, and 3. Pedestals for busts. 

2. Cartouche in the pediment o1 St Martin's church, London. 

4, 6 and 7. Designs for Vases. 

5. Cartouche for monumental inscription. 

8. Pedestal of sundial. 

9. Cartouche for wall tomb. 



Plate 303. 

(From John Belcher and Mervyn E. Macartney, Later Renaissance Architecture 

in England.) 

Fig. 1. Wrought Iron gate, Fenton House, Hampstead. 

„ 2. Details of staircase from a house in the Close, Salisbury. 

„ 3. Clock of the Town Hall, Guildford. 

„ 4. Balusters of staircase from a house in Great Queen Street, London. 

,, 5. Chimney-piece in a house at Epsom, Surrey. 

„ 6. Section of panelling in the Chapel of Farnham Castle, Surrey. 

„ 7. Shield of arms over doorway in the same chapel. 



Plate 304. 



Fig. 1. Carved oak Desk, Pembroke college, Cambridge, 1665 (R. S. Dods in Archl. 

Assoc. Sketch Book). 
,, 2. Detail from chimney-piece, Norlhgate Club, Ipswich (Henry Tanner, jun.). 
„ 3. Upper portion of panelling Brewers Hall, London, c. 1670 (A. Stratton in 

Archl. Assoc. Sketch Book). 
,» 4. Terminal vase. North porch, St. Paul's cathedral, London (R. W. Schultz in 

Arch. Assoc. Sketch Book). 



492 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 303. 







Plate 304. 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



493 




494 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 305. 




Plate 306. 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



495 




496 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. Pfate 307. 




ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 497 

Fig. 5. Detail of wrought iron gate, Hampton Court Palace (Hugh P. G. Maule in 

ArchL Assoc. Sketch Book). 
„ 6. Side of Canopy of Pulpit, St. Stephen's, Walbrook, London (E. H. Sedding). 
„ 7. Side of bracket under doorway, Hampton Court Palace (P. J. Turner in ArchL 

Assoc. Sketch Book). 



Plate 305. 

Ig. 1. Wall cupboard in the Hall of the Haberdasher's Company, Gresham Street, London, 
1668 (Chancellor). 

2. Mahogany table, beginning of 18th century (Chancellor). 

3. China cabinet, middle of 18th century (Chancellor)^ 

4. Cushioned chair (Bajot). 

5. Vase of English porcelain, Chelsea. In the British Museum (Jannicke). 

6. Georgian settee of the time of Chippendale (Chancellor). 

7. Toilet chest of the time of Queen Anne (Chancellor). 



Plate 306. 

(From Bailey Scott Murphy, English and Scottish Wrought Ironwork.) 

Fig. 1, and 3. Wrought iron stair rail of the King's Great Staircase, Hampton-Court 

Palace. End of the 17th century. 
„ 2. Wrought iron Staircase in Caroline Park House, Granton NB. Erected by 

Viscount Tarbat in 1685. 
„ 4, and 8. Wrought iron Balusters in South Kensington Museum. 
„ 5, 6, 9, and 10. Details of the Staircase in Caroline Park House, Granton, 
„ 7. Wrought iron Staircase in Caroline Park House. 



Plate 307. 

(From Bailey Scott Murphy, English and Scottish Wrought Ironwork.) 

Fig. 1. Sign of the "Bell" Inn at Melksham, Wilts. 

2. Wrought iron bracket in South Kensington Museum. 

3. Leg of a console table in South Kensington Museum. 

4. Lamp bracket in Micklegate Hill House, York. 

5. Entrance gateway to a house in Abbey Street, Carlisle. 

6. Sign of the "White Hart" Inn at Gretton, Northants. 

7. Lamp holder at the "White Hart" Hotel Salisbury. 



SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament. 



498 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 308. 



"^^^^^^^^^ 



V JA MkM 



y X W - ^^ ^ ^ 




f p^yVU^^b^^ 



Plate 309. 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



499 




500 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 310. 




ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 501 

Plate 308. 

(From H. Inigo Triggs and Henry Tanner jun., Some Architectural Works of Inigo Jones.) 

Fig. 1. Details of upper order and cornice of the Banqueting House, Whitehall. 

Built by Inigo Jones in 1619—1622. 
„ 2, and 5. Details of window of the same. 
„ 3. Details of lower order and cornice of the ~same. 
„ 4. Detail of lower window in the same. 
„ 6. Carved frieze from chimney-piece in the Ambassador's Room, Knole Park, 

Kent. 



Plate 309. 

Fig. 1. Fire-place in the Salon at Forde Abbey, Dorset (Inigo Triggs and H. Tanner). 
„ 2. Rain water shoot in Courtyard of Wilton House (Inigo Triggs and H. Tanner). 
„ 3, and 7. Keystone in the church of St. Catherine Cree, Leadenhall Street, 

London (George H. Birch, London Churches of the 17th and IS^h centuries). 
,. 4, 5, and 6. Sections of mouldings from Wilton House (Inigo Triggs and H. Tanner). 



Plate 310. 

Fig 1. Door with balustrade at Coleshill House, Berkshire (Inigo Triggs and H. Tanner). 
„ 2, 3, and 5. Cornices to fig. 4. 

,, 4. The Spencer Monument in the church of St. Catherine Cree, Leadenhall 
Street, London (George H. Birch). 

6. Belvedere at Coleshill House (Inigo Triggs and H. Tanner), 

7. Door from Raynham Hall, Norfolk (Inigo Triggs and H. Tanner). 



V 



Plate 311. 

ig. 1. Detail of Iftternal Doorway (Henry Tanner). 

2, and 3. Ceiling at Kirby Hall Northants (Inigo Triggs and Henry Tanner). 

4. Ionic capital, St. Magnus church, London Bridge (E. H. Sedding in Archl. Assoc. 
Sketch Book). 

5. Carving in the Vestry, Chesterton church, Oxon, 

6. Font wiih cover, Christ's church Newgate Street, London (Birch's London 
Churches). 



502 



ENGLISH LATER RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 311, 





Border by Charles Eisen (Hirth). 




Letter after Laurent (Hirth). 



ococo is the term applied to the decadent forms 
of the Later Renaissance. The rivalry which 
existed in the l?*'^ century between the free 
style of Michael Angelo and that based on the 
principles laid down by Palladio and Vignola was continued into the IS**^ cen- 
tury until about the year 1715 with the more or less complete adoption of the 
former. This resulted in a development which held sway until about 1 760 and 
was known in France as the Louis XV. style, and in other countries as the 
Rococo, In this style the ornament is entirely seperated from constructional 
requirements and the lines run in free curves, symmetry being avoided. Conse- 
quently, as a rule, it is more generally employed for interiors and for decorative 
and industrial art. 

The style flourished in France for about thirty-five years. It was rarely 
employed in either Italy or the Netherlands, but remained in Germany and England 
up to the end of the \8^^ century. In the latter country its chief exponent was 
Chippendale whose name is generally attached to the style. Shortly, however, 



ROCOCO ORNAMENT, 



Plate 312. 




ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 505 

after its introduction a reaction took place in which classic work commenced 
again to predominate in the somewhat pedantic style of Louis XVI. This again 
became influenced by a new phase in which for the first time Greek art com- 
menced to show itself, resulting in the development of what later-on became 
generally known as the Empire Style. 



Rococo Forms. 



Plate 312. 

Fig. 1. After Thomas Chippendale (Gentleman and Cabinet makers Director). 

„ 2. After Meissonler (Raguenet). 

„ 3. After Moudon (Raguenet). 

„ 4. After Thomas Johnson. 

I „ 5. After Habermann. 

„ 6. After F. de Cuvllli6s (Raguenet). 

I „ 7. After Josef Klauber, Augsburg (Raguenet). 

I „ 8. From a clock in the Art Industrial Museum in Milan (Raguenet). 



506 



ITAUAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 313. 




TALIAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



507 



Rococo Ornament in Italy. 

Although the origin of the Rococo style is to be found in the works of Michael Angelo, 
Bernini, and Borromeo in Italy, it made very h'ttle progress so far as interiors are concerned, 
<ind in the place of Louis XV. and XVI. Ornament, the Italians adhered to their cold and 
Jormal classic style- 



Plate 313. 

Fig. 1. Richly carved frame, 18th century (Raguenet). 
„ 2. Console table in wood gilt (L'art pour tous). 
,, 3. Bracket candlestick of bronze gilt, 18th century. In the Arts and Crafts Museum 

in Milan (Raguenet). 
,, 4. Processional crucifix in the church of Pieve di Budrio, 18th century (Hirth). 




Ink-stand of gilt bronze (L'art pour tous). 



508 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 314. 




FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 509 

Rococo Ornament in France 

(Louis XV. Style). 

Plate 314. 

Fig. 1. Console bracket in the house No. 36, Rue Casette, Parts (Daly). 
„ 2, and 3. From the Fontaine de FAbbaye, Rue Childebert, Paris. View and 

vertical section (Daly). 
„ 4. Terminal vase In Vic-sur-C6re, Lorraine (Raguenet). 
„ 5. Gateway of the Porcelain Factory in Sevres (Daly). 



Plate 315. 

(After Champeaux, Portefeuille des arts decoratifs.) 

Fig. 1. Bracket clock, made of chased and gilt copper, belonging to A. M. Selig- 

mann, Paris. 
„ 2. Bracket candlestick from a drawing by Ren6 Michel Slootz in the Bibllo- 

th^que Natlonale, Paris. 
„ 3. Clock In case with chased bronze, by Duhamel. In the ' Collection of the 

Conservatoire National des arts et metiers, Paris. 
„ 4. Chimney back of cast Iron. From tinted drawing in Louis Fordrin's Style at 

beginning of the 18th century. 
„ 5. Candelabrum of chased and gilt silver. In the Winter Palace, St. Petersburg, 

probably French work of the 18th century. 



Plate 316. 

(After Hirth, Formenschatz.) 

Fig. 1. Scissors In case, by Meissonier. 
„ 2. Chandelier In the Grand Ducal Palace in Karlsruhe. French work from the 

beginning of the year 1740. Drawing by A. Stuchi. 
„ 3. Louis XV. vase (L'Art pour tous). 

„ 4. Head of stick In metal chased, by Meissonier. , 

„ 5. Silver table centre-piece, by Meissonier. 



Plate 317. 



Fig. 1. Commode In rosewood marquetry (Bajot, Encyclopedic du Meuble). 
„ 2. Chair with cane seat and back (Bajot). 
„ 3. Key, by Francois de Cuvilll^s p6re (Hirth). 

„ 4. Design for an ambassador's carriage by Vaneroe, sculptor in Paris. From a 
drawing in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (Champeaux). 



510 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 315. 




/^' 



Plate 316. 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



51 




512 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 317. 




Plate 318 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



513 




SPELTZ. Styles of Ornament 



514 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 319. 




^^■5)MyCM 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. ' 515 

Plate 318. 

Fig. 1. Leaf from a book on ornament by Juste Aurele Meissonier, born in Turin in 
1695, died at Paris 1750 (Hirth). 
„ 2. Mural decoration (Hirth). 
„ 3. Design for a throne for Louis XV. by Rene Michel Slootz. From a drawing 

in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (Champeaux). 
„ 4. Top of gold frame by Meissonier (Hirth). 
„ 5. Console table of carved and gilt wood, from the Regency (Bajot). 



Plate 319. 

Fig. 1, 2, and 7. Samples of embroidery from coloured drawings by Charles 
Germain de St. Aubin, 1721—1786, In the Bibliotheque de i'lnstilut National' 
(Champeaux). 
„ 3, 5, and 6. Letters by Laurent from a copybook by Schenau: "L'alphabet 
de I'amour, ou recueil de chiffres a I'usage des amants et des artists" Paris 1766 
(Hirth). 
„ 4. Monogram with ducal coronet, ascribed to St. Aubin (Champeaux). 



Plate 320. 

(After Champeaux. Portefeuille des arts decoratifs.) 

Fig. 1. Back of sofa from a coloured drawing by Francois Peyrotte. In the Berard 

Collection. 
.„ 2. Under mantle after a drawing by St. Aubin. 
„ 3. Arm-chair of wood gilt the seat and back of Beauvais tapestry. 
„ 4. Chair covering of embroidered silk, from the end of the reign of Louis XV. 



Plate 321. 

(After Roger-Miles, Comment discerner les styles.) 

Fig. 1, 4, 5, and 6. Embroideries of court dress. 
,» 2, 3, 7, 8, and 9. Ornaments. 
„ 10. Sleigh carved in wood gilt. 
„ 11, and 12. Spoon and fork by Thomas Germain, Goldsmith in Paris. 



Plate 322. 

Fig. 1. Design for interior decoration by Meissonier. 



X{* 



516 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 320. 









^^ •n.^.v'. ^-^H^ -^^^^ ^Iv:.^:^ :^;''Vri 










^te 



I Plate 321 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



517 




518 



FRENCH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 322. 




GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 5ig 



Rococo Ornament in Germany 
and Austria. 

From the year 1725 onwards the Rococo held sway in South Germany with more 
strongly marked peculiarities than in France, being more fantastic and more varied in form but 
not, however, so elegant as the French Rococo. The first architects of this style were : 
Johann. Balthazar Neumann (1678—1753), and Francois de Cuvilli^s pere (1678—1768) in 
South Germany, and Georg Wenzel von Knobelsdorff (1607— 175^), architect of Frederick 
he Great, and Carl von Gontard (1738-1802) in Berlin. 



Plate 323. 

The Royal Castle in Dresden. 

(After Carl Schmidt and Schildbach, der KOnigliche Zwinger m Dresden.) 

This structure was begun by Daniel Mathaus POppelmann in the year 1711, but upon 

completion of the south front in 1722, had to be postponed for want of funds This building 

is without doubt the most debased of the Rococo period, but it evinces a creative fancy 

whose equal it would be difficult to find. 

Fig. 1. Corner cartouche in the south front of the wall pavilion. 

„ 2. Pilaster decoration of the wall pavilron. 

„ 3. Figure supports from the arch gallery. 

„ 4. Acanthus spray on the wall pavilion. 



Plate 324. 

(After P. Halm, Ornament und Motive des Rokokostiles.) 

Fig. 1. City arms on the Town Hall at Bamberg by Meister Bonaventura Mutschell, 1750. 
2, and 3. Details from the pulpit of St. Michaels church in Bamberg, of the 
year 1750. 

4. Garden figure from the Cardinal's Palace of Seehof near Bamberg, of the 
year 1730. 

5. Coat of arms on tomb in Bamberg, of the year 1770. 

6. Wrought iron cresting of a gate in Wflrzburg Castle. 



Plate 325. 



Fig. 1. Arm-chair of German work (Champeaux). 
„ 2. Carved mirror frame (Champeaux). 
„ 3. Frame of fire screen (Champeaux). 



520 



GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 323. 




Plate 324. 



GERAIAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



521 




522 



GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 325. 




GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 523 

Fig. 4. Balcony of carved wood, middle oM8th century. In George Hirth's Collection. 
5. Box by Joh. Leonard WOst, Engraver and Goldsmith in Augsburg in the year 1730 

(Wessely). 



Plate 326. 

Design for Interior decoration by habermann. 



Plate 327. 

Fig. 1. Pulpit in the church at Naumburg (Raguenet). 

„ 2, and 3. Shoe-buckle by Jeremias Wachsmuth, Painter and Engraver, born in Augs- 
burg in 1712, died 1779 (Wessely). 

„ 4, and 6. Sword hilt by the same (Wessely). 

„ 5. Handle of a key after Gottfried Forschter, Mastersmith in Brunn about the year 
1750 (Wessely). 

„ 7. Stove from the Castle of Bruchsal by Albert Stucki (Hirth). 

„ 8. Rosette from a ceiling in the Castle of Bruchsal by Albert Stucki (Hirth). 



Plate 328. 



Fig. 1—5, and 7. Meissener porcelain (Dresden Ciuna) (Champeaux). 
„ 6. Meissener (Dresden) Vase from J. Double's Collection (Jannicke). 
„ 8. Meissener plate from the year 1730 (Havard). 



Plate 329. 

(After Dr. Albert Ilg, Sammlung kunstindustrieller Gegenstande des AUerhOchsten Kaiserhauses.) 

Fig. 1—5. Articles belonging to the Empress Maria Theresa. These consisted 
originally of 53 articles in beaten gold for the toilet and breakfast table and were 
manufactured by the sculptor and goldsmith Anton Mathias Joseph Domanek, bom 
in Vienna 1713, died 1779. 

„ 6, and 7. Gold boxes, presented by the Empress Maria Theresa to Duke Charles of 
Lorraine. After having been in the possession of Prince Kaunitz and later on of 
various private people these boxes were bought for the Crown Treasury by 
Francis II. They are the work of the Court Jeweller Franz Mack, bom in Tyrol 
1730, died 1805, the portraits are from the artist Antonio Bencini, who became 
Court Painter in 1753. 

„ 8. Grotesque figures, appear to have been the work of the Dresden Goldsmith 
I Melchior Dinglinger, died 1731. The bodies and legs are made of large pearls. 

„ 9. Sugar-tongs, after Martin Engelbrecht, Engraver, died 1756 (Wessely). 



524 



GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 326. 




Plate 327. 



GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



525 




526 



GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 328. 




Plate 329. 



GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



527 




528 



GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 330. 




GERMAN ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



529 



Plate 330. 

(Village Rococo in Upper Bavaria.) 

Fig. 1. Window in Durchholzen near Walchsee (Otto Aufleger» Bauemhauser aus 
Oberbayem). 

2. Top o! wardrobe from the Aiblinger District, dating from the year 1765 (Zell, 
BauernmObel). 

3. Side of a chest of drawers in Rottach near Tegemsee (Franz Zell, Bauern- 
mObel aus dem Bayrischen Hochland). 

4. Cupboard from the Grafing District, from the year 1770 (Zell). 

5. Chest from Rinning near Ebersberg, from the year 1756 (Zell). 




Lady's Shoe (Hefner- Alteneck)» 



SPELTZ, styles of Ornament. 



34 



530 



ENGLISH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 331. 




ENGLISH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 53I 



> Rococo Ornament in England 

(Chippendale Style). 

In the 18th century Art in England was influenced more by Italy than by France- and 
consequently the Rococo Style did not take much hold in the country. 



Plate 331. 

(From Chippendale, Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Director, 1762.) 

1. Ribband-back chair. 

2. Oval glass frame. 

3. Design for a chair. 

4. „ for a frame. 

5. „ for a chimney-piece. 

6. 7, and 8. Schemes for frets. 



Plate 332. 



1. Mahogany bookcase of Chippendale period (Chancellor). 

2. Design for a bed, by Chippendale. 

3. Chair of the Chippendale period (Chancellor). 

4. Design for lantern, by Chippendale. 

5. Chair with cabriole legs of the Chippendale period (Chancellor). 



Plate 333. 

(From Chippendale, Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Director, 1762.) 

1. Cabinet designed by Chippendale. 

2. Mouldings of a Cabinet designed, by Chippendale. 

3. Design for cabinet, by Chippendale. 

4. „ for brass handle. 

5. „ for brass escutcheon. 

6. and 7, 12, and 13. Glass doors. 

8, and 11. Design for lamp stands, by Chippendale. 

9. Design for Pedestal, by Chippendale. 

10. , for upperpart of chimney-piece, by Chippendale. 



532 



ENGLISH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



Plate 332. 




Plate 333. 



ENGUSH ROCOCO ORNAMENT. 



533 




COLONIAL STYLE ORNAMENT 
IN THE UNITED STATES. 



It is evident that the Art of a new country like the United States must bei 
in most intimate connection with the style of Art which predominates in the^ 
original country of the artist. This is the reason why Styles of almost all the 
European States were originally represented in America. After a time, however,* 
all these different styles became united with one another forming themselves intO' 
the so-called Colonial Style. The buildings erected in America from 1725 tO' 
1775 correspond somewhat to the Queen Anne and Georgian Styles in England, 
a typical example of the symmetrical construction of this epoch being Craigie 
House, Cambridge which dates from the year 1775. Churches and Meeting 
Houses were constructed after examples by Sir Christopher Wren. The best 
country houses were those found in Virginia and Maryland, while in Florida and 
California, on the other hand, the Spanish Renaissance style predominated. 

From the declaration of Independence onwards, the Style in America became 
of a more monumental description but, after the fall of Napoleon, all the various 
historical styles in fashion in Europe were also included. 

Notwithstanding the European reminiscences which they contain, the artistic 
creations of the 18**^ century in the United States possess undoubtedly certain 
characteristic national traits of their own. 



« 



Plate 334. 



AMERICAN COLONIAL STYLE ORNAMENT. 



535 



iiitf 



C.-^J > X «^ t=> Y <1 ^ V*d O 




mmmmmmmmmi 



536 



AMERICAN COLONIAL STYLE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 335. 




Fig- 


1. 


»» 


2. 


,j 


3. 


»» 


4. 


,, 


5. 




6. 



AMERICAN COLONIAL STYLE ORNAMENT. 537 

Plate 334. 

(After Goforth and Max Aulay, Details of American Colonial Style.) 

Mantel piece from Upsal Mansion in Qermantown. 

Bookcase door. 

Medallion from principal cornice of a gateway in Philadelphia. 

Mantel piece from Wisterhouse in Germantown. 

Baluster from Fisher Mansion in Germantown. 

Mantel piece of wrought iron from Hamilton Mansion^ 

7, and 8. Doorways in Philadelphia. 

8. Base of column illustrated in fig. 8. 



Plate 335. 

(After Goforth and Mac Aulay, Details of American Colonial Style.) 

1. Gate pier. 

2. and 5. Mantel pieces from Philadelphia. 

3. Dor head in Main Corridor of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, of the 
year 1729. 

4. Vase from the same Hall. 

6. From a doorway in Philadelphia. 

7, and 8. Details of a frame in the Independence Hall in Philadelphia. 
9. Side of the Corridor of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, 1729. 



Plate 336. 

1. Sideboard (Alvan Croker Nye, Colonial Furniture). 

2. Chest of drawers (Nye). 

3. Hall clock from Hudson (Nye). 

4. Arm-chair from Brewton House in Charleston (A.Crane and E. E. Soderholtz). 

5. Bureau (Ware, The Georgian Period). 

6. Chair from the rooms of the American Society in Worcester (Nye). 

7. Oak chest (Ware, The Georgian Period). 



Plate 337. 

1, and 2. Windows of Entrance Hall in Arnold Mansion, Mount Pleasant (Goforth 
and Mac Aulay). 

3, Hepplewhite chair (Nye). 

4, and 6. Sofa (Nye). 

5, and 7. Backs of chairs (Nye). 

8. Sofa (Nye). 

9. Door in Arnold Mansion, Mount Pleasant, 1761 (Goforth and Mac Auley). 

10. Chair in the rooms of the Connecticut Historical Spciety, Hartford (Nye). 

11. Chair in Brewton House, Charleston (Crane and Soderholtz). 



538 



AMERICAN COLONIAL STYLE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 336. 




Plate 337 



AMERICAN COLONIAL STYLE ORNAMENT 



530 




540 



AMERICAN COLONIAL STYLE ORNAMENT. 



Plate 338. 




i 



Plate 339. 



AMERICAN COLONIAL STYLE ORNAMENT. 



541 




HALL. CORNICE 



COOR TRIM 



^ite^ s^ ^ g ^iS 



UpaSHiliKKI^^ 




Measured by Claude Fayette Bragdon 92 



542 AMERICAN COLONIAL STYLE ORNAMENT. 

Plate 338. 

(After Edward A. Crane, and E. E. Soderholtz, Examples of Colonial Architecture 
In South Carolina and Georgia.) 

Fig. 1. Mantel piece in Corn House in Charleston, from the year 1790. 

„ 2 Iron gate from S. Michael's Churchyard in Charleston. 

„ 3. Ceiling in Gordon House, Savannah, Georgia, built in 1800. 

,, 4. Stair balusters in Brewton House in Charleston, built in 1760. 



Plate 339. 

(After William Rotch Ware, The Georgian Period.) 
Mantel pieces from the Pincre House, Salem, Mass. 




Door (Qpforth and Mac Auley). 




Frontispiece by Carlo Lasinlo, draughtsman and engraver, 1789 (Hirth). 



544 



18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



The Classical Revival of the 18*^ century. 

The. excavations in Herculaneum and Pompeii commenced in 1738, but at 
first very slowly proceeded with, resulted in discoveries which stirred up the 
interest in ancient classic art and brought new life to it. This was accentuated 
by the publication of Piranesi's engravings in Italy and in England by those of 
Wood on the ruins of Palmyra aud Baalbek (1757 — 59) and by Robert Adam 
on the palace of Spalato in 1764. These two latter revealed the existence of 
the remains of Imperial Rome, other than those in the Eternal City, and led to 
a further revival of classic art not so much in Italy as in foreign countries, and 
more especially in England where the works were published. Accustomed only 
to the copybooks of the Italian theorists, the architects found a new field and 
although the buildings discovered belonged to a decadent period, they were at 
all events purer in style and much more magnificent than the phases of the 
Later Renaissance and the Rococo. In England under the direction of Robert 
and James Adam and of Sir William Chambers, the new revival superseded that 
which is generally known as the Queen Anne Style, the quiet and unpretentious 
architecture of the commencement of the 18^** century. In France it influenced 
the architecture and industrial art during the reign of Louis XVI. creating a style 
to which that monarch's name Is attached and this style introduced then into 
Germany, led to what is known as the Zopfstil period of which the Palace at 
Potsdam, sometimes called the German Versailles, which was built in 1763—69, 
by the architect Carl von Gothard (1738—1802) is the best exponent. Of this 
style the examples from Freising and SchOnbrunn (plate 352), show a return to 
classic forms differing widely from the Rococo style which existed in the first 
half of the 18**» century throughout Germany and the Netherlands. 




I 



Fan in the Carnavalet Museum, Paris. Made ai the dealJi of Mirabeau (L'art pour tous) 



i 



ITALIAN 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 545 



18** century Ornament in Italy, 

Although the Rococo style originated in Italy, the tendency in that country was towards 
the further development of the Later Renaissance, which in the Palace at Caserta (1752—70) 
by VanviteUi (1700—78) was reduced to its lowest ebb as it would be difficult to find a more 
monotonous design than that immense structure. In the decoration of their interiors, and in 
furniture, however, owing to the genius of Piranesi (1704 — 84) and followed by Simonetti 
(1715—85), Piermarini (1734—1808) and Guiseppe Soli (1745—1822), a classic revival took 
place, not altogether ^^owever without some rococo influence as may be noticed in the mantel- 
piece on plate 340. 



Plate 340, 



Mural decoration from the work "Diverse maniere d'adornare i cammini'* by 
Giovanni Battista, Piranesi. architect draughtsman and etcher. 



Plate 341. 

Fig. 1. Table by Guiseppe Soli, architect and painter. From the work "Ornamentale 

EntwUrfe fur Mdbel im Stile Louis' XVI." (Hirth). 
„ 2. Panel from a ceiling by Albertolli (Schoy, L'art de I'^poque Louis XVI.). 
„ 3. Bracket candlestick by Albertolli (Schoy). 

,. 4. Design for wall decoration with table and clock, by Piranesi (Hirth). 
„ 5. Chest of drawers by Soli (Hirth). 



Plate 342. 

(Designs by Giocondo Albertolli after Schoy, L'art de I'^poque Louis XVL) 

Fig. 1. Ceiling in the palace of Prince Belgioso d'Este in Milan. 

2. Corner ornament of the same. 

.. 3. Candlestick. 

4. Interior decoration. 

5: Study for centrepiece. 



iPELTZ. Styles of Ornament 35 



546 



ITALIAN 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 340. 




Plate 341. 



ITALIAN 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



547 




35* 



548 



ITALIAN 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 342. 




FRENCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT 549 

I8*h century Ornament in France, 

(Louis XVI. Style.) 
The princfpal supporters and patrons of this style, amongst others, were Constant 
d'Yvri, and Jacques Germain Soufflot. The art 0! the cabinet maker flourished in a specially 
unexpected manner under this style, as did also the Goldsmith's art and porcelain manufacture. 



Plate 343. 

(After C6sar Daly,. Motifs historiques d'architecture ^t de sculpture.) 
Fig. 1, and 2. Keystone o! an entrance porch in Paris^ 
„ 3, 4, and 7. Console brackets in Paris. 

„ 5, and 6. Detail of part of the facade of the Palais Royal, Paris; towards the 
garden. 

Plate 344. 

(After Cdsar Daly, Motifs historiques.) 
Fig. 1. Over door of an hotel in the Rue de Francs-Bourgeois No. 10, Paris. 
,, 2. Decorated door of an hotel, Rue de Varenne No. 89, Paris. 
„ 3. Part of door of a house, Route de Chatillon No. 17, Paris. 
„ 4. Entrance door in the Hotel des Monnaies, Paris. 
„ 5. Door crest from Paris. 



Plate 345. 

(After C^sar Daly, Motifs historiques.) 
Fig. 1. Mantel piece from a country house in Blanquefort, Gironde. 
„ 2. Drawing-room decoration of an hotel in the Rue St. Charles, Bordeaux. 



Plate 346, 

F(g. 1. Balcony in the Rue Royale, Versailles (Daly). 

„ 2. Balcony from Paris (Daly). 

„ 3. Door and frame in wrought steel from Palais de Justice, Paris (Daly). 

„ 4. Vase from an engravhig by Lalonde, draughtsman and designer in Paris (Hirlh). 

„ 5. Pommel of stick by the same (Hirth). 

„ 6. Candlestick by J. F. Forty, brass-founder and chaser in Paris, 1775—1790 (Hirth). 



Plate 347. 

Fig. 1. Sofa of painted wood covered with embroidered silk (Bajot). 

„ 2. Small table of mahogany with gilt chased, copper mountings (Bajot). 

„ 3. Cabinet (Havard). 

,, 4. Tripod of bronze gilt (Havard). 

„ 5. Design for drawing-room decoration, made for the Marquis de Sillery after 
a drawing by Rousseau de la Rottiere. Ip the South Kensington Museum (Champcaux). 

,, 6. Design for chased door lock, by Lalonde (Hirth). 



550 



FRENCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 




Plate 344. 



FRENCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



551 




552 



FRENCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 345. 




Plate 346. 



FRENCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 




FRENCH 181" CENTURY ORNAMENT. 




Plate 348. 



FRENCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



555 




556 



FRENCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 349 




Plate 350. 



FRENCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



557 




558 



FRENCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Figj. 



Fig, 



Plate 348. 

Fire screen of embroidered silk in a frame made of carved and gilt wood i Bajot) 

Console table in wood gilt (B^iot). 

Salon decoration of the Hotel il*Hallwill, in carved wood. Dmwn by Archive 

Ledoux (Champeaux). 

Hanging lamp (L'art pour tous). 

Chair, showing transition to the Empire Style (L'art pour tous). 

Chased door bolt by Lalonde (Hirth). 

Bronze door mantle (Champeaux). 



Plate 349. 

(After Schoy, Art Louis XVI.) 
1, and 2. Stand and table by Jean Francois de Neuf forge. 
3, 4, 9, and 10. Doors by Antoine Joseph Rouvo. 

5. and 12. Arm chair and sofa by Bouch^ Le Jeune. 

6, and 7. Furniture feet by Neufforge. 
8. Mirror frame by P. Ranson. 

11. Candelabrum by Neufforge. 



Fig- 



Plate 350. 

Window Valence of embroidered silk in the Musee des Arts decoratifs (Champeaux) 
Driving saddle of leather with bronze gilt ornaments (Hirth). 

and 4. Knife handle and lid of box after Lalonde (Hirth). 

and 6. Dress of embroidered silk (Champeaux). 

and 8. Aigrettes from the work "Nouveau recueil de parages et joalirerie'*, 
Paris 1764, by Poujet fils, engraver and goldsmith in Paris. 




Monogram in precious stones, by Ranson (Schoy). 



GERMAN 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 559 

IS*** century Ornament in the Netherlands. 
Plate 351. 

(Designs for precious stones by L. van der Cruycen, after Schoy, L'art Louis XVI.) 

Fig. 1. Designs for corsage. 
„ 2, and 7. Brooches. 
„ 3. Necklace. 

„ 4, and 6. Ear-rings. ^ 

5, and 8. Pendants. 



18*** century Ornament in Germany. 

(Zopfstil Ornament) 

About the year 1771 the Rococo style in Germany gave way before the newly awakened 
Classicism, this result being very probably due to Italian and French influences. 



Plate 352. 

(After Moritz Heider, Louis XVI. und Empire.) 

Fig. 1. Detail of part of a dwelling-house in Freising, Vienna. 

„ 2. Entrance gate In the Gloriette in SchOnbrunn. 

„ 3. Panel from the same. 

„ 4. Vase from SchOnbrunn Parle 

5. Door of a house in the Freundgasse, Vienna. 



Plate 353. 

(After Moritz Heider, Louis XVI. und Empire.) 

Fig. 1, 2, and 3. Pulpit in the Lichtental church Vienna, Rossau. In wood painted 

and partly gilt. 
„ 4. Hanging lantern in Palace Schwarzenberg, Vienna. 
„ 5. Lamp from the Wieden Freihaus, Schleifmfihlengasse, Vienna. 
„ 6. Lamp in the upper Augarten Strasse, Vienna. 
„ 7. Stove in the Primate's Palace, Pressburg, of glazed tcna-cotta, partly gUt. 



560 



DUTCH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 351. 




Plate 352. 



GERMAN 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 

rrr 



561 




SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament. 



36 



562 



GERMAN 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 353. 




GERMAN 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 

Plate 354. 



563 



Pig. 1. Mantel piece !n the castle at Mannheim (Luthmer. InnenrHume etc. im Louis XVI. 
und Empirestil). 

12. Bracket candlestick of carved wood, from the Rein Monastery hi Steiermark 
(Helder). 
8—6. Window grating and balconies in Vienna (Heider). 
I " 




Clock (Heider). 



564 



GERMAN 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT, 



Plate. 354. 




I 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 555 



18^** century Ornament in England. 

(The Adam style.) 



la accordance with the conservative character of the English people the Palladian style 
which was worked out and developed by many eminent architects in public buildings, was 
adhered to up. to the third quarter of the 18th century, and the Louis XVL style did not take 
any root in England. The principal founder of the classical revival was the architect Robert Adam 
(1723—1792) and his brother James. The former was a most prolific designer not only of 
architectural works but of furniture and decoration, so that he is virtually the creator of a new 
«tyle known by his name, to which, after a Greek and a Gothic revival, there is now a 
tendency to return. Although as a rule, the work of Adam was inspired by Roman art and 
his designs for ceilings show how closely he had studied the stucco decoration in the tombs 
at Rome and in Hadrian's villa atTivoli; there are. occasions when he displays considerable 
acquaintance with Greek art as in Plate 357, representing work in Sion House, built 1761—64, 
which suggests that he must have had access to Stuart's drawings which were not published 
till 1769 by the Dilettanti Society. 



After designs by R. and J, Adam, 
Plate 355. 

(Doric Order after Robert Adam.) 

Fig. 1, and 2. Entrance hall to Shelburne House In Berkeley Square. 
„ 3. Door frame in same. 
„ 4. Dado from same. 

Plate 356. 

(Ionic Order after Robert Adam.) 

I Fig. 1, and 2. From front of Shelburne House, Berkeley Square. 
3. Pilaster from Lord Mansfield's Villa at Kenwood. 



Plate 357. 

(Ionic Order after Robert Adam.) 

Fig. 1. From the attic storey over the entrance hall of Sion House, residence of 

the Duke of Northumberland. 
„ 2, 3^ and 6. Column and entablature at Sion House. 
„ 4, and 5. Door way of the same. 



Plate 358. 



Fig. 1—3, 5, and 6. Details from the entrance gateway at Sion House. 
» 4. Frieze from Luton House, country seat of the Earl of Bute. 



966 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 355. 



iiiiiliWiiiJilillliiililMiiiiiililiii^^ 



innnnnmiiwiniTTP mfinfinmrim mnnniwfF 



c5*?^»^^C>w''IrfaB^cWy-0*<y '*'!/'* oJ-'i*x5i4 cWilMJi 



ILfLfL/LfLrLyiJXfLfLrLlMJLJLfLJLJULOJ 



w.»>iMyMwm»mTO»m»p^^ 




1. ^ 



^VAWAWA^s^A^^U^JgM^^VAJ^^Wf^iLlkrr 



^ 



miivi m iiiiMa^ 




uijijLjiAJiJij LnjijijLnjLnjixnxu 





msfmmmmsmsmm 




^ ^ 




^^^a^ 




ri 



Plate 356. 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



567 



r •;: 



1 



LnjirLTLrjiTLrLrLrLrLrLfLrLrLfULfLrLfLrL 



> 




568 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 357. 



fUSMMSM 



jununu 




I 



lAJLTLA/LAAAJU ^| 




rMmMjtiyiiiLmiti.AAafe>' liMMM ^ 



fLyuuLmjLUiujLMJ 




 mmm 






I 



milmmmmmm 



&I 



Plate 358. 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



569 



mn9>^m.mMmMmmmmiikmifaw!mmfi 



f^ifirj^L/i JlTJ i_f TJiJ f 



^M«?L^'^l'S^:l«SlS§E^^ 




\MMMk 






mMmimil^^ 



m'LiLf ji ri H ^1 r r 'ffrrr 



570 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 359. 




mmmmmmmmMmmitmi 




Uii'> tiidU ai*ULUJ.i£U^d)L^XUi 



ULfLrLfLfLfLTLfU 



iilimilllii^wiiliiiiiiti 



miMmm^mMMML, 




Plate 360. 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



571 




#llli^fe^Mi^:t5l|&^«iS- 



lnwiiniiii'Miiiiimmiinimv.W/ y i i ^ i v ' iim i vjY 







572 


ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 




Plate 361. 


e 


m If 


# 


1 






^avjkJSu 


fiUk/A/AittLJ 


v^ 








d^^^^^Mx 






I 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 573 

Plate 359. 

Fig. 1. Capital from the first storey of the staircase in Luton House. 
„ 2, and 3. Corinthian Order by Robert Adam. 



Plate 360. 

(After The Decorative Works of Robert and James Adam.) 

1. Moulding round the bas-reliefs in the hall of Sion House. 

2, 3, 8, and 9. Decoration of the attic window in the entrance Hall, Sion House. 

4. and 7. Greek Order in the dining-room of the house of Sir Watkins Williams 

Wynn, St. Jameses Square. 

5. Vase on the porter's lodge, Sion House. 

6. Decoration of the plinth of the large niche In the hall of Sion House. 



Plate 361. 

(After The Decorative Works of Robert and James Adam.) 

Fig. 1, and 2. Design of the Order for Carlton House. 
„ 3. Decorative vase in Sion House. 
4, and 5. Mantel piece at Sion House. 



Plate 362. 

; (After The Decorative Works of Robert and James Adam.) 

Fig. 1, and 4. Trophies in Sion House. 

2, 3, and 5. Frame work of window in the entrance-hall, Sion House. 



Plate 363. 

(After The Decorative Works of Robert and James Adam.) 

JFig. 1 . Mantel piece in St. James's Palace. 
„ 2, and 3. Organ in the house of Sir Watkins Williams Wynn. 



Plate 364. 

(After The Decorative Works of Robert and James Adam.) 

Fig. 1. Ceiling of the entrance-hall In Sion House. 

„ 2. Ceiling of the dining-room of the house of Sir Watkins Williams Wymi. 

,. 3. Ceiling in Sion House. 

„ 4. Ceiling of the music-room In the house of Sir Watkins Williams Wynn. 



574 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 362. 



^jiXh'miym.iw/y'ssjm/j^mLm/.. 




Plate 363. 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



575 




576 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 364, 




Plate 365. 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



577 











SPELTZ, Styles of Orniraetit. 



37 



578 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 366. 




ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 579 

Plate 365. 

(After The Decorative Works of Robert and James Adam.) 

Fig. 1» and 2. Plan and elevation of design for table centre-piece. 
„ 3. Design for frame and Royal coat of arms. 



Plate 366. 

(After The Decorative Works of Robert and James Adam.) 

Fig. 1. Ceiling of a room, called the 'Japanned Room** in the Queen's House, 

from a design by Adam. 
„ 2. Bridge in the Park of Sion House. 



Plate 367. 

(After The Decorative Works of Robert and James Adam.) 

Fig. 1. Sedan chair, from a design by Adam, prepared for the King. 

„ 2. Console table with mirror over, 

„ 3. Window mantle. 

„ 4. Grate in brass and steel, in Library of Luton, 1764. 



Plate 368. 

Fig. 1. Tripod and vase for candles (Adam). 
„ 2. Pier glass (Adam). 
„ 3. Door knocker from the house of Sir Watkins Williams Wynn, St. James's 

Square (Adam). 
„ 4, and 5. Sugar bowl and coffee-pot of the year 1770 (Champeaux). 



Plate 369. 



I Fig. 1, and 2. Piano in wood of various colours, made in London for the Empress 
of Russia (Adam). 
„ 3. Design for a panel by Adam. 
„ 4. Window mantle (Adam). 
„ 5. Top of chest of drawers in the palace of the Countess of Derby (Adam). 



Furniture made from designs by Thomas Sheraton, 
(After Sheraton, Cabinet maker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book, 1791—93.) 

Plate 370. 

Fig. 1. Buffet or Sideboard. 
„ 2. Toilet table. 
„ 3. Fire-screen. 



580 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 367. 




Plate 368. 



ENOUSH 18i" CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



581 




582 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 369. 





Plate 370. ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 

X 




584 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 371. 




ENQUSH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 585 



Fig. 4. Inlaid table top. 

„ 5. Acanthus ornament 

„ 6. Arm chair. 

,, 7. Sofa, 



Plate 371. 



Fig. 1. Panel decoration. 
„ 2—5. Details of furniture. 
„ 6, and 9. Window mantles. 
„ 7. Head of doorway. 
„ 8. Frieze in bas-relief. 



Plate 372, 



Fig. 1—3. Designs for Chair backs. 

„ 4. Center for a Pier table to be painted or executed in Inlay. 
„ 5. Design for a Secretarire and Bookcase. 
„ 6. Design for a Cabinet 



Furniture made from designs by A, Hepplewhife. 
(After Hepplewhite, The Cabinet maker and Upholsterer's Guide, 1789—94.) 

Plate 373. 

Fig. 1. Canopy bed. 

2. Writing table with cupboard over. 

3. Chair. 

4. Terminal vase. 
5—9, 11—17. Cornices for furniture. 

10. Glass door of cupboard. 



Work prepared from various designs. 
Plate 374. 

Fig. 1. Design for ceiling by Pergolesi. 

2. Mantel piece by G. Richardson. 

3. and 6. Panels by Pergolesi. 

4. Mantel piece with mirror by William Thomas. 

5. Emblem by Pergolesi. 
7. Ceiling by G. Richardson. 



586 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 372. 




Plate 373. 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



587 




588 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 374. 




Plate 375. 



ENGLISH I8TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



589 




590 



ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



Plate 376. 




ENGLISH 18TH CENTURY ORNAMENT. 



591 



Plate 375. 

(After Bailey Scott Murphy, English and Scottish Wrought Ironwork.) 

Fig. 1. Wrought-iron gate in screen to Dining Hall, Queen's College, Cambridge, 
round which in the year 1734 the wood work in the prevailing Renaissance style 
was carried out. 
„ 2. Fan-light of a gateway in All Soul's College, Oxford, the work of Hawksmoor. 



English 18^^ Century Pottery. 
Plate 376. 

(After Examples of Early English Pottery by John Eliot Hodgkin aiid Edith Hodgkin.) 

Fig. 1. Plate. Cock Pit Hill of the year 1734. Black enamel with bronze-coloured flowers. 

„ 2. Plate, of the same origin^ Brown glazing with yellow decorations, of the year 1749. 

„ 3. Drinking cup with handles. Sgraffito ware, inscribed 1764. 

„ 4. Jug, Sgraffito, inscribed 1779. 

„ 5. Drinking cup with handles from Jackfield, 1760, with gold ornamentations. 

„ 6, and 7. Plates. Delft porcelain, made in England, 1740. 

„ 8. Plate, Staffordshire delft, about 1718. 

., 9. Plate, Lambeth delft, inscribed 1742. 




Design for a bracket candlestick by Adam. 



592 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 




Frieze in mural painting (Percier et Fontaine). 



Empire Ornament in France. 

In the last quarter of the 18th century, Greek art commenced to exert its influence on^ 
architecture and the industrial arts, and its development by Percier and Fontaine in Paris for i 
Napoleon I., resulted in that phase which is generally known as the style of the Empire.', 
Although unable to supersede entirely the traditional crafts of the day, such as is found in i 
the Louis XV. and XVI. Styles, it created a demand for decoration of a better character, , 
and pure architectural forms were introduced in the place of the Rococo scroll-work thusi 
the Greek Palmette and Acanthus, the egg and tongue, the guilloche and other decorative " 
details came again into fashion and extended to furniture and other accessories, including 
also interior work and metal mounts. 



Work made from designs by C. Percier and P. F. L Fontaine. 



Plate 377. 

(After Percier et Fontaine, Recueil de Decorations int^rieures.) 

Fig. 1. Capital and entablature. 

„ 2. Soffit of cornice. ^jj 

„ 3. Base of Pilaster. *| 

„ 4. Wall decoration from the cabinet of King Joseph of Spain, made in Paris 
from designs by Percier and Fontaine, and fixed in the Palace at Aranjuez. 



plate 377. 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 



593 



^mmmvm'i<^ii!?'AWAfj:*!^m'.<vu^\m9Am9jm-^9j.v^ 




SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament. 



38 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 



Plate 378.1 



£Hll 



lMi»-Wr»»»«TlW«TIT>|— ■- •«l=■ 



-*^^-^^^"-*^'^-«-»^^— »— -"-'-I 







Plate 379. 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 



595 




596 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 



~1 




1 


UlU — :m \ 




EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 597 

Plate 378. 

Fig. 1. Ceiling painting in a studio at Paris. 



Plate 379. 



Fig. 1. Pier in the Venus Museum in the Louvre, Paris. 
„ 2. Tribune from the hall of the Marshalls in the Tuileries, Paris. 



Plate 380. 



Fig. 1. Mantel piece in the Louvre, Paris. 
„ 2, and 3. Mural paintings. 
,. 4. Book cabinet, made in Paris for Amsterdam. 



Plate 381 



Fig. 1. Branched candlestick, Paris. 

„ 2. Soup tureen, made in Paris. 

„ 3. Candelabrum, made in Paris. 

„ 4. Bed stead and canopy, Paris. 



Plate 382. 

jFig. 1. Throne of Napoleon I. In the Tuileries, now destroyed. 



Plate 383. 



fig. 1. Writing bureau, made in Paris. 

,, 2, and 3. Table, made in Paris for St. Petersburg. 

„ 4. Table, made in Paris for Count S. in St. Petersburg. 

„ 5. Arm-chair, made in Paris for St. Petersburg. 



Plate 384. 



ig. 1—6, 8—13. Furniture momtings (Recueil des Dessins d'omements d'architedire 

de la Manufacture de Josepli Bennot k Sarrebourg et Paris). 
, 7. Furniture mounting (L'art pour tous). 
,. 14. Upper part of a chest of drawers (L'art pour tous). 



598 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 



Plate 381 




Plate 382. 




600 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 



Plate 3S3 




Plate 384. 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 



601 







602 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 



Plate 385. 




EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 

Plate 385. 



603 



■ig. 1, 5, 8, 11—13. Furniture mountings (Bennot). 

„ 2. Mirror from a drawing by P. P. Prudlion, in the Industrial Art Museum, Beriin. 

„ 3.^ Stand (Beauvalet). 

„ 4. Sevres Vase in Grand Trianon, after a photograph. 

„ 6, and 7. Silver cradle of the Duke of Bordeaux (L'art pour tous). 

, 9, and 10. Chairs of the Directory period (L'art pour tous). 




Bureau, made in Paris (Percier et Fontaine). 



604 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCE. 



Plate 386 




EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN FRANCa 



605 



On the fall of the Empire, the same style continued but was much inferior both hi 
character and execution. The n^ogrec movement of 1840—60 led to more refinement in 
design, which after the Franco-German war tended towards a revival of the Louis XIV. 
and XV. Style. 



Plate 386. 

Fig. 1. Work table, of the year 1820 (Bajot). 

2. Screen in Mahogany, with gilt mountings (Bajot). 

3. Arm-chair of the year 1820 (Bajot). 

4. Console table, 1820 (Bajot). 

5. Chair, 1830 (Bajot). 

6. Key-hole plate (L'art pour tous). 

7. Pilaster from the Caf6 Gaulois, Rue Poissonl&re No. 46, Paris (thlollet et 
H. Roux). 




Key^bolc plate (L'art pour tows), 



g06  EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN ITALY. 



Empire Ornament in Italy. 

Although the Empire Style was taken up in Italy later than in France, the country of 
its chief development on the other hand, it lasted much longer, being retained until tlie 
thirties, when Guiseppe Borsato became its chief exponent, his work being however, inferior 
to that of Percier and Fontaine. 



Plate 387. 



Fig. 1, and 5. Sofa and arm-chair in Directory Style by Guiseppe Soli (Hirth). 
„ 2. Sofa for the Milan cathedral, by Giocondo Albertolli (Schoy). 
„ 3. Stool in Directory Style, by Albertolli (Hirth). 
„ 4. Perfuming censer in Empire Style, by Albertolli, Milan 1790 (Hirth). 



Work done from designs by Borsato. 



(After Percier et Fontaine, Recueil de Decorations interieures avec des supplements 

par Joseph Borsato.) 

^ Plate 388. 

Fig. 1. Internal decoration in the Imperial Palace in Venice. 
„ 2. Ceiling painting, carried out in the year 1817 for Count Albriggl in Venice. 
„ 3. Mantel piece in the Royal Imperial Palace in Venice. 



Plate 387. 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN ITALY. 



607 



p B^fykU'-y^^^^x^ < i^-^ij Mjikmk-l ,^ 



mmmm 






V""I1IH'^^ 




608 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN ITALY. 



Plate 388. 




Plate 389. 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN. ITALY. 



609 




SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament 



610 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN ITALY. 

Plate 389. 



Fig. 1. Internal decoration of reception room in the Royal Palace in Venice, of the^ 
year 1834. 




Silver chandelier in the church of S. Giorgio de Greci, Venice 

(Percier et Fontaine). 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 51 



Empire Ornament in Germany. 

Towards the close of the 18th century, at a time when the imitation of everythmg 
French grew to be a passion amongst the Germans, the German Rococo and Louis XVI. Styles 
which were imitations of the French gave way to imitation's of the new French Empire Style. 
This change was furthermore favoured by the political conditions which ruled at the period. 



Plate 390. 

(After Moritz Heider, Louis XVI. und Empire.) 

Fig. 1. Parquetry floor in Schwarzenberg Palace, Vienna. 

„ 2. Stove recess in the same palace. 

„ 3. Stove from the Monastery of Rein in Steiermarlc. 

^ 4. Ceiling decoration in Modena Palace, Herrengasse, Vienna. 



Plate 391. 

Fig. 1. Sofa in the collection of Duke Karl Theodor of Bavaria in Munich (Luthmer, 
Bflrgerliche MObel). 
„ 2, 4, and 6. Sofa, stool, and small table in the appartments of the Grand Duchess 

of Modena, Munich (Luthmer). 
„ 3, and 7. Bed and cupboard in possession of the art dealer Hugo Helbing, 

Munich (Luthmer). 
„ 5. Piano in mahogany with gilt bronze, made by M. Seiffert in Vienna, 1790 
(Bajot). 



Plate 392. 



Fig. 1. Mirror and console table in the Bavarian National Museum, Munich (Luthmer, 

Bflrgerliche MObel). 
„ 2. End of a sofa in the Royal Residence in Stuttgart (Luthmer). 
„ 3. Toilet looking-glass from the collection of Duke Karl Theodor of Bavaria 

(Luthmer, Bflrgerliche MObel). 
„ 4. Mantel piece in the Munich Museum (Luthmer, Bflrgerliche MObel). 



612 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



Plate 390. 




Plate 391. 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



613 




614 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



Plate 392. 




Plate 393. 



EMPIRE ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



615/ 




^•^^ 


^F 


>^<3%>«* 


^^ 








1 


^ 


1 


^ 


(^ 















616 



KMPIRE ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



Plate 393. 

Fig. 1. Branch bracket candlestick in bronze gilt (Heider). 
„ 2. Toilet looking-glass with bronze frame (Heider). 

,. 3. Bronze vase with the Dance of the Hours, in the Royal Residence in Stutt- 
gart (Luthmer). 
„ 4. Branch candlestick of bronze gilt (Heider). 
„ 5. and 6. Balcony railings in Wickenburger Gasse, Vienna (Heider). 




Window of the Husar Inn in Garmlsch, 
Upper Bavaria 

(Zell, BauernhMuser im bayerischdn Hochland). 



BIEDERMEIER ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



617 



Biedermeief or old fashioned Style in Germany. 

As a reaction from the elaborate ornament of the Louis XVI. and Empire styles, a new 
style arose in which work of the greatest simplicity and commonplace form the chief characte- 
ristics, this is known in Germany as the Biedermeier, or old fashioned style. 

Plate 394. 

Fig. 1. Bed of Hungarian oak, of the year 1830 (Joseph Folnesics, InnenrSume und Haus- 

rat der Empire- und Biedermeierzeit). 
„ 2, and Z. Chairs from Vienna, 1820—30 (Folnesics). • 
„ 4. Table from the castle of Obernzenn in Unterfranken (Luthmer). 
„ 5. Sofa in possession of Baron von POllnitz, Bamberg (Luthmer). 
„ 6. and 7. Sewing-tables from Vienna, 1820 folnesics). 




Silk stuff. After the original in the Industrial Museum, Berlin. 



618 



BIEDERMEIER ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



Plate 394. 




Plate 395. 



BIEDERMEIER ORNAMENT IN GERMANV 



619 




xjmjjj:uj:oMi: 



620 



NEOGREC ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



Plate 396. 




SHJLLLLUiJLUlUJUULtLLLUJL .UUUJLUiJ.'JLULaJxU-JajLAjJiJi^' 







NEQGREC ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 

Plate 395. 



621 



Fig. 1, and 2. Samples of cotton. After the originals in the Industrial Art Museum in Berlin. 
„ 3. Cupboard from Unterammergatt, 1820 (Zell). 

„ 4—7. Sample of material for furniture covering. Alter the original in the Industrial 
Art Museum, Berlin. 




Neogrec Ornament in Qermany. 

n the period following the fall of the Empire, Art made fresh progress in Germany, 
in consequence of the revival of art and the exceptional genius of K. F. Schinkel 
(1781—1841) an architect whose works constitute the models in all the North 
German schools. Schinkel's chief work was the Museum in Berlin, he was 
followed by his pupil, A. Staler (1800—1865) who built the additions to the 
Museum. In Munich, Leo von Klenze (1794—1864) led the way. 



Plate 396. 

(After Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Sammlung architektonischer Entwflrfe.) 
From the Ancient Museum in Berlin. 



Wood ceiling in the Sculpture HalL 
Principal entablature of one of the upper halls. 
Capital of column in the Sculpture Hall. 
Base of column in the portico. 
Fig. 5. Capital of pier from Sculpture Hall. 
, 6. Cast-iron balustrade of the gallery in the Rotunda. 



Candlestick by Schinkel 
(Vorbildcr). 



Plate 397. 

(After Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Sammlung architektonischer EntwQrfe.) 

Pig. 1. Window of the General Building School In Berlin. 
„ 2. Principal entrance door of the same. 



Plate 398. 

Fig. 1, 2, 6, and 7. Grecian chairs and sofa (L. Lohdc, Sammlung von MObelentwflrfen, 

erfunden von Karl Friedrich Schinkel). 
„ 3. Marble tazza by Schinkel (Vorbilder far Fabrikanten und Handwerker). 
„ 4. Grecian vase after Moses (Vorbilder far Fabrikanten und Handwerker, auf Befehl 

des Ministers far Handel, Oewerbe und Bauwesen. 1821). 



622 



NEOGREC ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



Plate 397. 



mm W KMItJHt.llll.lWmKJHLJIKllll.HLJW JJUMJimiRJIUJWlll W HUHtJW M.WUHI HHIIH W» WHW « MCg/ 




uajfc- 



i.'>ifjmkfj»tjtsi>mmmni»..ffij£i;i«^>fiii<'i%«iif'n«^^^^^^^ 






■IMiBiBSPiSM 






ai"M"*f« »M» 



■«»WlWWrj«lK«»MM W'MM W»« — Mfl>»>»WIM1MMmiM«MlHIMItM;»K W TWTT^ 




Plate 398. 



NEOGREC ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



623 




624 



NEOGREC ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



Plate 399. 




Plate 400. 



NEOGREC ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



625 






^^T"^' 


^1 




HI 




^^1 




Wit 




SPELTZ, Styles of Ornament. 



626 



NEOGREC ORNAMENT IN GERMANY. 



Plate 399. 

Fig. 1. Drawing-room table by Schinkel (L. Lohde). 

2. Mural painting from drawings by Stier (Vorbilder;. 

3. Writing table by Schinkel (L. Lohde). 

4. Goblet-glass by Schinkel (Vorbilder). 

5. Wine cooler by Ruhl (Vorbilder). 

6. Sample of stuff from BStticher (Vorbilder). 



Plate 400. 

From Examples for Manufacturers and Artisans, by order of the Minister for Trade, 
Industry and Building, 1821). 

Fig. 1. Chalice by Schinkel. 

„ 2. Sample of stuff from Mauch. 

„ 3. Sample of stuff by Schinkel. 

„ 4. Vase from Mauch. 






<^Jf^f T T V 


i\ i^ijjit^ 




^r^^ 


}\ Yy^^"^ 




r- 


'"W( 


c^^ 


J 


V 


f^^ 






1 1 



Marble tazza by Schinkel 

(Vorbilder fur Fabrikanten und Handwerker). 



REFERENCE BOOKS. 



Adam (Robert and James), The decorative Work of. 
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and Ruins of Rome. 
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Audsley, G. A., Ornamental Arts of Japan. 
Audsley, O. A. and Bowes, J. L., The Keramic Art 
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I Bajoty E., Collection de meubles anciens. 
I Bajot, Encyclopedie du meuble. 
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1 Bankart, Geo P., The Art of the Plasterer. 
I Barriire-Flavy, Les arts industriels des peuples bar- 
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Belcher (John) and Macartney, M. E., Later Re- 
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j Birch and Spiers Old House, Lime Street, City. 
i Birch, George H., London Churches of the XVIIth 

and XVIllth Centuries. 
'■ Bird, Sir G., The Industrial Arts of India. 
Blomfield, Reginald, A History of Renaissance Archi- 
tecture in England. 
I Boito, Camillo, Architettura del medio evo in Italia. 

Boito, Arte Italiana. 
! Bond, Francis, Gothic Architecture in England.. 
I Borchardt, Die Sgyptische PflanzensSule. 
i Bourgoln, J., Les Arts Arabes. 
j Boettlcher, A., Olympla. 

I Boettlger, Dr. John, Hedvig Eleonoras Drottlngholm. 

! Brandon, R.arid J. A., Analysis of Gothic Architecture. 

Brandon, Open Timber Roofs of the Middle Ages. 

Brinckmann, J. and Weimar, W., Das Hamburgische 

Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe. 
Brinckmann, Justus, Kunst und Handwerk in Japan. 
Brindley, Wm. and Weatherley, W. S.» Ancient 

sepulchral monuments. 
Brown, O. Baldwin, The arts in Early England. 
Buhlmann, J., Die Bauformenlehre. 
Burlington Fine Arts Club, Illustrated Catalogues 

of Loan Exhibitions. 
Burton, Wm., English Porcelain. 
Bury T. T., Remains of Ecclesiastical Woodwork. 
Canina, L., Architettura antica. 
Chambers (Sir W.)i Designs of Chinese Buildings. 
Champeaux, A. de* Portefeuille des Arts decoratifs. 



Chancellor. A. E., Examples of Old Furniture. 

Chippendale, T., Gentleman and Cabinet Makers 
Director. 

Cicognara, L., Monumenti di Venezia. 

Coiling, J. K., Details of Gothik Architecture! . 

Crallan, F. A., Gothic Woodcarving. 

Crane, E. A. and E. E. Soderholtz, Examples of Colo- 
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Czdbor, Dr. Bila und Emmerich von Szaley, Die 
historischen Denkmaier Ungarns. 

Dahlerup, Holm und Storck, Tegninger af seldre 
Nordisk Architectur. 

Daly, Cisar, Motifs historiques d'architecture et de 
sculpture d'ornament. 

Day, Lewis F., Alphabets, Old and New. 

Day, Enamelling. 

Day, Lettering in Ornament. 

Day, Ornament and its Application. 

Day, Pattern Design. 

Day, Windows, a Book about Stained and Painted Glass. 

Dehio, G. und 0. v. Bezold, Die kirchliche Baukunst 
des Abendlandes. 

Dehll (A.), Norman Monuments of Palermo. 

Dietrlchson und Munthe, Die Holzbaukunst Nor 
wegens. 

Dieulafoy, M., L'art antique de la Perse. 

Dolmetsch, H., Ornamentenschatz. 

Dolmetsch, H., The Historic Styles of Ornament 

Doerpfeid, Wiihelm, Das griechische Theater. 

Drexler, Karl, Der Verduner Altar. 

Dupont-Auberville, L'ornement des Tissus. 

Ebe, 0., Die Schmuckformen der Monumentalbauten. 

Ebe, O., Die SpSt-Renaissance. 

EllwOod, O. M., English Furniture and Decoraton 
1680-1800. 

Errard, Ch. et Oayet, A., L'Art Byzantin. 

D'Espouy, H., Fragments d'architecture de la Re- 
naissance. 

Evans, Sir John, The Ancient Stone Implements, 
Weapons, and Ornaments of Gt Britain. 

Evans, Ancient Bronze Implements. 

Ewerbeck, F., und Neumelster, Die Renaissance 
in Belgien und Holland. , 

Falke, Mittelalterliches Holzmobillar. 

Falke und Frauberger, Deutsche Schmelzarbeiten 
des Mittelalters. 

Fergusson, James, History of Architecture in all 
Countries. 

Flnsch, Otto, Erfahrungen und BelegstQcke aus dar 

Sfldsee. 
Flandln «t Coste, Perse ancicpne. 
Fletcher, B. and B. F., A history of Architecture. 
Folneslcs, (Joseph), InnenrSume und Hausrat der 

Empire- und BiedermeierzeiL 
Oallhabaud, J., L'architecture. 
Gagarin, Prince O. O., Recueil d'ornaments et d'archi- 
tecture byzantin.s, gcorgiens et Russes. 
Gardner, J. Starkle, Old English Ironwork. 

40* 



62S 



REFERENCE BOOKS. 



Oarner, T. and Stratton, A., The Domestic Archi- 
tecture of England during the Tudor Period. 

Oayet, A., L'art Arabe. 

Gayet, A., L'art Persan. 

06Us-Dldot, (P.) et LafllI6e H., La peinture deco- 
rative en France du XI. au XVI. siecle. 

Gerhard. E., AuCerliche Vasenbildung. 

Gerhard, Etruskische Spiegel. 

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Oladbach, E., Der Schweizerholzstyl. 

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Gotch, J. A., The Growth of the English House. 

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Graul, R., Dekoration und Mobiliar. 

Gruner, L., Specimens of Ornamental Art. 

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Gurlitt, Geschichte der Kunst. 

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Ilg, Dr. A. und Dr. Heinrlch Kdbdebo, Wiener 
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Lindenschmit, L. , Handbuch der deutschen Alter- 

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Lindenschmitt, Aus der heidnischen Vorzeit. 
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Luthmer, F. , Innenraume im Louis XVI.- und Em- 

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Luthmer, Biirgerliche Mobel aus dem ersten Drittel 

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Lubke, Dr. W., Die Kunst des Altertums. 
Macquoid, Percy, History of English Furniture. 
Martha, 1., L'art Etrusque. 

Martha, I., Manuel d'archeologie Etrusque et Romaine. 
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Mau, A., Pompei, its life and art. 
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Meyer, F. S., A Handbook of Ornament. 
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INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

ACCORDING TO 

SUBJECT AND MATERIAL. 



Abacus. — Grec. P. 18. F. 1, 3, 9. P. 19. 
F. 14. P. 20. F.5. P. 21. F.13. P.22. F.3, 

— Rom. P. 34. F. 8. 9, 10, 13. P. 45. F. 1, 
6,8. — Romque p. 72. F. 1, 2. P. 79. F.6, 
7, 11. P.80. F.3. P.81. F.4. P.87. F.8. 
P. 92. F. 5. P. 94. F. 2. P. 102. F. 6. 
P. 106. F. 8. — Russ. P. 108. F. 1. — Goth. 
P. 136. F.3, 6. 8. P. 146. F. 7. P. 162. F. 4. 

— Ren. P. 201. F. 4. 

Acanthus. — Grec. P. 20. F. 1, 2, 5. P. 21. 

F. 6, 9, 12. P. 22. F. 4, 7, 8, 10, 12. P. 25. 

F. 2. 3. — Lat. Ren. P. 279. F. 2. — Roc. 

P. 323.^ F. 4. — 18th C. P. 370. F. 5. 
Acrolerium. — Grec- P. 18. F. 5. 
Agraffe. — Page 412. 
Aigrette. — 18th c. P. 350. F. 7, 8. 
Alphabet. — Celt. P. 56. F.4. — Romque p. 82. 

F.5. — P. 101. F. 13. — Ren. P. 214. F.2. 

P. 233. F. 1-5. — Roc. P. 319. F. 5, 6. 
Altar. — Etrusc. P. 31. F. 9-11. — Rom. 

P. 33. F. 3, 6, 18. P. 36. F. 2. P. 38. F. 3. 

— Romque P. 85. F. 1—16. — Goth. P. 179. 
F. 1, 2. — Page 124. 

Ambo. — Early Chr. P. 62. F.3. — Romque 

P. 86. F. 1. 
Amphora. — Egypt. P. 7. F. 5. — Assyr. P. 10. 

F. 13-15. — Grec. P.26. F. 5, 8, 11, 12, 15. 
Anta-capital. — Grec. P. 18. F. 10, 11. P. 21. 

F. 2. 13. P.22. F. 12. 
Ante-fix. ~ Grec. P. 18. F. 4. 5. P. 23. 

F. 12. — Page 44. 
Apothecary's pot. — Ren. P.21L F. 3, 7. 
Arcade. — Romque p. 89. F. 4, 5, 6, 7. P. 94. 

F.l. P. 95. F. 4. — Goth. P. 138. F. 8. P. 165. 

F.7, 8. — Ren. P.251. F. 1. P.264. F. 4. 
Arch. — Rom. P. 33. F. 15. — Byz. P. 63. 

F. 1, 6. P. 64. F. 1. — Romque p. 71. F.2. 3. 



P. 73. F. 14. P.87. F. 6, 7. P. 89. F. 1, 4. 

5, 8. P. 92. F. 1, 5, 8. P. 93. F.2. P. 107. 

F.8. — Russ. P. 108. F. 1. — Mahom. P. 117. 

F.9, 10, 12. P. 132. F. 5. — Goth. P. 177. 

F. 1, 5. P. 188. F. 1. 2. — Page 181. 
Architrave. — Grec. P. 18. F. 1. P. 20. 

F.. 3. P. 21. F. 10. P. 22. F. 3. — Rom. 

P. 33. F. 1, 2. P. 34. F. 4. P. 35. F. 2. 

P. 36; F. 1, 3. — Early Chr. P. 58. F. 8. 
Archivolte. — Romque p. 73. F. 7. P. 78. 

F.3. P.81. F.3. P.97. F. 2, 10. P. 98. 

F. 5, 6. P. 102. F. 4. 5. 
Arm chair. — Grec. P. 28. F. 4, 19. — Rom. 

P. 39. F. 10, 11. - Byz. P. 68. F. 18. - 

Romque p. 105. F. 1, 2. — Goth. P. 171. 

F. 1, 2. — Ren. P. 220. F. 1, 2. 5. P. 252. 

F. 2. P. 269. F. 2, 4. — Lat. Ren. P. 274. 

F. 1. P. 291. F. 3. P. 297. F. 2. — Roc. 

P. 320. F. 3. P. 325. F. 1. — 18th C 

P. 370. F.6. — Emp.P.383. F:5. P. 386. 

F.3. P.387. F.l. — Biederm. P.394. F.2. 
Armour. — Rom. P. 44. F. 2, 6, 14. - 

Russ. P. 110. F. 7. — Mahom. P. 115. 

F.12. — Goth. P. 141. F.4. P. 176. F. 1, 

2. — Ren. P. 215. F. 5. P. 222. F. 2. 

P. 232. F. 1. P. 251. F. 3. 
Arms. — Preh. P. 1. F. 15, 16, 20. — Grec. 

P. 29. F. 3-5, 9, 10, 12. 16, 26, 30, 39. 

Etrus. P. 32. F. 1, 6, 21, 26. — Gotli. 

P. 160. F. 13, 14, 16. P. 167. F. 5. - I 

Ren. P. 235. F.3. P. 247. F.6. P.251. 

F. 5—8. — Lat. Ren. P. 272. F. 1. — Roc. 

P. 319. F. 4. P. 324. F. 1, 5. — 18th C. 

P. 365. F. 3. P, 370. F. 6. — Page 274. 

(See also Weapons.) 
Arum leaf. - Goth. P. 137. F. 2. 4. 10. 
Badge. — Goth. P. 173. F. 5. 



I 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



631 



Bag. -- Assyr. P.8. F. 15; — Goth. P. 160. F.7. 
Balcony. — Goth. P. 186. F. 4. — Ren. 

P. 231. F. 6. — Lat. Ren. P. 271. F. 4. 

P. 272. F. 1. P. 276. F. 1, 2. P. 288. F. 2. 

— Roc. P. 325. F.4. — ISth C. P. 346. 
F. 1, 2. P. 354. F. 3, 4-6. — Emp. P. 393. 
F. 5. 6. 

Baluster. — Assyr. P. 8. F. 3—5. — Camb. 

P.195. F.3. — Ren. P.234. F.2. 4. P.261. 

F.4. P.262. F.IO. P.263. F.7, 8. P. 266. 

F. 1, 4. — Lat. Ren. P. 303. F.4. — Col. 

P. 334. F.5. P. 333. F. 4. 
Baluster pier. — Ren. P. 266. F. 2. 
Balustrade. — Assyr. P. 8. F. 5. — Goth. 

P. 144. F. 3, 4. P. 161. F. 4, 8. P. 182. F. 2. 

— Ren. P. 203. F. 2. P. 236. F. 2, 8. 
P. 237. F. 4. P. 250. F. 3, 5, 7, 10, 15. 
P.259. F.l. P.261. F. 3-5. P.262. F.6, 
7. P. 263. F. 7, 8. P. 265. F. 3. P. 260. 
F. 4. P. 267. F. 3, 5. — Lat. Ren. P. 272. 
F. 3, 4. P. 276. F. 6. P. 277. F. 4. — 
Coll. P. 338. F. 4. — Neo G. P. 396. F. 6. 

— Page 312. 

Baptismal font. — Byz. P. 65. F. 2. — 

Romque p. 83. F. 4. P. 90. F. 2. P. 97. 

F.4.6,9. P. 106. F.l, 2, 4. — Goth. P. 161. 

F. 1 0. _ Ren. P. 263. F. 6. — Pages 106, 297. 
Base. — Egypt. P. 4. F.l. — Assyr. P. 8. 

F.8, 14.— Pers. P. 11. F.7, 11, 12. — Ind. 

P. 14. F.13, 15. P. 15. F.8, 11. — Grec. 

P. 20. F. 9. P. 21. F. 4, 14. P. 22. F. 6. 

— Rom. P. 34. F. 2, 3. P.35.F. 11. P.36. 
F.2. P. 37. F. 1—4, 6—9. — Byz. P. 70. 
F. 1, 3, 6. — Romque P. 71. F. 4, 7. 
P. 72. F. 5. P. 73. F.6, 13. P. 76. F.13, 
14. P. 78. F. 5, 7, 9. P. 79. F. 10. P. 92. 
F.6, 9. P. 94. F.6. — Goth. P. 136. F.9. 
10. 12. P. 162. F.7. P. 177. F. 5. P. 182. 
F. 1, 4, 5. P. 185. F.4. — Chin. P. 189. 
F. 6, 7. — Jap. P. 197. F. 4. — Ren. 
P. 205. F. 2. — Col. P. 334. F. 9. — Emp. 
P. 377. F. 3. — Neo G. P. 396. F. 4. — 
Pages 238, 248. 

Bas-relief. — Preh. P. 1. F. 18, 19. P. 2. 
F.7, 13, 22. — Egypt. P. 6. F. 16, 17. - 
Assyr. P. 8. F. 1, 2, 6, 8. P.9. F. 4, 13. - 
Pens. P. 11. F. 9, 10. P. 12. F. 9, 11, 12. 

— Phoen. P. 13. F. 22. — Ind. P. 15. F. 4, 
6,7, 10. P.16.F.5. — Grec. P. 20. F. 11. 
P. 21. F. 11. P. 23. F. 5. P. 24. F. 1-3. 
P.25. F. 1. P.29. F. 19. — Etrusc. P.31. F.3. 



Battle-axe. — Preh. P. 1. F. 25. P. 2. F. 3, 4. 

— Mahom. P. 133. F. 7. 
Bead-moulding. — Grec. P. 10. F. 1—5. 
Beaker. — Assyr. P. 10. F.7. —Rom. P. 43. 

F. 26. — Russ. P. 1 10. F. 9. — Ren. P. 258. 

F.3. 
Bed. — Romque p. 75. p. 12, 13. 21. — Ren. 

P. 268. F. 5. — Roc. P. 332. F. 2. — 18th c. 

P. 373. F. 1. — Emp. P. 381. F.4. P. 391. 

F.3. — Biederm. P. 394. F. 1. 
Bellflower. — Goth. P. 137. F. 5. 
Bellows. — Ren. P. 215. F. 2. 
Belt. — Goth. P. 140. F. 1. 2. P. 160. F. 1, 15. 
Belt-buckle. — Celt. P. 50. F. 5. 8—10, 13. 

P. 53. F. 16. 
Belvedere. — Ren. P. 258. F. 6. — Lat. 

Ren. P. 310. F. 6. 
Biga. — Etrusc. P. 31. F. 3, 8. 
Bishop's throne. — Rom. P. 75. F. 16. 
Bishop's crozier. — Rom. P. 74. F. 7. 

P. 75. F. 4. P. 83. F. 5, 8. 
Bookcase. — Early Chr. P. 62. F. 4. — 

Roc. P. 332. F. 1. — 18th c. P. 372. F.5. 

— Emp. P. 380. F. 4. 

Bookcover. — Early Chr. P. 61. F. 1. — 

Byz. P. 66. F. 4. P. 67. F. 4. — Romque 

P. 75. F. 20. — Goth. P. 143. F. 8. — Ren. 

P. 225. F. 4. P. 240. F. 4. P. 244. F. 1. 
Bookmarker. — Ren. P. 214. F. U 
Border. — Romque p. 85. F. 2—16. P. 86. 

F. 4. P. 87. F. 5-7. P. 90. F. 7, 9, 10. 

P. 91. F. 3, 5, 6, 8. P. 92. F. 3, 10. P. 93. 

F. 2. P. 97. F.IO. P. 102. F. 4, 5. P. 103. 

F. 1, 6, 10. P. 104. F. 1-6. P. 107. F. 1, 

2, 4, 5. — Russ. P.m. F.2. — Mahom. 

P. 112. F.8, 14. P. 113. F. 1, 15. P. 114. 

F. 4. P. 120. F. 3-5, 9-11. P. 126. 

F. 1—19. P. 127. F. 7, 8, 12. P. 134. F. 1, 

6, 8, 9. — Goth. P. 139. F. 2. 8-12. P. 141. 

F. 5. 6. P. 143. F. 1. 2. P. 179. F. 4. P. 184. 

F. 1_3. _ Ren. P. 219. F. 6, 7. 
Boss to vaulting. — Romque p. 71. F. 1. 

Goth. P. 138. F. 4, 7, 9. P. 146. F. 2, 3. 

P. 153. F. 3. P. 164. F. 10, 11. P. 173. 

F. 4. — Ren. P. 264. F. 8. — Roc. P. 327. 

F.8. 
Bottle. — Celt. P. 51. F. 8. — Mahom. P. 120. 

F. 6, 8. 
Bow. — Ind. P. 16. F.32. — Rom. P. 43. F.23. 
Bowl. — Assyr. P.a F. 10. — Mahom. P. ISa 

F.l. 



632 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Box. — Ind, P. la F, 13, - Grec. P. 26. 

F. 17. -r- Roc, P, 325. F, 5, P, 329. 

F.e; 7. — 18th C, P. 350. F. 4. 
Bracelet. — Egypt. P. 7. F. 17. — Assyr. 

P. 10. F. 8, — Ind. P. 16. F. 26. — Celt, 

P. 50. F. 22, 25-27. P. 53. F. 6. 
Bracket. — Ren. P. 252. F. 3. — Lat. Ren. 

P. 287. F. 2 5, P. 304. F. 7. P. 307. 

F. 2, 4. 
Bracket candlestick, — Ren. P. 241. F. 1, 2. 

— Lat. Ren. P. 283. F, 2. — Roc. P. 313. 
F. 3. P. 315. F. 2. — im C. P. 341. 
F. 3. — Page 591. 

Bracket capital. — Ren. P. 228. F. 6. 
Brickwork. — Romq"e p. 76. F. 1—18. — 

Goth. P. 166. F. 1—6. — Page 274, 281. 
Bridge. — 18th C. P. 366. F. 2. 
Bridle-bit. — Ren. P. 243. F. 5. 
Bronze figure. — Assyr. P. 9. F. 12. — 

Grec. P. 29. F. 8. — Pomp. P. 47. F. 11. 

P. 48. F. 14. — Page 97. 
Bronze furniture. — Assyr. P. 10. F. 2. — 

Rom. P. 39. F. 5, 7-9. - Pomp. P. 47. 

F. 5. — Celt. P. 62. F: 14. 
Bronze ornament. — Preh. P. 1. F. 23, 31. 

P. 2. F. 37-39. — Assyr. P. 9. F. 7. 

P. 10. F. 4, 17. — Grec. P. 17. F. 3. P. 23. 

F. 5, 10. P. 28. F. 5, 7. — Celt. P. 50. 

F. 2, 17. — Byz. P. 64. F. 2, 3. — Mahom. 

P. 123. F. 5. P. 124. F. 1, 2. P. 125. F. 6. 

P. 130. F.5, 9. 10, 11, 12. — Jap. P. 197. 

F. 7— 11. P. 199. F. 9. — Ren. P. 225. 

F.5— 7. P. 257. F.8. — Lat. Ren. P. 283. 

F. 2. P. 284. F. 3. P. 292. F. 7, 1 1. - Roc. 

P. 313. F. 3. P. 315. F. 2, 3. P. 327. F. 4, 

6. — 18th c. P. 341. F. 3. P. 342. F. 3. 

P. 347. F. 4. P. 348. F. 6, 7. 
Bronze jewel. — Preh. P. 1. F.8— 10, 14, 

18, 27, 29, 32, 33, 37, 38, 41. P. 2. F. 24, 

28, 29, 31—34, 36. - Celt. P.50. F.4-13, 

19-21,23. P. 51. F. 6. 7.15. P.53. F.4, 

6, 11, 12, 16. 
Bronze tooK — Preh. P. 1. F. 35, 36. — 

Egypt. P. 6. F. 14, 19. — Assyr. P. 10. 

F. 3, 12, 19, 21-23. 
Bronze vase. — Chin. P. 191. F. 5. P. 192. 

F. 7. P. 193. F. 6, 7, 9. — Jap. P. 196. 

F. 4, 6. P. 199. F. 9. 
Brooch. — Celt. P.50. F. 6, 16, 18, 21, 23. 

— Goth. P. 160. F. 8. — 18th c. P. 351. 
F. 2. 7. 



Bucket* — Assyr. P. 10. F. 12, 21. — Celt. 

P» 63» F. 7, 8. 
Buckle* - Celt. P.50. F.4, 5, 8—10, 13, 24. 

P. 51. F. 6. 7. 15. — Goth. P. 140. F. 5. 

P. lea F. 13. 
Buffet. — Ren, P. 220. F. 3, 4. 
Bureau. — Col, P,336. F. 5, — Page 603. 
Bust of liead. — Egypt. P. 7. F. 3. — Assyr. 

P. 10. F, 1. — Grec. P. 29. F. 18. - 

Page 66. 
Button. — Assyr. P. 10. F. 24. — Grec. 

P. 17. F. 6, 8-12. 
Butterfly. - Chin. P. 193. F. 1—3, 8. 
Cabinet. — Ren. P. 238. F. 3. P. 253. F. 6. 

P. 269. F. 1. - Lat. Ren. P. 305. F. 3. 

— Roc. P. 333. F. 3. — 18th c. P. 347. 
F. 3. P. 372. F. 6. 

Caffagiolio. — Ren. P. 211. F. 8. 

Cameo. — Rom. P. 42. F. 11, 12. — Goth. 
P. 143. F. 4. 

Candelabrum. — Rom. P. 40. F. 4. P. 42. 
F. 1, 3, 5. P. 43. F. 8. - Pomp. P. 47. F.6. 
P.48. F. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 18, 19. - Romque 
P. 74. F. 4, 5, 6. — Goth. P. 187. F. 3. - 
Lat. Ren. P. 282. F. 3. P. 284. F. 3. - 
Roc. P. 315. F.5. — 18th c. P. 349. F. 11. 

— Emp. P. 381. F. 3. 

Candlestick. — Romque p. 74. y. 4, 5, 6. 

P. 75. F. 3. P. 100. F. 13, 15. — Goth. 

P. 143. F. 7. P. 145. F. 4. — Chin. P. 193. 

F. 10. — Ren. P. 222. F. 7. P. 241. F.5, 6. 

P. 258. F. 2. - Lat. Ren. P. 293. F. 3. 

P. 294. F.3, 5. — Roc. P.313.F.3. P.3I5. 

F.5. - 18th c P. 341. F.3. P. 342. F.3. 

P. 346. F. 6. P. 354. F.2. — Emp. P.381. 

F. 1. P. 393. F.4. — Page 621. 
Candlestick, seven-branched. — Romfl"* 

P. 74. F. 5. 
Canon's staff. — Romque p. 100. F. 1. 
Canopied chair. — Ren. P. 266. F. 3. 
Canopy. — Goth. P. 149. F.9. P. 157. F.3. 

— Lat. Ren. P. 271. F. 3. P. 284. F. 2. 
Canopy bed. — Lat. Ren. P. 284. F. 2. — 

18th C. p. 373. F. 1. 
Capital. — Egypt. P. 4. F. 1-6, 9. — P.5. 
F. 1-6, 8. - Assyr. P. 8. F.3. 4, 7, 9. - 
Pers.P.ll.F.3-5. - Phoen.P.13.F.2-4. 

— Ind. P. 14. F. 4, 6, 8, 11, 13—16. — Grec. 
P. 17. F. 15. P. 18. F. 1, 3, 6, 9—12. P.20. 
F. 1-8, 10, 13-15. P.21. F. 1, 2. 5, 8, 13. 
P.22.F.1-4, 7. 8, 11, 12. P.23. F.8, 9.- 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



633 



Rom. P. 33. F. 1, 2, 4, 5. P. 34. F, 1, 4 to 
14. P. 35. F.2,6,3--10. P. 36. F. 1,3, 4, 
6, 7. P. 37. F. 5. — Pomp. P. 45. F. 1, 4—9. 

— Early Chr. P.58. F. 1, 2, 5, 6. 9. P. 60. 
F. 2-5. — Byz. P. 63. F. 1, 6-8. P. 64. 
F.4-10. P.69. F. 2, 8, 11, 12, 14-16. — 
Romque p. 71. F.5, 6, 9, 10, 11. P. 72. 
F.3-6. P. 73. F.5, 8. P. 76. F. 1-5, 9, 
10, 18. P. 79. F.8,9, 11, 12. P.80.F.1,2. 
P.81.F.4. P.82.F.1— 4,6-9. P.87.F.3, 
6, 8. P. 92. F. 1, 4, 5. 8. 11. P.93. F.4. 
P. 94. F. 2, 5. P. 95. F. 5. P. 96. F. 1—7. 
P. 98. F. 1, 4. P. 99. F. 14, 16. — P. 102. 
F. 1, 6. P. 103. F. 4, 9. - P. 106. F.3. — 
Russ. P. 108. F. 2, 4. — Mahom. P. 112. 
F. 1-5. P. 116. F. 1, 2, 7, 9. P. 117. F.3, 
6. P. 122. F. 1, 3, 8. — Goth. P. 135. 
F. 11. P. 136. F. 1-8, 11. P. 146. F.5-7. 
P. 147. F. 6. P. 161. F.5. P. 162. F. 1-9. 
P. 182. F. 1, 4, 5. — Ren. P. 201. F. 3, 4. 
P. 217. F.3. P. 218. F. 1, 2. P. 228. F.5, 
6. P. 235. F. 1, 3, 5, 6. — Lat. Ren. P. 271. 
F. 2. P. 299. F. 1, 2, 3. P. 308. F. 3. 
P. 309. F.l. P. 311. F. 4. — 18th C. 
P.355. F.l. P.356. F. 1, 3. P. 357. F. 2, 
3. P.358. F. 1, 3. P.359. F. 1, 3. P. 360. 
F.4. P. 361. F. 1. — Emp. P. 377. F. 1. 

— Neo G. P. 396. F. 3, 5. 

Carpet. — Goth. P. 181. F.2. — Jap. P. 200. 
F. 1, 4. — Ren. P. 232. F. 4. P. 246. F. 1. 

— Lat. Ren. P. 286. F. 6. 

Carriage. — Grec. P. 27. F. 8. — Etrusc. 

P. 31. F. 1, 8. — Lat. Ren. P. 274. F.5. 

P. 296. F. 3-5. — Roc. P. 317. F. 4. — 

Page 28. 
Carriage-pole. — Assyr. P. 10. F. 4. — 

Grec. P. 29. F. 8. 
Carriage-wheel. — Lat. Ren. P. 296. F. 5. 

Page 452. 
Cartouche. — Ren. P. 228. F. 7. P. 235. 

F. 4. P. 253. F. 2, 4. — Lat. Ren. 287. 

F. 4, P. 296. F. 1. P. 302. F. 2, 5, 7. — 

Roc. P. 323. F.l. Page 4 J 9. 
Caryatide. — Grec. P. 21. F. 10. — 18th c. 

P.354. F. 1. P. 366. F. 2. P. 379. F. 2. 
Ceiling ornamentation. — Egypt. P. 7. 

F.7, 8. — Grec. P. 17. F. 19. P. 27. F. 18, 

30—32, 39, 40. — Romque p.89. F. 1, 4, 6, 7. 

P.91. F.2. — Mahom.P.liaF.6. P.121. 

F. 1. P. 125. F. 8. — Goth. P. 151. F. 6, 10. 

P. 168. F. 1, 4-11. P. 187. F. 6. — Camb. 



P. 194. F. 1. — Jap. P. 197. F. 1, 4. - 
Ren. P. 209. F. 8. P. 219. F. 8. P. 23a 
F. 1, 4, 7, 8. P. 237. F.6. P. 240. F. 2 
P. 250. F. 1. P. 256. F. 2, 6. P. 261. F. 6 
P. 262. F. 3-5. P. 266. F. 5. P. 267. 
F. 6-8. - Lat. Ren. P. 279. F. 4. P. 281. 
F. 2. P. 311. F.2, 3. — Roc. P. 327, 
F. 8. — CoK P.338. F.3. — 18th c. P.341. 
F.2. P. 342. F. I. 2, 5. P. 364. F. 1—4. 
P. 366. F. 1. P. 374. F. 1, 7. — Emp. 
P. 378. F. 1. P. 388. F. 2. P. 390. F. 4. 

— Neo G. P. 396. F. 1. 

Censer. — Goth. P. 173. F. 6. — Chin. 

P. 190. F.l. P. 193. F.4. — Emp. P. 387. 

F.4. 
Chafing-dish. — Romquc P. 84. F. 2. 
Chain. - Goth. P. 173. F. 9. — Ren. 

P. 244. F. 4. 
Chair. — Preh. P. 3. F. 10. — Egypt. P. 6. 

F. 20-24. — Assyr. P. ia F. 2, 17. — 

Grec. P. 25. F.5. P. 28. F.4, 6, 10, 16, 19. 

— Rom. P.39. F. 1, 5, 10. — Celt. P.52. 
F. 14. — Early Chr. P. 61. F. 3, 10. - 
Byz. P. 68. F. 18—21. — Romque p. 75. 
F. 16. P. 103. F. 1 1. P. 105. F. 1, 2. — Goth. 
P. 171. F. 1, 2. — Chin. P. 189. F.9. — 
Ren. P. 220. F. 1, 2, 5. P. 232. F. 3. P. 238. 
F.l, 2. P. 250. F. 12. P. 252. F.2. P.2R9. 
F. 2, 4. — Lat. Ren. P. 273. F. 6. P. 283. 
F. 9. P. 291. F. 3. P. 297. F. 2. P. 3U5. 
F. 4. — Roc. P. 317. F. 2. P. 320. F. 3. 
P.325.F.1. P.331.F.1.2. P. 332. F. 3. 5. - 
Col. P. 336. F. 4, 6. P. 337. F. 3, 4, 10. 1 1. 

— 18th C. P. 348. F. 5. P. 349. F. 5. 
P. 370. F.6. P. 372. F. 1-3. P. 373. F.3. 

— Emp. P. 383. F. 5. P. 385. F. 9, 10. 
P. 386. F. 3. 5. P. 387. F. 1, 3. — Bicd. 
P. 394. F. 2, 3. — Neo G. P. 398. F. 1. 
2, 5: Pages 29, 442. 

Chair leg. — Grec. P. 28. F. 5. 

Chalice. — Early Chr. P. 62. F.5. — Byz. 

P. 68. F. 17. — Romque P. 74. F.8. P. 75. 

F. 5. P. 84. F. 3. — Russ. P. 110. F. 8. — 

Ren. P. 223. F.5. P. 245. F.5. — NeoG. 

P. 400. F. 1. 
Chandelier. — Goth. P. 154. F. 2. P. 17a 

F. 2. — Ren. P. 241. F. 6. P. 257. F. 8. 

— Lat. Ren. P. 290. F. 2. — Roc. P. 316. 
F. 2. — Page 610. 

Chest. — Romque p. 75. F.l. P. 84. F. 1. 
P. 96. F. 12. — Goth. P. 142. F.5. P. 143. 



634 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



F. 12. P. 156. F. 1. P. 170. F. 6. — Ren. 

P. 269. F.6. — Lat. Ren. P. 283. F. 1. 

P. 305. F. 7. — Roc. P.317. F. 1. P. 330. 

F.2-3, 5. P. 333. F. 1. — CoL P. 336. 

F. 7. — ISthC. P. 341. F. 5. 
Chimera. — Page 90. 
Chimney. — Goth. P. 148. F. 1. 
Chimney piece. — Goth. P. 144. F. 3. P. 150. 

F. 10. — Ren. P. 217. F. 6. P. 239. F. 7. 

P. 256. F. 5. P. 262. F. 8. P. 264. F. 6. 

P. 266. F. I. — Lat. Ren. P. 297. F. 3. 

P. 303. F. 5. — P. 304. F. 2. P. 308. F.6. 

P. 309. F. 1. — Roc. P.315. F. 4. P. 331. 

F. 5. — Col. P. 334. F. 1, 4. P. 338. F. 1. 

P. 339. — 18th C. P. 340. f>. 354. F. 1. 

P. 361. F. 4, 5. P. 363. F. 1. — Emp. 

P. 380. F. 1. P. 388. F. 3. P. 392. F. 4. 
Christ on throne. — Early-Chr. P. 61. F. 8. 
Cimbal. — Grec. P. 30. F. 9. 
Cist. — Etrusc. P. 32. F. 24. 
Clasp. — Preh. P. 1. F. 29, 32. — Grec. P. 30. 

F. 10. Rom. P. 44. F. 4. — Celt. P. 53. 

F. 11. — Romq'-je p. 75. F. 18. 
Clock. — Ren. P.245. F. 1. P. 282. F. 3. - 

Lat. Ren. P. 290. F. 1. P. 303. F. 3. -^ 

Roc. P. 315. F. 1. 3. - Page 563. 
Cloth fabric. — Romq^e p. 83. F. 7. — 

Goth. P. 143. F. 2. 
Club. — Preh. P. 3. F. 9. — Ind. P. 16. 

F. 3, 6, 22. - Russ. P. 110. F. 6. 
Coat of Arms. — Goth. P. 144. F. 1. - 

Ren. P. 202. F. 5. — Lat. Ren. P. 303. 

F. 7. — 18th C. P. 365. F. 3. — Pages 

274, 445. 
Coffee pot. — 18th c. P. 368. F. 5. 
Coffer. — Byz. P. 67. F.3. — RomQue p. 75. 

F. 1. P. 84. F. 1. P. 96. F. 12. — Goth. 

P. 142. F. 5. P. 143. F. 12. P. 156. F. 1. 

P. 170. F. 6. 
Coffin. — Celt. P. 153. F. 20, 22. 
Coiffure.— Grec. P. 30. F. 16, 17, 21. 22. 

— Rom.. P. 41. F. 8—10. — Byz. P. 68. 

F. 12-15. — Goth. P. 160. F. 3. 
Coin. — Pers. P. 12. F. 8. — Grec. P. 17. 

F. 14. P. 21. F. 15, 16. P. 29. F. 17. — 

Rom. P. 42. F. 15. 
Column. — Preh. P. 2. F. 35. — Egypt. 

P. 4. F. 1. P. 5. F. 1, 5. P. 7. F. 1. - 

Ind. P. 14. F. 1,5,7, 11, 13, 15, 16. — Grec. 

P. 17. F. 15. — Rom. P. 34. F. 7. — Pomp. 

P. 45. F. 1, 7. — Romque p. 73. p.. 2, 4. 



P. 80. F. 1, 6. P. 81. F. 4, 6, 7, 9. 11. P.86. 
F. 2, 5. P. 89. F. 5. P. 95. F. 3. P. 97. 
F. 3, 5, 11. P. 106. F.6-8. - Russ. P. 108. 
F. 4. P. 109. F.5, 6. — Mahom. P. 112. 
F. 1,3, 5. P. 127. F. 9, 11. P. 132. F: 4, 5. 

— Goth. P. 162. F. 5. P. 185. F. 4. — Chin. 
P. 195. F. 3. — Ren. P. 201. F. 3. P. 235. 
F. 1.3.5. P. 252. F. 4. P.253. F. 1. P. 263. 
F.2. P. 355. F. 1, 2. ~ Pages //, 444. 

Comb. — Rom. P.43. F. 24. — Celt. P.51. 

F. 12. — Romque p. 74. F. 3. 
Console. — Mahom. P. 116. F. 4-6, 8. — 

Goth. P. 149. F. 1— 3. P. 161. F. 9. — 

Ren. P. 237. F. 1, 2. P. 238. F. 4. P. 252. 

F. 3. — Lat. Ren. P. 276. F. 3. P. 278. 

F. 1. P. 282. F.4. P. 307. F. 3, 4. — Roc. 

P. 314. F. 1. — Emp. P. 386. F.4. P. 390. 

F. 1. 
Console table. — Lat. Ren. P. 284. F. 4. 

P. 291. F. 1, 2. — Roc. P. 313. F. 2. - 

18th c. P. 348. F. 2. P. 367. F. 2. 
Consular chair. — Byz. P. 68. F. 21. 
Consul's costume. — Rom. P. 44. F. 1. 
Corbeltable. — Byz. P. 69. F. 4. — Romque 

P. 76. F. 11. P. 78. F. 11, 12. P. 79. F. 4. 

P. 81. F. 7. P. 87. F. 1. P. 94. F. 3, 4. 

— Page 169. 

Cornice. — Ind. P. 14. F. 2, 3, 12. 17. 18. 
P.15.F. 12. — Grec. P. 18. F. 1, 2. P.21. 
F. 10. P. 22. F. 3. P. 23. F. 1 1. — Rom. 
P. 33. F. 1, 2. 17, 19. P. 34. F. 1, 4. P.35. 
F. 1, 2. 12. P. 36. F. 1. 3. — Romquep.71. 
F. 12. P. 80. F. 2, 3, 5, 10. P. 99. F. 1-12. 

— Mahom. P. 122. F. 3, 5-7. - Goth. 
P. 188. F. 3. — Ren. P. 201. F. 2. P. 202. 
F.2. P. 203. F. 3, 4. P. 207. F. 3. P. 230. 
F. 9. — Lat. Ren. P. 287. F. 3. P. 299. 
F. 1, 3. P. 304. F. 6. P. 308. F. 1, 3. 
P. 309. F. 1. — Emp. P. 377. F. 1, 2. - 
Neo G. P. 396. F. 2. — Page 238. 

Corona. — Grec. P. 18. F. 7. P. 20. F. 12. 

P. 21. F. 7. — Rom. P. 33. F. 17, 19. 

P. 35. F. 1, 12. 
Coronation chair.. — Goth. P. 154. F. 5. 
Corsage ornament.— 18th C. P. 351. F. 1. 
Costume. — Rom. P. 44. F. 1, 15. — Romq"« 

P. 100. F. 10. — Mahom. P. 133. F. 2. — 

Goth. P. 181. F. 1. — Ren. P. 213. F. 1. 

P. 223. F. 13. P. 243. F. 3. P. 270. F. 6. 

— Pages 12, 22. 34, 37, 43, 328. 
Couch.- Egypt.P.6.F.22.-Grec.P.28.F.20. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



635 



Cradle. — Goth. P. 170. F. 4. — Ren. 

P. 269. F. 3. — Emp. P. 385. F. 6, 7. 
Credence table. — Goth. P. 142. F. 3. 

P. 180. F. 5. 
Cresting. — Romque p, 77. p. 9—12. — 

Mahom. P. 112. F. 7. P. 117. F. 12. — 

Lat. Ren. P. 287. F. 6. 
Crocket — Goth. P. 135. F. 3, 6. P. 147. 

F. 1, 4. P. 161. F. 3. 
Crotchet work. — Ren. P. 213. F. 2. 
Crown. — Ind. P. 16. F. 25. — Early Chr. 

P. 59. F. 2. P. 61. F. 5, 6. - Byz. P. 68. 

F. 11. — Goth. P. 160. F. 2, 5- P. 173. 

F. 2, 7. 8. 
Cross. — Celt. P. 52. F. 7. P. 54. F. 5, 

12—14. — Early Chr. P. 59. F. 1. P. 61. 

F. 4. — Romque p. 72. F. 4. P. 79. F. 5. 

P. 82. F. 10. P. 100. F. 11. - Goth. P. 135. 

F. 12. P. 170. F. 3. — Ren. P. 234. F. 1. 

P. 251. F. 4, 
Cross finlah — Ren. P. 258. F. 5. 
Crozier. — Romque p. 74. F. 7. P. 75. F. 4. 

P. 83. F. 5, 8. — Goth. P. 170. F 1. 
Crucifix. — Early Chr. P. 57. F. 8. P. 59. 

F. 5. — Roc. P. 313. F. 4. — Page 118, 
Cup. — Rom. P. 42. F. 4. — Romque p. 75. 

F. 15. - Chin. P. 192. F. 2. - 18th c. 

P. 376. F. 3, 5. 
Cupboard. — Lat. Ren. P. 284. F. 1. P. 305. 

F. 1, — Roc. P. 330. F. 4. — Emp. P. 389. 

F. 7. P. 391. F. 7. — Biedcrm. P. 395. 

F. 3. 
Cupola. — Russ. P. 108. F. 3. 
Curtain. — Jap. P. 197. F. 12. — Lat. Ren. 

P. 286. F. 4, 5. — Page 33. 
Cymatium. — Grec. P. 18. F. 12. P. 19. 

F. 6—8. 
Dagger. — Preh. P. 1. F. 16, 17. — Egypt. 

P. a F. 12. - Etrusc. P. 32. F. 21. - Celt. 

P. 53. F. 5, 10. — Romque P. lOJ. F. 12. 

- Goth. P. 160. F. 4. 
Dagger hilt - Ren. P. 225. F. 5-7. 
Dagger sheath. — Rom. P. 44. F. 5 — 

Ren. P. 223. F. 12. 
Damascened work. — Mahom. P. 133. 

F. 10. P. 134. F. 1, 6. 8. 9. — Page 234. 
Damask. — Ren. P. 270. F.,1. 
Decanter. — Ren. P. 223. F. 5. 
Delft plate. — Ren. P. 255. F. 7. 
Diadem. — Russ. P. 111. F. 3. 
Diaper. - Ren. P. 270. F. 2-4, 9, 12, 13. 



Diptych. — Early Chr. P. 62. F. 1. 

Dish. — Pers. P. 12. F. 16. — Phoen. P. la 
F. 21. — Grec. P. 25. F. 4. P. 28. F. 9. - 
Celt. P. 51. F. 10. — Chin. P. 192. F. 4. - 

— Ren. P. 221. F. 2. — Lat Ren. P. 28& 
F.3. 

Door. — Egypt. P. 7. F. 16. — Byz. P. 6a 

F. 5. — Romque p. 98. p. 5, 6. P. 102. F. 4. 

P. lOa F. 1, 3. 7. — Goth. P. 145. F. 3. 

P. 157. F. 4. P. 158. F. 4. P. 163. F. 1-4. 

P. 169. F. 6. P. 171. F. 3. - Jap. P. 19a 

F. 3. — Ren. P. 202. F. 4. P. 207. F. 2 

P. 236. F. 7. P. 238. F. 7. P. 249. F. 2. 

P. 254. F. 2. P. 256. F. 1. P. 262. F. 1. 

P. 264. F. 7. — Lat. Ren. P. 277. F. 1, 2. 

P. 287. F. 1. P. 3ia F. 1, 7. - Roc 

P. 322. F. 1. — Col. P. 334. F. 2. P. 337. 

F. 9. — 18th c. P. 349. F. 3, 4, 9. 10. 

P. 352. F. 5. - Neo G. P. 307. F. 2. - Page 

542. 
Door furniture. — Romque P.^406. F. 5, a 

— Goth. P. 151. F. 5. P. 169. F. 1, 3, 4. 
5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12. 13. 14, 15, la- Ren. 
P. 242. F. 1, 3. P. 254. F. 2. - Ut. Ren. 
P. 289. F. a P. 292. F. 11. — 18th C 
P. 348. F. 6. - Page 252. 

Door hinge. — Romque p. 8a F. 2. — 
Mahom. P. 12a F. 2, 4. — Goth. P. 16& 
F. a 14, 15. — Page 252. 

Door-knocker. — Romque p. 72. F. a 
P. 96. F. 6. — Mahom. P. 112. F. 9, la 

— Goth. P. 13a F. 5, a P. 151. F. 3. 
P. 17a F. 3. - Ren. P. 242. F. 9. - Lat 
Ren. P. 272. F. 5. P. 280. F. 1. P. 282. 
F. 1. P. 297. F. 4. - 18th c. P. 36a F. a 

Doorway. — Romque p. 87. p. 7. P. Sa 
F. 1. P. Oa F. 2. P. 98. F. 5. a P. loa 
F. 1, 3. P. 107. F. a — Russ. P. lOa 
F. 1. P. 109. F. a — iVlahom. P. 12a F. 1. 

— Romque p. 104. F. 1-a — Goth. P. 13a 

F. a p. 161. F. 4. P. 15a F. 1— a p. 16a 

F. 1-4. P. 16a F. 3, a p. 184. F. 1, 2. 
P. 18a F. 1, 2, 5 — Camb. P. 19a F. 1. 
P. 19a F. 3. - Ren. P. 20a F. 2. P. 207. 
F. 2. P. 20a F. 1. P. 216. F. 1, 4. P. 217. 
F. 2. P. 23a F. 7. P. 23a F. 4. P. 261. 
F. 1. P. 264. F. 7. - Ut Ren. P. 271. 
F. 1. b. P. 272. F. 1. P. 277. F. 1, 2. 
P.30a F. 1 P.304. F.3, 7. P.3ia F. 1, 7. 
P.811. F. li - C0LP.334. F.7,a P.337. 
F. 9. - 18th C P. 344. F. 4. P. 84a 



636 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



F. 3. P. 349. F. 3, 4. P. 352. F. 5. P. 355. 

F. 3. P. 357. F. 4, 5. — Neo G. P. 397. 

F. 2. — Pages 181, 342, 542. 
Dormer window. — Lat. Ren. P. 277. F. 4. 
Dress. — Ren. P. 244. F. 3. P. 270. F. 6. — 

1 8th c. P. 350. F. 5. 6. — Pages 12. 34, 37. 99. 
Drinking-horn.— Grec. P. 28. F. 14. 
Eagle.— Romque p. 84. F. 10. — Russ. P. 110. 

F. 11. — Goth. P. 135. F. 5. P. 167. F. 7. 
Ear-ring. — Assyr. P. 10. F. 9—11, 26. — 

Phoen. P. 13. F. 5, 13. 18. — Ind. P. 16. 

F. 15, 16. — Rom. P. 43. F. 4-6, 10, 11. 

Celt. P. 53. F. 9, 14. — Romq^^e p. go. F 6. 

18th C. P. 351. F. 4, 6. 
Earthenware vessel. — Preh. P. 1. F. 5—7, 

11-13, 34. P.2. F. 1, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14-17, 

19-21, 43, 45. — Egypt. P. 7. F. 4, 5. 

— Assyr. P. 8. F. 10. P. 10. F. 7, 13—16. 
18, 20. — Pers. P. 12. F. 4-6. — Phoen. 
P. 13. F. 6, 7, 9, 15-17. — Ind. P. 16. 
F. 17, 18. 28, 30, 31. — Grec. P. 17. F. 13. 
P. 26. F. 1-17. - Etrus. P. 32. F. 23. - 
Rom. P. 40. F.3. P. 41. F. 16. P. 42. F 13. 
P. 43. F. 12. — Celt. P. 51. F. 9, 11, 13. 
P. 53. F. 18, 19, 21. — Romque p. lOO. 
F. 10. — Mahom. P. 133. F. 6, 9 — 18thC. 
P. 376. F. 1—9. — Page 36. 

Eaves tile. — Jap. P. 199. F. 7, 8. 

Emblem. - Lat. Ren. P. 284. F. 7. P. 374. F. 5. 

Embroidery. — Assyr. P. 9. F. 6. P. 10. 
F. 27. — Celt. P. 50. F. 1, 3. — Russ. 
P. 111. F. 1. — Mahom. P. 133. F 4.- 
Goth. P. 140. F. 6, 7. P. 144. F. 1. — 
Chin. P. 189. F. 13. — Ren. P. 213. F.'3, 
4. P. 214. F. 2, 7. P. 224. F. 5, 6, 8. 
P. 270. F. 5, 11. — Lat. Ren. P. 275. F. 3. 

— Roc. P. 319. F. 1-7. P. 321. F. 1,4-6. 

— 18th C. P. 350. F 1, 5, 6. — Page 362. 
Embroidery-frame. — Grec. P. 30. F. 15. 
Enamelled-worl«. — Byz. P. 70. F. 4. — 

Romque p. 77. F. 1— 12. P. 85. F. 1, 12. 

— Goth. P. 141. F. 2, 8. P. 143. F. 3. - 
Jap. P. 198. F. 4. — Ren. P. 212. F. 5, 6, 
8, 9. P. 223. F. 7. P. 244. F. 4, 5. P. 260. 
F. 2, 3, 5. Pages 205. 412 

Encaustic tile. — Romque p. 96. F 14. — 
Mahom. P. 114. F. 3, 4. P. 119. F. 1—7. 
P. 127. F. 5, 7, 12. P. 128. F. 1—4. P. 130. 
F. 2-4, 7. 8. - Goth. P. 151. F. 7-9. P. 153. 
F. 8-10. P. 167. F. 1 P. 168. F. 2. - Ren. 
p. 221. F 7, 9. P. 234. F. 5 8. P. 235. 



F. 2, 3. 5, 7. P. 268. F. 4. - Lat. Ren. P.29a 

F.4-8. — Roc. P. 327. F.7. — Page 225. 
Entablature. — Grec. P. 18. F. 1. P. 20. 

F. 3. P. 21. F. 2. P. 22. F. 3. - Rom. P.33. 

F. 1, 2. P. 34. F. 1, 4. P. 35. F. 2. P. 36. 

F. 1. 3. — Romque p. 80. F. 2, 3. — Mahom. 

P. 131. F.1.2. — Ren. P.201. F.2. P. 203. 

F. 3, 4. P. 207. F. 3. - Lat. Ren. P. 287. 

F. 3. P. 355. F. 1 P. 356. F. 1. P. 357. 

F. 2. P. 358. F. 1. 3. P. 359. F. 1 , 3. P. 360. 

F. 4. P. 361. F. 1 - Emp. P. 377. F 1. 
Equestrian statue. — Ren. P. 206. F 3. 
Escutcheon. — Roc. P. 333. F. 5. 
Ewer. — Ren. P. 212. F 5. 6. - Lat. Ren. 

P. 285. F. 1. 
Facade. — Ren. P. 229. F. 1, 5. — 18thC. 

P. 352. F 1, 2. 
Faience. — Egypt. P. 7. F 4. — Ren. P. 21 1. 

F 1-8. P. 221. F. 2, 3. 8.* - Lat. Ren. 

P. 273. F. 3. P. 285. F. 2-4. — Page 485 
Fan. — Preh. P. 3. F. 2. — Grec. P. 28. F. 8. 

— Mahom. P. 134. F 4, 5. — Ren. P. 225. 

F. 1. — Page 544. 
Fan-light. — Lat. Ren. P. 289. F. 3. — 18th C. 

P. 375. F. 2. 
Fasces. — Rom. P. 38. F. 2, 4. 
Female apparel. — Ind. P. 16. F 2. — 

Grec. P. 28. F 2. 
Fibula. — Preh. P. 1. F. 33. 41 - Etrus. 

P. 32. F 8.— Celt. P.50. F 11, 12 P. 53. 

F. 4. 12 
Fighting car. — Page 28 
Fig-leaf. — Goth P. 137. F 3. 
Finial. — Mahom. P. 124. F 1, 2. - Goth. 

P. 135. F 1. 7, 9, 10. P. 147. F 2, 3. 5. 

P. 148. F 5. P. 149. F. 5. 8, 9. P. 151. F. 2. 

P.153. F.1.P.161. F 2,6,7 —Ren. P. 227. 

F 6. P. 228. F. 2, 3. P. 237. F 5. P. 242. 

F. 5. P. 254. F. 2. 
Fire-dog. — Ren. P. 254. F. 3. P. 255. F. 8. 

P. 257. F 9 
Fire-stove. — Goth. P. 167. F 1 — Ren. 

P. 239. F. 1. P. 258. F. 4. - Roc. P. 327. 

F. 7. — 18th C. p. 353. F. 7 — Emp. 

P. 390. F 2, 3. 
Fire-grate. - 18th c. P. 367. F 4 
Fire-screen. — Lat. Ren. P. 291. F 6. - 

Roc. P. 325. F 3. - l-8th C. P. 348. 

F. 1. P. 370. F. 3. 
Flagon. — Romque p. 84. F 5 - Mahom. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



637 



P. 133. F. 1. — Goth. P. 143. F. 10. — 

Ren. P. 223. F. 5. 
Floor-pavement — Assyr. P. 9. F. 1. — 

Grec. P. 23. F. 3. — Ponip. P. 4a F. 3, 6, 

8. — Early-Chr. P. 62. F. 9. 
Font — Byz. P. 65. F. 2. — Romque p. 97. 

F.4, 6, 9. — Goth. P. 163. F. 4. — Ren. 

P. 236. F.7. — LatRen. P. 311. F. 6. - 

Pages 297, 422. 
Foot-gear. — Egypt. P. a F. 8, 13. — 

Grec. P. 30. F. 6, 7. - Rom. P. 41. F. 7, 

18. 27, 28. 
FootstooL — Assyr. P. 10. F. 6. 
Fork. — Assyr. P. 10. F. 22. — Rom. P. 42. 

F. 16. 19. 21. — Mahom. P. 330. F. 10. — 

Ren. P. 223. F. 9. 14. P. 245. F. 4, 6. — 

Roc. P. 321. F. 11. 
Fountain. — Early Chr. P. 58. F. 3. — Goth. 

P. 145* F. 6. — Ren. P. 208. F. 2, 3, 5, 6. 

P. 235. F. 5, 6. — Lat. Ren. P. 272. F. 6. 

— Roc. P. 314. F.2, 3. 
Frame. — Ren. P. 267. F. 4. — Lat Ren. 

P. 293. F.5. - Roc. P. 313. F. 1. P. 318, 

F.4. P. 331. F.2, 4, 5. - CoL P. 335. 

F. 7, 8. 
Fret-work fillet — Roc. P. 331. F. 6—8. 
Frieze. — Egypt. P. 5. F. 10, 13. — Pers. 

P. 11. F. 1, 2, 4, 5, 9. — Phoen. P. 13. 

F. 1. — Grec. P. 17. F. 18. P. 23. F. 2, 

6, 7. — Rom. P. 33. F. 16. P. 34. F. 4. 

P. 35. F. 3. P. 38. F. 6, 7. - Early-Chr. 

P. 60. F. 1. P. 65. F. 6. - Romque p. 72. 

F. 13. P. 73. F. 1, 2. P. 79. F. 2, 3. P. 86. 

F.3. — Mahom. P.112. F. 14. P.115. F.7. — 

Goth. P. 139. F. 2. P. 161. F. 1. P. 184. 

F. 5. P. 195. F. 2. — Ren. P. 202. F. 2. 

P. 204. F. 1. P. 207. F. 3. P. 231. F. 4. 

P. 256. F. 3, 4. — Lat. Ren. P. 308. F. 6. 

P.358. F.4. — 18th C. p. 371. p. 8. — Text- 
figures P. 45, 136. 159, 592. 
Frontispiece. — Pages 12. 113, 337, 543. 
Furniture. — Egypt. P. 6. F. 20-24. — 

Assyr. P. 10. F. 2. 6, 19.- — Ind. P. 16. 

F. 1. 4, 7, 8. — Grec. P. 28. F. 4, 6, 10, 

15—20. — Early-Chr. P. 61. F. 3. P. 62. 

F. 4, 6. — Byz. P. 68. F. 18—20. — Romq^e 

P. 75. F. 1. 11—13, 16, 21. P. 84. F. 1. 

6, 8, 11. — Goth. P. 142. F. 3-5. P. 171. 

F. 1, 2, 6. P. 180. F. 5. - Chin. P. 1«9. 

F. 4, 5, 9. 10. - Ren. P. 210. F. 2, 3. 

P. 22a F. 3-6. P. 232. F. 2, 3. P. 238. 



F. 1-3. P. 249. F. 1. P. 25a F. 4, 6, 8. 
P. 253. F. 6, 7. P. 368. F. 5. P. 269. 
F. 1—7. — Lat. Ren. P. 273. F. 5, 6. P. 274. 
F. 1, 4. P. 284. F. 1-6. P. 297. F. 2. P. 305. 
F. 1-4, 6, 7. - Roc. P. 313. F.2. P. 317. 
F. 1, 2. P. 318. F. 3, 5. P. 320. F, 1—4. 
P. 325. F. 1-3. P. 326. P. 327. F. 7. 
P. 330. F. 2-5. P. 331. F. 1-8. P. 332. 
F. 1-3, 5. - P. 333. F. 1-3, 6-13. CoL 
P. 336. F. 1—7. P. 337. F. 3-8, 10, 11. 

— 18th c. P. 341. F. 1, 4, 5. P. 347. 
F. 1—4. P. 348. F. 1, 2, 5-7. P. 349. 
F. 1, 2, 5-8, 11, 12. P. 367. F. 2, 3. 
P. 368. F. 1. P. 369. F. 1, 4, 5. P. 37a 
F. 1-7. P. 371. F. 2—9. P. 372. F. 1—6. 
P.37a F.l-10.-Emp.P.380.F.4.P.381. 
F.4. P. 383. F. 1-5. P. 385. F.2, 9, 10. 
P. 386, F. 1—5. P. 387. F. 1—3, 5. P. 391. 
F. 1-4, 6, 7. P. 392. F. 1-3. - Biederm. 
P. 394. F. 1—7. — Neo G. P. 398. F. 1, 2, 
6, 7. P. 399. F. 1. 3. — Pages 418, 603. 

Furniture mounting. — Emp. P. 384. 

F. 1-14. P. 385. F. 1, 5, 8, 11-13. 
Gable. - Goth. P. 166. F. 3, 4. P. 179. 

F. 1. — Ren. P. 217. F. 7. P. 236. F. 5. 

P. 252. F. 6. P. 259. F. 3. P. 262. F. 9. — 

Page 281. 
Gallery. — Goth. P. 135. F. 2. — Ren. 

P. 231. F. 1. P. 236. F. 2. — Lat. Ren. 

P. 288. F. 2. 
Gargoyle. — Goth. P. 135. F. 4. P. 153. 

F. 6. P. 173. F. 10. — Jap. P. 198. F. 2. 
Gate. — Goth. P. 158. F.2. — Ren. P. 228. 

F. 4. P. 229. F. 5. P. 230. F 5. P. 231. 

F.2. P. 236. F.4. P. 262. F. 11. — Lat. 

Ren. P. 271. F 5. P. 289. F.4. P. 303. 

F. 1. P. 307. F. 5. — Roc. P. 314. F. 5. — 

18th C. P. S52. F. 2. P. 375. F. 1. 
Gate-pier. — Lat. Ren. P. 271. F. 7. P. 299. 

F. 5. — Col. P. 335. F. 1. 
Gateway. — Ren. P. 229. F. 5. P. 26l 

F. 11. __ 18th c. p. 352. F.2. 
Girdle. - Preh. P. 1. F. 18. — Ind. P. 16. F.2. 
Glass door. — Roc. P. 333. F.6, 7, 12, 13. 

- 18th c. P. 373. F. 10. 

Glass vessel. — Phoen. P. 13. F. 8, 19. — 
Pomp. P. 47. F. 13. — Celt. P. 51. F. 8, 10. 
P. 53. F. 17. — Mahom. P. 120. F. 6—8. — 
Ren. P.212. F. 2-4,8,9, 10. P.223.F.3-5. 
P. 245. F. 2. — Neo G. P. 3 )9. F. 4. — 
Page 205. 



(538 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Glazed bas-relief. - Pers. P. 12. F. 1, 2, 

11. 12. 
Glazed brick. - Assyr. P. 8. F 16. P. 9. 

F. 3, 8, 10. -^ Pers. P. 11. F. 1, 2, 8, 9. 

P. 12. F. 1. 2, 15. P. 125. r 1. P, 128. 

F. 5, 6. P. 129. F 1-5. 
Glazed terra-cotta. -^ Mahom. P. 126. 

F. 1—17. — Ren. P. 239. F. 5, 6. - 18th c. 

P. 353. F. 7 - Emp. P. 390. F. 3. 
Glove. — Goth. P. 160. F 20. 
Goblet. — Assyr. P. 10. F 16. - Goth. 

P. 143. F. 3, 11. P. 145. F. 2. P. 154. 

F. 3. P. 167. F. 3. P. 173. F 3. - Ren. 

P. 212. F. 7 P. 245. F. 3. — L^t. Ren. 

P. 293. F 4 — Neo G. P. 399. F 4. — 

Page 485. 
Gold brocade. - Ren P. 246. F. 2, 3, 5 
Gold embroidery. - Rom. P. 83. F. 9. — 

Mahom P.134. F3— 5 — Lat.Ren. P.275. 

F.3. 
Gold jewel. - Preh. P. 1. F 19. - Egypt. 

P. 7. F. 2, 9, 1 1. 12, 15, 17 - Assyr. P. 10. 

F 8-11, 24, 26, 27, 28. - Phoen. P. 13. 

F 5. 13, 18 - Ind. P. 16. F. 15, 16, 25. 

26. - Grec. P. 17. F 2, 4-12, 16, 17 — 

P. 30. F 1—5, 8. - Etrus. P. 32. F 4, 

16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 25. - Rom. P. 41. F 13. 

P. 43. F 1, 3-7, 13-18, 21. 22 P. 44. 

F. 4. - Pomp P. 47. F 8, 9, 10, 16. - 

Celt. P. 50. F 18, 22. 24-27 P. 51. F. 2. 

P.52. F. 1-5. 7-13. 15, 16. P. 53. F 9, 

13. 14. 23. - Early-Chr P. 59. F 1-4. 

P. 61. F 4-7 - Byz P. 66. F 1 P. 68. 

F. 11. 17. - Romque p. 75. F 18. P. 84. 

F 9. - Russ. P. 111. F. 2-5. — Goth. 

P. 143. F. 11. P. 173. F 5, 9. - Ren. 

P. 223. F. 2. P. 232. F. 6. P. 244. F. 2, 

4-9, 12. P. 251. F. 4. 9. P. 255. F. 4, 6. 

- Lat.Ren P. 292. F. 1—4, 6, 9, 12 — 
Roc. P. 321. F. 2, 3, 7-9 - 18th C. 
P. 350. F 7. 8. P. 351. F 1—8. - Pages 
412, 427. 558, 

Gold utensils. — Rom. P. 100. F 5. 8. 

- Russ. P.110.F.9. 10. 11.- Goth. P. 173. 
F. 6. — Chin. P. 193. F. 4. — Ren. P. 223. 
F 13. P. 258. F. 1. - Lat. Ren. P. 293. 
F 1,4.- Roc. P. 329. F. 1-5, 9. 

Gold vessel. — Early-Chr. P. 62. F. 5. - 
Romque P. 74. F 2, 8. P. 75. F. 5. P. 84. 
F. 3 5. P. 96. F. &, 10.* - P, 100. F. 3, 



5. 8. - Russ. P. 110. F. 8. — Goth. P. 143. 

F 3. — Ren. P. 212. F. 1. 5, 6. 
Gothic Flora. — Goth. P. 137. F. 1—11. 
Greaves.— Preh. P. 1. F. 15. — Grec. P. 29. 

F. 11. — Etrus. P. 32. F. 7, 12, 14. 
Greek fret. — Grec. P. 27. F 2. 4. 13—16, 

21-25, 34, 38. 
Griffin's head. - Rom. — Page 77. 
Grille. - Romque p. 83. F. 1, 10, 11. P. 99. 

F 13. - Goth. P. 181. F. 6. — Ren. P.209. 

F. 6. P. 242. F. 6, 7, 8. — Lat. Ren. P. 272. 

F 1. P. 280. F. 6. P. 289. F. 1, 3, 4. 

P. 303. F. 1. P. 306. 1—4. P. 307. F. 1. 

— Roc. P. 314. F. 5. P. 324. F. 6. — Col. 
P. 338. F. 2. - 18th C. P. 346. F. 1-3. 
P. 354. F. 3-6. P. 358. F. 5. P. 375. 
F. 1, 2. — Emp. P. 393. F. 5, 6. 

Grotesque figure. — Roc. P. 329. F. 8. 
Guitar. - Egypt. P. 7. F. 10. — Ind. P. 16. 

F. 20. 
Halberd. - Ren. P. 222. F. 1, 4, 5. P. 243. 

F 2.6. 
Hall clock. — Col. P. 336. F. 3. 
Handmirror. — Grec. P. 28. F. 1. — Ren. 

P. 225. F. 2. 
Hanging lamp. — Lat. Ren. P. 274. F. 2, 3. 

— 18th C. p. 348. F. 4. 

Harness. — Egypt. P. 7. F. 14. — Assyr 

P. 9. F. 1 1 — P. 10. F. 25. — Grec. P. 30. 

F 19 — Goth. P. 140. F. 9 — Ren. 

P. 243. F 4, 5. 
Harp. — Ren. P. 215. F. 4. 
Head dress. — Pers. P. 12. F. 10. — Celt. 

P. 50. F. 14, 15. — Goth. P. 140. F. 4. 

P. 160. F. 1, 3, 10, 11, 19. P. 176. F. 5. - 

Ren. P. 214. F. 4. — Page 270. 
Helmet. — Preh. P. 2. F.41. — Grec. P. 29. 

F. 1, 2, 6, 7, 10. 13. — Etrus. P. 32. F. 2,5. 

— Rom. P. 44. F. 2, 6, 14. — Russ. P. 110. 
F.7 - Mahom. P. 1 15. F. 12. -Goth. P. 176. 
F. 1, 2. - Jap. P. 199. F. 5. — Ren. P. 215. 
F. 5. P. 222. F. 2. P. 223. F. 11. P. 232. 
F. 1. 

Hermes. - Ren. P. 217. F..8. P. 235. F. 2. 
Hinge. — Romque P.82. F. 2. - Ren. P. 242. 

F. 1, 3. - Lat.Ren. P. 289. F. 5. - Page 

252. 
Holy-water vessel. - Roc. P. 323. F. 1. 
Horn vessel. - Goth. P. 176. F. 4. 
Horse Ring. - Ren. P. 210. F. 4. 
Huntinjj horn. — Early-Chr. P. 61. F. 9. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



639 



Hunting spear. — Preh. P. 1. F. 16, 42. 

— Ind. P. 16. F. 10. - Ren. P. 243. F. 1. 
Incense box. — Rom. P. 41. F. 4, 26. 
Initial. — Celt. P. 54. F. 2, 6. P. 56. F. 4, 

9. P. 56. F. 4. — Romque p. 75. F. 2. 7. 
P. 84. F. 4. P. 101. F. 1—12. — Goth. 
P. 159. F. 7, 8. 9, 10. P. 174. F. 1—13. 

— Ren. P. 214. F. 3, 5. P. 233. F. 4, 5. 
P. 247. F. 1. 3. 13. — Lat. Ren. P. 295. 
F. 1, 2. — Pages 7, 3, 12, 29, 71, 107. 
114, 125, 137, f83, 193, 198, 235. 238, 
252, 254, 274, 298. 310, 339. 362, 377, 
388, 414, 419, 428, 453, 481, 487, 503. 

Ink-stand. — Page 507. 

Inlaid work. — Ren. P. 238. F. 3. 

Inscription. — Byz. P. 69. F. 1. — Romque 

P. 106. F. 5. — Pages 211, 228. 
Intarsia work. — Ren. P. 210. F. 1, 6. 

P. 226. F.8, 11,12. 
Interior decoration. — Roc. P. 322. P. 326. 

— Emp. P. 389. 
Interlacing ornament. — Celt. P. 54. F. 5, 

7_9, 11-14. P. 55. F. 8. 9, 11, 13, 15, 
16—20. P. 56. F. 1, 2, 4. — Early-Chr. P. 57. 
F. 1_3, 5—12. P. 58. F. 6. — Byz. P. 64. 
F. 4. — Romque p. 79. F. 5. P. 86. F. 3, 5 
P. 92. F. 3. P. 93. F. 2. P. 94. F. 2. P. 97. 
F. 4, 7 P. 102. F. 5, 7. P. 103. F. 1-6, 

10, 11. P. 104. F. 1-6. P. 106. F. 4. — 
Russ. P. 109. F. 2. P. 110. F. 1—5, 14. — 
P. 111. F. 2. — Mahom. P. 112. F. 8, 14. 
P. 113. F. 5, 13—16. P. 114. F. 3. P. 115. 
F. 14-16. P. 117. F. 12. P. 119. F. 1-3, 
5-7. P. 120. 3-5, 9-11. P. 129. F. 2, 
4, 5. P. 133. F. 1. — Goth. P. 141. F. 2, 6. 

— Pages 110, 193, 197, 205, 235. 337. 
Iron-work, see Wrought iron. 
Ivory carving. — Preh. P. 1. F. 1—3. — 

Assyr. P. 8. F. 3—9. — Rom. P. 41. F. 17. 

P. 44. F. 10. — Byz. P. 66. F. 4. P. 67. 

F. 2—4, 6. — Ren. P. 225. F. 1. 
Jewel-case. — Ind. P. 16. F. 12, 13. — 

Grec. P. 29. F. 24. 
Jewelry. — Grec. P. 30. F. 1—5, 8. — Rom. 

P. 43. F. 3. 4, 5, 6. 7. 10, 11, 13. 14. - Celt. 

P. 50. F. 16. P. 53. F. 3. — Early-Chr. 
[J P. 59. F. 4. — Romque P. 75. F. 18. — 

Russ. P. no. F. 11. — Goth. P. 140. F. 4. 

P. 160. F. 2, 5, 9, 19. P. 173. F. 9. - 

18th C. P. 35a F. 7, 8. P. 351. F. 1—8. 



Jug. — Rom. P. 41. F. 16, 24. P. 42. 

F. 20. P. 47. F. 2. — Ren. P. 221. F. 3, 

5, 6, 8. P. 239. F. 2, 4. 5. — Ut. Ren. 

P. 285. F. 4. P. 292. F. 5. — 18th c. 

P. 376. F. 4. 
Key. — Rom. P. 41. F. 14. — Goth. P. 18a 

F. 2, 4. - Ren. P. 225. F. 3. P. 241. F. 4. 

— Roc P. 317. F. 3. P. 327. F. 5. 
Key-hole plate. — Romque p. 105. p. 5. 

— Goth. P. 169. F. 8, 10. — Chin. P. 192. 
F. 1. P. 196. F. 1. - Emp. P. 386. F. 6. 

— Page 605. 

Keystone. — Lat Ren. P. 276. F. 4. P. 291. 

F. 5. — 18th C. P. 343. F. 1. 
Knife. - Preh. P. 2. F. 6, 23, 30. — Egypt 

P. 6. F. 14. — Celt P. 51. F. 14. — Mahom. 

P. 130. F. 9, 10. — Goth. P. 140. F. 1. 

P. 143. F. 9. — Ren. P. 223. F. 1, la 

P. 245. F. 6. 
Knife handle. — 18th C. P. 350. F. 3. 
Knocker see Door-knocker. 
Krater. — Grec. P. 26. F. 16. — Russ. 

P. lia F. 9. 
Kylix. - Grec. P. 26. F. 14. P. 28. F. 9. 
Labrum. — Rom. — Page 72. 
Lace-work. — Ren. P. 224. F. 1, 2. P. 244. 

F. 10, 11. P. 353. F. 3, 5. — Lat Ren. 

P. 273. F. 2, 4. P. 276. F. 1. 2, 4. P. 297. 

F. 1. 
Lacquer Painting. — Jap. P. 198, F. 5— 12. 

— Page 323. 

Ump. — Rom. P. 42. F. 13. P. 43. F. 9, 

12, 19, 2a — Pomp. P. 47. F. 12. — Romque 

P. 76. F. la — Mahom. P. 115. F. 5, 6. 

P. 120. F. 7. — Jap. P. 197. F. 3. P. 288. 

F. 5. — Roc, P. 332. F. 4. — 18th C P. 353. 

F. 5, 6. — Page 205. 
Lamp Stand. — Roc P. 333. F. 8, 11. — 

18th C. P. 349. F. 1. 
Lance-head. — Preh. P. 1. F. 20. 40, 44. 

P. 2. F. 26. — Mahom. P. 133. F. 3. P. 134. 

F. 2. 
Lantern. - Rom. P. 100. F. 17. - 18th C 

P. 353. F. 4. — Page 480. 
Lead work. — Lat. Ren. P. 299. F. 6. 

P. 309. F. 2. 
Leaf cresting. — Goth. P. 148. F. 8, 9. 
Leaf-table. — Ren. P. 249. F. 1. 
Leather-work. — Egypt P. 6. F. 13. - 

Rom. P. 41. F. 7. 18, 27, 28. — Romque p. 75. 

F. 17. - Goth. P. 14a F. 9. P. 160. F. 17. 



640 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



— Ren. P. 225. F. 4. P. 240. F. 4. 18th C. 
P. 350. F. 2. — Page 529. 
Lecterfi. -- Goth. P. 146. F. 5. P. 171. 

F. 4. 
Letterinjf. — Celt. P. 56. F. 4. — Byz. 
P. 66. F. 10. — Romque p. loi. F. 1— 13. — 
Goth. P. 159. F. 1—8. P. 174. F. 1—13. 
P. 175. F. 1-5. — Ren. P. 214. F. 2, 3, 5. 
P. 233. F. 1—5. P. 247. F. 1-5, 8—13. 
P. 248. F. 1, 2. — Lat. Ren. P. 295. F. 1, 
2, 4, 5. — Roc. P. 319. F. 3, 5, 6. 
Uon. — Egypt. P. 6. F. 15, 18. — Assyr. 

P. 8. F. 8, 16. P. 9. F. 12. — Grec. P. 23. 

F. 4. Romque p. 88. F. 4, 5. — Goth. 

P. 177. F. 3. — Ren. P. 217. F. 9. 
Lock. — Goth. P. 140. F. 8. P. 180. F. 1, 3. 

— Ren. P. 242. F. 2, 4. — Lat. Ren. P. 289. 

F. 2. P. 291. F. 5. — 18th C. P. 347. F. 6. 
Locksmith's design. — Lat. Ren. P. 280. 

F. 4, 7. 
Looking-glass. — Ren. P. 269. F. 5. — 

Roc. P. 331. F. 2, 4, 5. P. 333. F. 10. — 

Emp. P.385. F. 2. P. 392. F. 1 
Lotus capital. — Egypt. P. 4. F 1—4, 9. 
Lotus ornament. — Egypt. P. 4. F 5, 6, 

8, 10. P. 6. F 9, 13. — Ind. P. 14. F 5—8. 

P. 15. F. 9. 
Lyre: — Grec. P. 28. F. 11-13. ~ Page 

617, 
Madonna. — Early-Chr. P. 61. F. 10. 
Majolica. — Ren. P. 211. F. 2—5, 7. 8. 
Mantle. — Goth. P. 144. F 1. P. 181. 

F. 1. — Jap. P. 200. F. 6. 
Mantel-piece. — Ren. P. 206. F 4. — 

Lat. Ren. P. 303. F. 5. P. 309. F 1. — 

Roc. P. 331. F. 5. — Col. P. 334. F- 1, 4, 6 

P. 335. F. 2, 5. P. 338. F. 1. P. 339. — 

18th C. P. 345. F. 1. P. 354. F. 1. P. 361. 

F 4. 5. P. 363. F. 1. P. 474. F. 2, 4. — 

Emp. P. 380. F 1 P. 388. F 3. P. 392. 

F. 4. 
Manuscript painting. — Celt. P. 54. 

F. 1—4, 6-11. P. 55. F. 1-21. P. 56. 

F: 1—4. _ Byz. P. 66. F. 2. 10. P. 68. F. 7 

Romque p. 75. F. 2, 7. P. 84. F 4. P. lOK 

F.1-13. — Russ.P.llO.F.1-5. — Mahom. 

P. 130. F. 14. — Goth. P. 142. F. 1. 

P. 154. F 4, 7. 8. P. 170. F. 5, 7. P. 174. 

F. 1-13. P. 183. F. 1-8. - Pages 110, 

125, 137, 193, 197, 237, 238, 252, 254. 

274. 298. 310, 362. 



Marble inlaid -work. — Mahom. P. 134. 

F. 7. 
Marble statue. Rom. P. 44. F. 15." 
Marble table. — Rom. P. 47. F. 1. 
Marquetry. — Goth. P. 168. F. 3. 
Mask. — Grec. P. 29. F. 22, 23. — Rom. 

P. 41. F. 25. — Lat. Ren. P. 276. F. 4. 

P. 287. F. 4. 
Meadow-rue. Goth. P. 137. F. 11. 
Medallion. — Ind. P. 15. F. 4. P. 16. F. 5. 

— Rom. P. 43. F. 2. - Early-Chr. P. 61. 

F. 7. - Byz. P. 69. F. 9. - Ren. P. 255. 

F. 4. — Col. P. 334. F. 3. 
Medusa head. — Rom. P. 43. F 25. 
Mcissener Porcelain. — Roc. P. 329. 

F. 1—8. 
Memorial wreath. — Rom. P. 41. F. 13. 
Mercury, head of. — Rom. P. 42. F. 9. 
Mexican Doorway. — Page 10. 
Military badge. — Assyr. P. 9. F. 9. — 

Rom. P. 44. F. 9, 11, 12. 
Minaret. — Mahom. P. 127. F 10. P. 131. 

F. 2, 3. 
Miniature painting. — Byz. P. 67. F 5. 

P. 68. F 1-6, 8—10. 
Mirror. — Grec. P. 28. F. 1. — Etrus. P. 32. 

F. 13. - 18th C. P. 268. F. 2. 
Mirror frame. — Lat. Ren. P. 293. F. 5. — 

Roc. P. 325. F. 2. — 18th c. P. 349. F. 8. 
Mirror handle. — Grec. P. 29. F. 15. 
Mitre. — Romque p. lOO. F. 7 — Ren. 

P.251. F 1. — Page 427. 
Monogram. — Roc. P. 319. F. 4. — Page55<9. 
Monogram of Christ. — P. 60. F 7 
Monstrance. Lat. Ren. P. 293. F. 1. 
Monument. — Goth. P. 148. F. 3. P. 167. 

F. 4. - Lat. Ren. P. 310. F 4. 
Mosaic. — Pers. P. 12. F. 15. — Grec. P. 23. 

F. 3. — Pomp. P. 46. F 1, 3, 6-8. - 

Early-Chr. P. 62. F. 9, 10. — Byz P. 66. 

F. 5-9. — Romque p. 90. F. 7-12. P. 91. 

F 1, 3, 6, 7, 9. — Mahom. P. 115. F. 1-3, 

7, 13. P. 120. F. 3. 10, II. P. 134. P. 7 

P. 178. F. 5. - Ren. P. 209. F. 4. P. 211. 

F 6. P. 234. F 6. — Page 165. 
Moulding. — Grec. P. 19. F. 1 — 14. - 

Romque p. 99. F. 1—12. — Goth. P. 149. 

F. 3, 9. P. 168. F. 1. — Ren. P. 266. F. 3. 

— Lat. Ren. P. 309. F. 4- 6. P. 310. F. 2, 3. 

— Page 295. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



641 



iMural painting and decoration. — Egypt. 
P. 4. F. 10. P. 5. F. 10, 12, 14. P. 6. 
F. 1—7. P. 7. F. 1, 10, 13. — Assyr. 
P. a F. 12. — Grec. P. 17. F. 1. — 
Elms. P. 31. F. 4. P. 32. F. 9, 10. 

— Pomp. P. 45. F. 2. 3. P. 46. F. 2, 4, 
5, 7. P. 48. F. 1—5, 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 
17, 20, 21, P. 49. F. 1-10. — Romque 
P. 72. F. 9—12. P. 91. F. 4, 5. 8. P. 95. 
F. 1. P. 97. F. 7, 8. — Russ. P. 111. 
F. 6. — Goth. P. 139. F. 1-13. P. 177. 
F. 2, 6. P. 178. F. 6. 7. P. 180. F. 6. 
P. 181. F. 4. — Jap. P. 197. F. 1, 5. — 
Ren. P. 204. F. 2, 4, 5. P. 215. F. 1. 
P. 226. F. 1, 3—6, 9, 10. P. 240. F. 1, 2. 
5. - Lat. Ren. P. 279. F. 3. P. 281. F. 1. 
3, 4. — Roc. P. 3ia F. 2. — 18th c. 
P. 340, 342. F. 4, 5. P. 371. F. 1. 

— Emp. P. 380. F. 2, 3. P. 388. F. 1. 
P. 389. F. 1. — Pages 21, 41, 67, 69, 
115, 148, 592. 

Musical instrument — Egypt. P. 7. F. 6. 

— Ind. P. 16. F. 20. — Grec. P. 28. F. 11 
—13. — Ren. P. 215. F. 4. — Lat. Ren. 
P. 284. F. 5, 6. P. 301. F. 8. P. 363. F. 2, 
3. — P. 369. F. 1, 2. — Emp. P. 391. 
F. 5. 

Nail-iiead. — Jap. P. 197. F. 6—11. — Ren. 

P. 227. F. 1. 
Nautilus goblet. — Lat. Ren. P. 293. F. 4. 
Necltlace. — Preh. P. 1. F. 37. — Egypt. 

P. 7. F. 9. — Assyr. P. 10. F. 28. — Grec. 

P. 30. F. 20, 23. — Rom. P. 43. F. 3. — 

Celt. P. 51. F. 3—5. P. 53. F. 13. — Goih. 

P. 143, F. 11. P. 160. F. 9. — 18th C. 

P. 351. F. 3. Page 66. 
Needlework. — Assyr. P. 9. F. 6. P. 10. 

F. 27. — Ren. P. 270. F. 5, 7, 8, 11. 
Newel. — Goth. P. 185. F. 5. — Ren. P. 263. 

F. 5. 
Ogee. — Grec. P. 19. F. 6—14. — Rom. P. 33. 

F. 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14. 
Oinochoe. — Grec. P. 26. F. 1—4. 6, 7, 9, 

13. 
Order. — Grec. P. 18. F. 1, P. 20. F. 3, 8, 

9. P. 21. F. 1, 4, 10. P. 22. F. 1, 3. — 

Rom. P. 33. F. 1, 2. P. 34. F. 1, 2. P. 35. 

F. 2, 9. P. 36. F. 1, 3. P. 45. F. 1. 7. - 

Ren. P. 229. F, 2, — Lat. Ren. P. 308. 

F. 1. 3. — 18th C. P. 343. F. 5, 6. P. 352. 

F. L P. 355. F. 1. P. 356. F. 1-3. 
SPELTZ. Styles of Oraament. 



P. 357. F. 1-3. P. 358. F. 1. 3. P. 359. 

F. 1-3. P. 360. F.4, 7. P. 361. F. 1, 2. 

P. 362. F. 2. — Emp. P. 377. F. 1. 

P. 389. — Neo G. P. 396. F. 2. 
Organ. — LaL Ren. P. 301. F. 8. — 18th C 

P. 363. F. 2, 3. 
Overmantel. — Roc. P. 333. F. 10. 
Paddle. - Preh. P. 3. F. 12. 13. 
Pagoda. — Chin. P. 189. F. 11, 12. 
Painted ornament. See Mural painting. 
Pallet knife. — Preh. P. 3. F. 7. 
PaneL — Early-Chr. P. 60. F. 6. — Byz. 

P. 65. F. 1. P. 66. F. 3, 6. — Mahom. P. 1 17. 

F. 7. P. 118. F. 1-6. P. 121. F. 2, 3. 

P. 124. F. 6. — Goth. P. 150. F. 1. P. 156. 

F. 2-4. P. 157. F. 6. P. 164. F. 6, 7. 

P. 187. F. 4. — Ren. P. 210. F. 1, 5, 6. 

P. 217. F. 5. P. 219. F. 3, 6, 7. P. 23a 

F. 6. P. 238. F. 5, 6, 8. P. 240. F. 5. P. 249. 

F. 3. P. 250. F. 1, 2. P. 263. F. 1. 3. 

P. 264. F. 6. P. 265. F. 2, 4, 6. — Lat. 

Ren. P. 301. F. 6. P. 303. F. 6. P. 304. 

F. 3. — 18th c. P. 341. F. 2. P. 352. F. 3. 

P. 369. F. 3. P. 371. F. 1. P. 374. F. 3. 6. 

— Page 288. 
Papyrus capital. — Egypt. P. 4. F. 9. P. 5. 

F. 1, 5, 6. 8. 
Papyrus ornament. — Egypt. P. 4. F. 7, 

10. P. 5. F. 11. 
Palm tree capltaU — Egypt. P. 5. F. 2. 

4, 14. 

Parapet. — Byz. P. 69. F. 3. — Goth. P. 135. 

F. 2. P. 144. F.3, 4. P. 178. F. 2. P. 186. 

F. 4. — Page 238. 
Parquetry. — Emp. P. 39a F. 1. 
Parsley. — Goth. P. 137. F. 8. 
Partisan. — Ren. P. 251. F. 6. 
Paten. — Romque p. 84. F. 12. 
Pea-tendriL — Page 222. 
Pedestal. — Mahom. P. 122. F. 2, 4. — Ren. 

P. 218. F. 3. P. 235. F. 9. — Roc. P. 333. 

F. 8, 9, 11. - Page 112, 
Pediment. — Grec. P. 18. F. 1, 2. 
Pendant — Ren. P. 232. F. 6. P. 244. F. 2, 

5, 7, 12. P. 255. F. 6. - 18th c. P. 351. 
F. 5, 8. 

Perfuming censer. — Emp. P. 387. F. 4. 
Piano. — 18th C. P. 36a F. 1, 2. — Emp. 

P. 391. F. 5. 
Pier. - Ind. P. 14. F. 10, 14, 15. P. 15. F. 8. 

Byz. P. 70. F. 1, 3. — RomQu* P. 76, F. 15, 

4t 



642 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



16. P. 80. ? 4,7. — Mahom. P. 132. F. 3. 

— Goth. P. 177. F. 4. — Ren. P. 264. F. 4. 

— 18th c. P. 372. F. 4. P. 379. F. 1. 
Pierced openings. — Mahom. P. 112. F. 6. 

P. 113. F.5, 7, 11-16. P. 132. F. 1. 2. — 
Ren, P. 216. F. 3. 
Pilaster. — Rom. P. 38. F. 1, 5. — Ren. 
P. 205. F. 1. 2. P. 218. F. 2. 5. P. 227. 
F. 3, 4. P. 240. F. 5. P. 256. F. 7. — Lat. 
Ren. P. 287. F. 3. - Roc. P. 323. F. 2. 

— 18thC. P. 356. F. 3. — Emp. P. 386. 
F. 7. 

Pillar. - Ind. P. 14-. F. 5, 9. 11. — Ren. 

P. 235. F. 8. 
Pin. — Preh. P. 1..F. 45. — Rom. P. 43. 

F. 1, 5, 7, 16-18. 21, 22. 
Plaster-work see Ceiling Ornamentation and 

Stucco. 
Plate. — Mahom. P. 133. F. 6. — Chin. P. 192. 

F. 4. — Jap. P. 198. F. 1. - Ren. P. 223. 

F. 7. P. 268. F. 1, 6. — Roc. P. 328. F. 8. 

18th C. P. 376. F. 1. 2, 6-9. 
Plinth. - Ren. P. 235. F. 9. 
Pocket. — Byz. P. 70. F. 2. — Romque 

P. 88. F. 3-5. — Goth. P. 160. F. 7. 
Pommel. — Roc. P. 316. F. 4. - 18th C. 

P. 346. F. 5. 
Porcelain. — Chin. P. 190. F. 2—5, 7, 8. 

P. 191. F. 1—4. P. f92. F. 3—6. P. 193. 

1^3, 8. — Lat. Ren. P. 305. F. 5. — Roc. 

P. 328. F. 1-8. - Emp. P. 385. F. 4.' 
Porch. — Ren. P. 261. F. 3. 
Portal. — Assyr. P. 9. F. 10. — Ind. P. 14. 

F. 10. - Early-Chr. P. 58. F. 6-8. — 

Romque P. 87. F. 5. P. 88. F. 1—5. P. 93. 

F. 1. P. 98. F 5-7. P. 103. F. 1, 3, 7. 

P. 104. F. 1—6. P. 107. F. 6. — Mahom. 

P. 117. F. 8. P. 131. F. 4. - Goth. P. 163. 

F. 3. — Ren. P. 208. F. 1. 
Pot-hanger. — Romque P. 105. F. 3. 
Pottery. - Preh. P. 1. F. 6, 7, 11, 12, 34, 

39, 40. - P. 2. F. 5, 9, 10, 12, 16, 17, 19, 

20, 21, 43, 45. - Egypt. P. 7. F. 4, 5. - 

Assyr. P. 10. F. 7, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20. — 

Pers. P. 12. F. 4—6. — Phoen. P. 13. F. 6, 

7, 9, 11, 12. — Ind. P. 16. F. 7, 18. 28, 30, 

31. — Grec. P. 17. F. 13. P. 26. F, 1-17. 

— Rom. P. 41. F. 16, 24. P. 42. F. 13. 
P. 43. F. 12. — Pomp. P. 47. F. 12. — 
Celt. P. 51. F.9, Hi 13. P. 53. F. 17, 18. 
19.20-22.- Ren. P. 211, F. 1-8. P. 221. 



F. 1-6, 8. P. 268. F. 1-4. — Lat. Ren. 

P. 273. F. 3. — P. 285. F. 2, 3, 4. - 

Roc. P. 328. F. 1—8. — 18th C. P. 376. 

F. 1—9. — Nco G. P. 398. F. 4. P. 400. 

F. 4. — Page 485. 
Powder-horn. — Mahom. P. 133. F. 5. 
Processional crucifix. — Goth. P. 143. 

F. 5. — Roc. P. 313. F. 4. 
Pulpit. — Romque p. 86. F. 1. — Goth. 

P. 153. F. 5. P. 165. F. 6. P. 327. F. 1. 

— 18th C. P. 353. F. 1—3. 
Purse. — Goth. P. 140. F. 7. 

Pyx. — Rom. P. 96. F. 9, 10. P. 100. F. 3. 

 5, 8. 

Pyxis. — Grec. P. 26. F. 17. 

Quiver. — Rom. P. 43. F. 23. — Mahom. 

P. 133. F. 4. — Goth. P. 167. F. 2. 
Railing. - Goth. P. 181. F. 6. - Ren. 

P. 209. F. 6. P. 231. F. 3. 5. 6. P. 242. 

F. 6-8. P. 306. F. 1—10. — Emp. P. 393. 

F. 5, 6. 
Rainwater pipe head. — Lat. Ren. P. 299. 

F. 6. P. 309. F. 2. 
Razor. — Etrus. P. 32. F. 11.. 
Reading desk. — Early Chr. P. 62. F. 6. — 

Ren. P. 232. F. 5. — Lat. Ren. P. 282. F.2. 
Relief Ornament. — Preh. P. 1. F. 2, 23. 

31. P. 2. F. 18, 37—39. P. 3. F. 4, 9-13. 

— Egypt. P. 4. F. 5-7. P. 7. F. 2, 17. - 
Pers. P. 12. F. 13, 14. — Phoen. P. 13. 
F. 1, 21. — Ind. P. 14. F. 4, 9, 12. P. 15. 
F. 9, 11, 12. P. 16. F. 21. — Grec. P. 17. 
F. 3, 15-19. P. 18. F. 4, 8. P. 19. F. 1-10. 
P. 21. F. 2, 6, 7, 9, 11. 12. P. 25. F. 2, 3, 
5. — Etrusc. P. 31. F. 1. 3, 8. 10. P. 32. 
F. 13, 24. P. 33. F. 1-4, 8. — Rom. P. 43. 
F. 25. P. 44. F. 1, 3, 7. 13. — Goth. P. 160. 
F. 1—20. P. 184. F. 4. — Pages 3, 10. 45, 
183. 

Reliquary. — Celt. P. 50. F. 17. — Byz. 

P. 67. F. 2. P.. 68. F. 16. — RomQue p. 74. 

F. 10. P. 77. F. 7. — Goth. P. 140. F. 3. 

P. 176. F. 5. P. 181. F. 7. — Ren. P. 258. 

F. 1. — Lat. Ren. P. 290. F. 3. 
Rhyton. — Egypt. P. 7. F. 6. 
Rib. — Romque p. 75. F. 12. 
Ridge-tile. — Jap. P. 199. F. 2. 
Ring. — Egypt. P. 7. F. 12. 15. - Grec. 

P. 17. F. 6. — Celt. P. 53. F. 23. — Byz. 

P. 66. F. 1. 
Rock-crystal vessel. — Ren. P. 223. F. 5. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



643 



Roof. — Grec. P. 23. K 11. — Ren. P. 265. 

F. 1. 
Roof, open - timber. — Goth. P. 152. 

F. 1-10. 
Roof termination. ~ Chtn. P. 189. F. 8. 
Rococo forms. — Roc. P. 312. F. 1—8. 
Rose-window. — Romque p. 86. F. 4. P. 87. 

F. 4. — Goth. P. 166. F. 5. — Pages 249, 

274, 288. 
Sacrificial implements. — Grec. P. 30. 

F. 12, 13. - Rom. P. 41. F. 3, 12,21.23. 
Saddle. — Ren. P. 251. F. 2. — 18th C. 

P; 360. F. 2. 
Sandal. — Egypt. P. 6. F. 8, 13. 
Sarcophagus. — Etrusc. P. 31. F. 7. — 

— Early Chr. P. 62. F. 2, 7, 8. — Romque 
P. 94. F 7 

Satyr. — Rom. P. 42. F. 8. 

Scabbard. — Preh. P. 1. F. 30. — Jap. P. 196. 

F. 5. — Page 335. 
Scales. — Rom. P. 42. F. 7. 
Scissors. — Preh. P. 1. F. 35. — Ren. P. 222. 

F. 9. - Roc. P. 316. F. 1. 
Screen. — Jap. P. 199. F. 4. — Emp. P. 386. 

F. 2. 
Seal. — Romque p. 84. F. 7. 
Sedan chair. — Rom. P. 42. F. 10. — Rom. 

P. 100. F. 9. — Lat. Ren. P. 282. F. 5. 

P. 367. F. 1. 
Secretaire. - Ren, P. 258. F. 2. P. 333. 

F. 3. — 18th c. P. 372. F. 5. 
Sepulchral monument. — Romq"* p. lOO. 

F. 11. — Ren. P. 203. F. 1. 7. P. 206. 

F. 1. — Page 215. 
Sepulchral urn. — Preh. P. 1. F. 12, 13. 

34. P. 2. F. 5, 16, 17, 21. - Ind. P. 16. 

F. 18. — Celt. P. 53. F. 21. 
Sewing-table. — Biederm. P. 394. F. 6, 7. 
Sgraffito work. — Ren. P. 202. F. 1. P. 203. 

F. 8-10. P. 204. F. 3. 
Shaft of column. — Egypt. P. 4. F. 1. P. 5. 

F. 1. P. 7. F. 4. — Ind. P. 14. F. 5, 11. P. 15. 

F. 8. — Grec. P. 17. F. 15. — Rom. P. 34. 

F. 7. P. 36. F. 2. — Pomp. P. 45. F. 1, 

2, 7. Romq«« P. 71. F. 8. P. 73. F. 4. P. 77. 

F. 6. P. 78. F. 2. 8. P. 86. F. 5. P. Sa 

F. 5. P» 102. F. 2. P. 103. F. 2, 9. — 

Russ. P. 109. F. 6. — Mahom. P. 112. F. 5. 

P. 122. F. 3. P. 125. F. 3. P. 127. F. 9, 11. 

— Goth. P. 162. F. 5. P. 179. F. 2. - Ren. 
P. 201. F.3. P. 203. F. 1, P. 209. F. 3. 



P. 216. F. 4. P. 228. F. 3. P. 234. F. 3. 

P. 235. F. 1, 5. P. 236. F. 1 P. 252. F. 4. 

P. 253. F. 1. P. 267. F. 5. P. 269. F. 2. 

P. 261. F. 3. P. 263. F 2. P. 268. F. 5. 
Shield. — Preh. P. 2. F. 42. — Ind. P. 16. 

F. 21. - Grec. P. 29. F. 12. — Rom. P. 44. 

F. 7. — Romqu« P. 100. F. 6. — Lat. Ren. 

P. 272. F. 2. P. 303. F. 7. — Page 234. 
Ship. — Grec. P. 26. F. 4. P. 27. F. 17. — 

Romque p. 100. F. 2. 16. 
Shoe. — Egypt. P. a F. 8, 13. — Pers. P. 12. 

F. 12. - Grec. P. 30. F. 6. 7. - Rom. P. 41. 

F. 7, 27, 28. P. 44. F. 15. P. 46. F. 4. - 

Celt. P. 53. F. 15. - Romque P. 76. F. 17. 

- Goth. P. 160. F. 6. 17. — Page 529. 
Shoe buckle. — Roc. P. 327. F. 2, 3. 
Shrine. — Romq"« P. 77. F. 1-6, 8—12. 

- Jap. P. 196. F. 9. 
Sickle. — Preh. P. 1. F 43. 
Sideboard. — Col. P. 336. F. 1. — 18th c. 

P.370. F. 1. 
Sign. — Lat. Ren. P. 298. F. 1-3. P. 307. 

F. 1, 6. 
Signature tablet. — Romqu« P. 72. F. 7. 
SUk. — Jap. P. 198. F. 3. — Ren. P. 224. 

F. 3. - Lat. Ren. P. 275. F. 6. - Page 617. 
Silk damask. - Ren. P. 213. F. 5. 
Silver relief. — Russ. P. 109. F. 4, — 

Goth. P. 176. F. 4. - Ren. P. 244. F. 1. 

P. 260. F. 9. 
Silver utensils. — Rom. P. 41. F. 11. 

P. 42. F. 16, 19, 21. — Romque P. 84. F. 12 

P. lOa F. 14. — Goth. P. 143. F. 5—7, 9. 

- Ren. P. 223. F. 1. 8. 10, 14. P. 241. 
F. 3. P. 245. F. 4, 6. P. 268. F. 2. — Ut. 
Ren. P. 294. F. 4. - Roc. P. 313. F. 4. 
P. 315. F. 5. P. 321. F. 11, 12. P. 327. 
F. 2-6. — 18th c, P. 349. F. 3. P. 35a 
F. 3, 4. — Emp. P. 385. F. 6. 7. — Pages 
610, 621, 

Silver vessel. — Pers. P. 12. F. 16. 17.,— 
Phoen. P. 13. F. 21. — Grec P.sJ F. 24. 

- Rom. P. 42. F. 4. 17. P. 43. F. 26-28. 

- Pomp. P.47. F.2-4, 7.— Mahom. P.133. 
F. 8. — Goth. P. 143. F. 6, 10. P. 154. 
F.3. P. 167. F. 3. P. 173. F. 3. P. 176. 
F. 3. - Ren. P. 212. F.7. P. 222. F. 8. 
P. 245. F. 3, 5, 7. - Lat. Ren. P. 285. F. 1 , 5. 
P. 292. F. 5. — Roc. P. 316. F. 5. P. 313. 
p. 1. __ 18th C. P. 368. F. 4, 5. — Emp. 
P. 381. F.2. P. 387. F. 4. 

HI* 



644 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Sleigh. — Roc. P. 321. F. 10. 

Sofa. — Lat. Ren. P.305. F.6. — Roc. P. 320. 

F. 1. — Col. P. 337. F. 4, 6, 8. — 18th c. 

P. 347. F. 1. P. 349. F. 12. P. 370. F. 7. 

— Emp. P. 387. F. 2, 5. P. 389. F. 2. 
P. 391. F. 1, 2. P. 392. F. 2. — Biederm. 
P. 394. F. 5. — Neo G. P. 398. F. 6, 7. 

Spandrel. — Mahom. P. 117. F. 1, 2. P. 126. 

F. 5, 6. P. 127. F. 1. 2. — Goth. P. 138. 

F. 1, 8. P. 146. F. 1, 4. P. 148. F. 4. P. 150. 

F. 10. P. 151. F. 4. P. 163. F. 1. P. 164. 

F. 14. P. 184. F. 1, 2. — Ren. P. 227. 

F. 7. P. 264. F. 4. P. 265. F. 1. 
Spear-head. — Preh. P. 1. F. 16, 42. — 

Grec. P. 29. F. 16. — Etrusc. P. 32. F. 26. 
Sphinx. — Egypt. P. 6. F. 9, 11. — Pomp. 

P. 48. F. 14. 
Spinet. — Lat. Ren. P. 284. F. 5, 6. 
Spire. — Goth. P. 188. F. 4. 
Spoon. — Egypt. P. 6. F. 10. — Assyr. P. 10. 

F. 23. — Rom. P. 41. F. 11. — Romq"e 

P. 100. F. 14. — Russ. P. 110. F. 10. - 

Ren. P. 223. F. 6, 8. P. 241. F 3. P. 245. 

F. 4. 6. — Roc. P. 321. F. 11, 12. 
Spur. — Goth. P. 160. F. 12. 
Stained glass. — RomQue p. 74. p. 1 1. P. 83. 

F.3,6. — Goth. P.141. F.5,6. P.154. F.9, 10. 

P. 155. F. 1—8. P. 165. F. 1, 3-5.— Ren. 

P. 209. F. 2. P. 240. F. 3. P. 252. F. 1. 

— Page 361. 

Stair- balustrade. — Ren. P. 209. F. 9. 

P. 237. F. 4. P. 261. F. 4. P. 262. F. 6, 7. 

P. 266. F. 4. — Lat. Ren. P. 272. F. 3, 4. 

P. 303. F. 2. 
Staircase. — Ren. P. 262. F. 6. P. 266. F. 4. 

P. 303. F. 2. 
Stair newel. — Goth. P. 185. F. 5. 
Stair rail. — Ren. P. 209. F. 9. P. 237. 

F. 4. — Lat. Ren. P. 272. F. 4. 
Stalactite. — Mahom. P. 112. F. 12. P. 122. 

F. 1 P. 124. F. 3. P. 127. F. 9-11. 
Stall. — Romque p. 73. F. 3. - Goth. P. 142. 

F. 2. 5. P. 154. F. 1, 6. P. 157. F. 1, 2. 5. 

P. 171. F. 5, 7. P. 187. F. 5. — Ren. P. 217. 

F. 7. P. 238. F. 6. P. 254. F. 4. — Lai. Ren. 

P. 299. F 2. P. 301. F. 3-5, 7. 
Standard. — Assyr. P. 9. F. 9. - Rom. 

P. 44. F.9. 11. 
Statue. — Egypt. P. 4. F. 11. — Grec. P. 18. 

F 5. P. 21. F.2, 10. P. 29. F. io.- Etrus. 



P. 31. F. 7. — Rom. P. 44. F. 15. — Ren. 
P. 206. F. 3, 4. P. 207. F. 1. P. 208. F. 7. 

— Page 66, 91. 

Stele. — Grec. P. 21. F.9, 11, 12. P. 29. F. 19. 
Stone figure. — Egypt. P. 6. F. 9, 10, 15, 18. 

P. 7. F. 3. - Assyr. P. 9. F. 13. — Ind. 

P. 15. F. 6. — Ren. P. 228. F. 1. — 

Page 91. 
Stonehenge. — Page 2. 
Stoneware. — Ren. P. 239. F. 2, 4. P. 268. 

F. 2-4, 6. 
Stool. — Assyr. P. 10. F. 6. — Ind. P. 16. 

8. — Romque p. 75. F. 1 1. P. 84. F. 8. - 

Goth. P. 142. F. 4. — Ren. P. 269. F. 7. 

— Lat. Ren. P. 291. F. 4. — Emp. P. 385. 
F. 2, 3. P. 387. F. 3. P. 389. F. 4. P. 391. 
F. 4 — Page 29. 

Stove. — Goth. P. 167. F. 1. — Ren. P. 239. 
F. L P. 258. F. 4. — Roc. P. 327. F. 7. - 
18th C. P. 353. F. 7. - Emp. P. 390. 
F. 2, 3. 

Stucco ornament. — Russ. P. 108. F. 5. 

— Mahom. P. 113. F. 1—4. 8—10, 13-15. 
P. 114. F 1. P. 116. F.3. P. 117. F. 1—10, 
12. P. 118. F. 1-6. P. 120. F. 4, 5, 9, 11. 

— Ren. P. 201. F. 3. P. 237. F. 1, 2. 
P. 256. F.2-6. P. 261. F. 6. P. 262. F. 3. 
P. 266. F.5. P. 279. F. 3, 4. P. 281. F. 1, 
2. — Lat. Ren. P. 301. F.9, 10. P. 311. 
F. 2, 3. — Roc. P. 327. F. 8. — Col. P. 338. 
F. 2. — 18th c. P. 341. F. 2. P. 342. F. 1. 
2, 4. P. 364. F 1—4. P. 366. F. 1. P. 374. 
F. 1,7. —'Page 21 L 

Stuff pattern. — Jap. P. 200. F. 2, 3, 5, 7. 

— Ren. P. 213. F.5,6. P. 224. F. 3, 7. 
P. 246. F. 1-5. P. 270. F. 1-5, 7—12. 

— Lat. Ren. P. 275. F 5, 6. P. 286. F. 2, 3. 

— Biederm. P. 395. F 1, 2, 4-7. - Neo G. 
P. 400. F. 2, 3. — Page 307. 

Sugar bowl. — P. 368. F 4 
Sugar-tongs. — Roc. P. 329. F. 9. 
Sunshade. — Grec. P. 30. F 14. — Mahom 

P. 134. F. 3. 
Sundial. - Ren. P. 301. F. 1. 
Sword. — Preh. P. 1. F. 26, 39. P. 2. F 44. 

— Assyr. P. 10. F. 5. — Etrus. P. 32. 
F. 1, 6, 21 - Celt. P. 52. F 6. P. 53. 
F. 1.2.- Early-Chr. P. 61. F. 2 - Mahom. 
P. 120. F.2. P. 160. F. 14-16. - Jap. 
P. 196. F. 5, 7 — Ren. P. 215. F. 3. P. 222. 
f . 6. P. 251. F. 5, 7, 8. — Page 335. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



645 



Sword-hilt. — Preh. P. 2. F. 27, 44. — Rom. 

P. 44. F. 10. — Romque p. loO. F. 4. — 

Ren. P. 222. F. 6. — Lat. Ren. P. 292. 

F. 7. — Roc. P. 327. F. 4, 6. 
Symbol. — Egypt. P. 4. F. 7. P. 7. F. 7, 8. 

— Assyr. P. a F. 1 1, 12. P. 9. F. 8. — Pers. 

P. 12. F. 9. 
Syren. — Assyr. P. 8. F. 13. 
Tabernacle door. — Goth. P. 145. F. 3. — 

Ren. P. 238. F. 7. 
Table. — Grec. P. 28. F. 15, 20. — Rom. 

P. 41. F. 6. P. 42. F. 2, 6. — Pomp. P. 47. 

F. 1, 5. — Goth. P. 171. F. 6. — Ren. 

P. 210. F. 3. P. 220. F. 6. P. 249. F. 1, 

13. P. 250. F. 8, 13. P. 253. F. 7. P. 255. 

F. 1. P. 269. F. 7. — Lat. Ren. P. 284. 

F. 4. P. 291. F. 1, 2. P. 305. F. 2. — 

18th C. P. 341. F. 1. P. 347. F. 2. P. 348. 

F. 2. P. 349. F. 2. — Emp. P. 383. F. 2—4. 

P. 391. F. 6. — Biederm. P. 394. F. 4. — 

Neo G. P. 399. F. 1, 3. — Page 413. 
Table centre-piece. — Roc. P. 316. F. 5. 
Table cover. — Lat. Ren. P. 275. F. 3. 
Tambourine. — Grec. P. 30. F. 11. 
Tankard. — Goth. P. 143. F. 6. — Ren. 

P. 222. F. 10. P. 245. F. 7. P. 268. F. 3. 
Tazza. — Ren. P. 212. F. 1, 8, 9. — Neo G. 

P. 398. F. 3. — Page 626. 
Tea-pot. — Chin. P. 190. F. 4, 5. P. 193. 

F. 5. — Page 338. 
Tea urn. — Page 338. 
Tee, iron. — Ren. P. 252. F. 5. 
Telamonic support. — Ren. P. 209. F. 7. 
Terminal. — Ren. P. 267. F. 2. — Lat. 

Ren. P. 304. F. 4. — Roc. P. 314. F. 4. 
Terra cotta plaque. — Ren. P. 239. F. 3, 6. 
Textile ornament — Preh. P. 3. F. 8. — 
Assyr. P. 9. F. 6. P. 10. F. 27. — P. 16. 
F. 29, 34. - Grec. P. 28. F. 2. - Celt. 
P. 50. F. 1, 3. — Romque p. 83. F. 7-9. 
P.96.F.11. — Russ. P.lll.F. l.-Mahom. 
P. 114. F. 2. P. 130. F. 13. P. 133. F. 2, 4. 

— Goth. P. 140. F. 6. P. 141. F. 1, 3, 7, 9. 
P. 143. F. 1, 2. P. 144. F. 1. P. 172. 
F. 1-8. P. 181. F. 1, 2, 5. P. 187. F. 2. 

— Chin. P. 189. F. 13. — Jap. P. 198. F. 3. 
P. 200. F. 1—7. — Ren. P. 213. F. 1-6. 
P. 224. F. 3—8. P. 232. F. 4. P. 244. F. 3, 
10, 11. P. 24a F. 1-6. P. 251. F. 1, 2. 
P. 253. F. 3, 5. P. 270. F. 1, 5, 6-12. - 
Lat. Ren. P. 27a F. 2. 4. P. 275. F. 1—6. 



P. 284. F. 1, 2. P. 28a F. 1—6. P. 294. 
F. 1, 2. P. 297. F. 1. - Roc. P. 319. 
F. 1, 2, 7. P. 320. F. 1-4. P. 321. F. 1, 4-a 
- 18th C. P. 347. F. 1. P. 34a F. 1. P. 35a 
F. 1, 5, 6. — Emp. P. 381. F. 4 P. 382. 
F. 1. — Biederm. P. 395. F. 1, 2, 4—7; - 
Neo G. P. 399. F. 6. P. 400. F. 2, 3. — 
Pages 307. 387, 617. 
Throne. — Russ. P. 111. F. 2, 4, 5. — Roc. 
P. 3ia F. 3. — Emp. P. 382. — Page 29. 
Thurible. — RomQue P. 75. F. 8. 
Tiara. — Ren. P. 251. F. 9. 
T'ing. — Chin. P. 189. F. 12. 
Toilet table. — 18th c. P. 370. F. 2. 
Tomb. — Etrus. P. 31. F. 2, 6. 7. — Romqu* 
P. 95. F. 7. — Goth. P. 181. F. 3. — Ren. 
P. 201. F. 6. P. 203. F. 1, 7. P. 20a F. 1. 
P. 227. F. 2. P. 261. P. 1. P. 267. F. 1. 
Lat. Ren. P. 310. F. 4. — Pages 69, 215. 
Torch. — Grec. P. 30. F. la — Page 90. 
Tribune. — Emp. P. 379. F. 2. 
Trident. — Ind. P. la F. 11, 19. 23. 
Tripod. — Assyr. P. 10. F. 3. — Grec. P. 2a 
F. 7. P. 29. F. 14. — Etrus. P. 32. F. 15, 18. 
— Rom. P. 39. F. 3. P. 40. F. 1. P. 44. 
F. 8. — Pomp. P. 47. F. 14. 15, 17. — 
18th C. P. 347. F. 4. 
Trireme. — Rom. P. 44. F. 13. 
Trophy. — Lat. Ren. P. 278. F. 4. — 18th C. 

P. 362. F. 1, 4. 
Tureen. — Lat. Ren. P. 28a F. 5. — Emp. 

P. 381. F. 2. 
Turret cresting. — Ren. P. 250. F. 6. 
Tympanum. — Romque P. 7a F. 12. P. 81. 
F. 5, 6. P. 95. F. 2. - Goth. P. 16a F. 3. 
P. 165. F. 2. - Page 191. 
Typographic ornament. — Ren. P. 214. 
F. 1, 3, 5, 6. P. 219. F. 6. P. 22a F. 2, 7. 
P. 247. F. 7. P. 253. F. 2. 4. - Lat. Ren. 
P. 29a F. 1. — Roc. P. 3ia F. 1. -^ 
Pages 310. 337. 376. 543. 
Valence. — Lat. Ren. P. 284. F. 1. — Roc. 
P.32a F.2. - 18«h C P.35a F. I. P.367. 
F. 3. P. 371. F. 6. 9. 
Vase. — Preh. P. 1. F. 5-7, 12. 13. 34, 39. 
P. 2. F. 1. 2. 9. 10. 12, 14, 16. 17, 21. — 
Phoen. P. 13. F. 6-9, 15—17, 19. — Ind. 
P. la F. 17. 28. 30. 31. - Grec. P. 17. 
F. 13. P. 26. F. 1-4. 6-10, 12. P. 30. 
F. 24. - Rom P. 40. F. 2. 3. 5. a P. 42. 



646 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



F. 14, 17. — Pomp. P. 47. F. 13. - 

Celt. P. 51. F. 9, 13. P. 53. F. 17, 21. — 

Mahom. P. 133. F. 8, 10. — Goth. P. 138. 

F. 2. - Chin. P. 190. F. 2, 3, 6. 8. P. 191. ' 

F. 1—3, 5. P. 192. F. 3, 5, 7. P. 193. F. 6. 

7, 9. — Jap. P. 196. F. 4. 6. — Lat. Ren. 

P. 273. F. 3. P. 278. F. 7, 8. P. 305. F. 5. 

- Roc. P. 314. F. 4. P. 316. F. 3. P. 328. 

F. 6. - Col. P. 335. F. 4. - 18th C. 

P. 346. F 4. P. 352. F. 4. P. 360. F. 5. 

P. 361. F 3. P. 373. F. 4. — Emp. P. 385. 

F. 4. P. 393. F. 3. — Neo G. P. 293. 

F. 3, 4. P. 400. F. 4. — Pages 112, 467. 
Vase painting. - Grec. P. 27. F. 1-29, 

33-39, 41—43. — Pages 36, 43. 
Velvet. - Ren. P. 213. F. 6. P. 224. F. 7. 

P. 246. F. 4, 5, 6. - Lat. Ren. P. 575. 

F. 5. P. 286. F 1. 
Vestment. — Lat. Ren. P. 294. F. 1, 2. 
Vignola's orders. — Page 444. 
Votive cross. — Early Chr. P. 59. F. 4. 
Votive crown. — Early Chr. P. 69. F. 3. 
Wall decoration. - Assyr. P. a F. 16. 

P. 9. F. 3, 5, 8, 10. — Mahom. P. 114. 

F. 3, 4. P. 115. F. 11, 14. P. 127. F. 7. 12. 

P. 128. F. 1-4. P. 130. F. 4. — Ren. 

P. 234. F. 5, 6, 8. P. 238. F. 3. P. 249. 

F. 3. - Lat. Ren. P. 303. F. 6. - 18tb C. 

P. 341. F. 4. P. 342. F. 4, 5. P. 345. 

F. 1, 2. P. 347. F. 5. P. 343. F. 3. P. 374. 

F, 5. - Emp. P. 377. F. 4. P. 388. F. 1. 

P. 389. F. 1. 
Wall paper. — Ren. P. 237. F. 3. — Lat. 

Ren. P. 296. F. 2. 
Wall tapestry. — Ren. P. 224. F. 4. 
Wall tiles. — Russ. P. 109. F. 3, 6. P. 111. 

F. 6. — Mahom. P. 114. F. 3, 4. P. 115. 

F. 11, 14. P. 118. F. 1-6. P. 119. F. 1—7. 

P. 123. F. 3. P. 126. F. 1-17. P. 127. 

F. 5—7. P. 128. F. 1—5. P. 129. F. 1-6. 

P. 130. F. 4. — Ren. P. 234. F. 5, 8. 
Wardrobe. — Roc. P. 330. F. 2, 4. 
Warrior. — Rom. P. 75. F. 14. ~ Romi"e 

P. 100. F. 18. — Pages 99, 101. 
Watch. - Lat. Ren. P. 294. F. 4. 
Weapons. — Preh. P. 1. F. 16, 17, 20, 25, 

26, 39, 40, 42, 44. P. 2. F. 3, 4, 26, 27, 41, 

42, 44. — Egypt. P. 6. F. 12, 14. — Assyr. 

P. 10. F. b. — ind. P. 16. F. 10, 19, 23. 

24, 27, 32, 33. — Grec. P. 29. F. 5, 16, 

20, 21. - Rom. P. 41. F. 2, 12. — Celt. 



P. 52. F. 6. P. 53. F. 1. 2, 6. 10. - Early 
Chr. P. 61. F. 2. — Romq^e p. lOO. F. 4, 
12. — Russ. P. 110. F. 6. — Mahom. 
P. 115. F. 4. 9. P. 120. F. 2. P. 133. 
F. 3, 7. P. 134. F. 2. - Goth. P. 160. 
F. 4, 14-16. 18. - Jnp. P. 196. F. 6, 7. 

— Ren. P. 215. F. 3. P. 222. F. 1. 3, 4, 5. 
P. 243. F. 1. P. 251. F. 7, 8. - Page 335. 

Wedge. - Preb. P. 1. F. 36. P. 2. F. 8, 11. 

Wheel. — Page 452. 

Window. — Assyr. P. 8. F. 5. — Ind. P. 15. 

F. 1. — Byz. P. 69. F. 5—7, 13. — Romq^e 

P. 73. F. 9, 10. P. 76. F. 17. P. 81. F. 7. 

P. 86. F. 4. P. 87. F. 4. 5. P. 92. F. 1. 

P. 93. F. 3, 8. P. 98. F. 8. P. 97. F. 3, 5. 

P. 98. F. 2. 3, P. 102. F. 3, 5. — Mahom. 

P. 712. F. 6. 13. P. 113. F. 14-16. P. 114. 

F. 1. P. 124. F. 4. 5. P. 125. F. 7. P. 127. 

F. 3, 8. P. 132. F. 1, 2. - Goth. P. 144. 

F. 2. P. 148. F. 2. P. 149. F. 7. P. 151. 

F. 1. P. 154. F. 9, 10. P. 164. F. 12-15. 

P. 165. F. 1, 3, 8. P. 166. F. 1, 2, 5. P. 178. 

F. 1. 4. P. 184. F. 1, 3, 4. P. 185. F. 1 -4. 

P. 186. F. 3. — Chin. P. 189. F. 12. — Camb. 

P. 195. F. 3. — Ren. P. 201. F. 1. P. 207. 

F. 2. P. 208. F. 4. P. 216. F. 2. P. 236. 

F. 1. P. 259. F. 4. — Lat. Ren. P. 271. 

F. 6. P. 277. F. 4. P. 288. F. 1, 3. 4. 6. 

P. 299. F. 4. P. 302. F. 2. P. 308. F. 2, 5. 

— Roc. P. 310. F. 6, 7. P. 330. F. 1. - 
Col. P. 337. F. 1, 2. - 18th C. P. 352. F. 1. 

— Neo G. P. 397. F. 1. — Pages 113, 281, 
288, 295. 361, 424. 610. 

Window column. — Romque p. 97. p. 3, 5. 

— Goth. P. 185. F. 4. — Ren. P. 234. F. 3. 
Wine-can. — Chin. P. 101. F. 4. 
Wfnged globe. — Assyr. P.8. F. 11. 
Winged steer. — Assyr. P. 9. F. 13. — 

Pers. P. 11. F. 9. 
Wfnged sun. — Egypt. P. 7. F. 8. 
Wood -carving. — Preh. P. 3. F. 4, 9, 

11-13. — Egypt. P. 6. F. 20, 21. P. 7. 

F. 16. — Romque p. 73. F. 3. P. 74. F. 10. 

P. 75. F. 1, 9, 11-13, 16, 21. P. 103. 

F. 1-11. P. 104. F. 1-6. P. 105. F. 1-4. 

— Russ. P. 109. F. 2. P. 110. F. 13. - 
Mahom. P. 113. F. 5-7, 11, 12, 16. P. 115. 
F. 10, 15, 16. P. 116. F. 4-5. P. 12a 
F. 1. P. 121. F. 1-4. P. 131. F. 5. - 
Goth. P. 143. F. 12. P. 145. F. 1, 5. P. 152. 
F. 1-10. P. 154, F. 1.5, 6. P. 156. F. 1-4. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



647 



P. 157. F. 1-6. P.158. F.1,3.4. P. 164. 
F. 1-5, 8-11. P. 167. F. 6, 7. P. 168. 
F. 1, 3—11. P. 170. F. 3. 4^6; P. 171. 
F. 1- 7. P. 18. F. 5. P. 187. F. 5. — Chin. 
P. 189. F. 1—12. — Jap. P. 196. F. 3, 8. 
P. 197. F. 1—4. P. 199. F. 3. — Ren. 
P.210.F.l-3.5,6. P.215.F.2.4. P.217. 
F. 7. P. 219. F. 1-5, 8. P. 220. F. 1—6. 
P. 230. F. 1, 4, 7, 8. P. 232. F. 2. 3. 
P. 234. F. 2, 4. P. 235. F. 3, 8. P. 237. 
F. 4, 6. P. 238. F. 1-6. P. 241. F. 5. 
P. 249. F. 1— 4. P. 250. F. 1-8. P. 253. 
F. 6, 7. P. 254. F. 4. P. 255. F. 1. P. 267. 
F. 1—7. P. 259. F. 1—10. P. 260. F. 10. 
P. 261. F. 4. P. 262. F. 1. 2, 6. P. 263. 
F. 1-8. P. 264. F. 1-3, 6. 7. P. 265. 
F. 1-6. P. 266. F. 1, 4. P. 267. F. 4. 
P. 268. F. 5. P. 269. F. 1-7. P. 270. 
F. 2-4, 13. — Lat. Ren. P. 274. F. 1, 5. 
P. 278. F.6. P. 282. F.5. P. 283. F. 1, 
3.4. P. 284. F. 4-6. P.287. F. 1. P. 290. 
F. 1. P. 291. F. 1-4. P. 293. F. 2, 5. 
P. 296. F. 3-5. P. 297. F. 2. P. 299. 
F.2. P. 301. F.2— 8. P. 303. F. 2, 4, 6, 7. 
P. 304. F. 1, 3. P. 305. F. 1-4, 6. 7. 
P. 308. F. 6. — Roc. P. 313. F. 1, 2. P. 317. 
F. 1, 2, 4. P. 318. F. 3-5. P.320. F. 3. 
P. 321. F. 10. P. 325. F. 1-4. P. 327. 
F. 1. P. 330. F. 1-5. P. 331. F. 1-8 
P.332. F. 1-3, 5. P. 333. F. 1-3, 8-10. - 
Col. P. 334. F. 2, 5. P. 335. F. 2, 3, 6-8. 
P. 337. F. 3-11. P. 338. F. 4. — 18th C. 
P.341. F. 1, 4, 5. P. 344. F. 1 -4. P. 345. 
F. 2. P. 347. F. 1—3. P. 348. F. 1, 2, 5. 
P. 349. F. 1-7, 9, 10. P. 353. F. 1-3. 
P. 367. F. 1 — 3. P. 369. F. 1 - 5. P. 370. 
F. 1-3, 6-7. P.371. F. 2-9. P. 372. 
F. 1-3, 5, 6. — Emp. P. 380. F. 4. 
P. 381. F. 4. P. 383. F. 1-5. P. 385. 
F. 2, 9, 10. P. 386. F. 1-5. P. 387. 
F. 1—3, 5. P. 390. F. 1. P. 391. F. 1-7. 



P.392. F. 1-3. — Biederm. P. 394. F. 1-7. 
P. 395. F. 3. — Neo G. P. 396. F. 1. 
P. 398. F. 1, 2, 6. 7. — P. 399. F. 1. 3. 

— Pages 183. 288. 410. 418. 442. 452, 
603. 616. 

Wooden trellis work. — Mahom. P. 113. 

F.5. 7, 11, 12, 16. 
Wooden weapon. — Preh. P. 2. F. 8. 11. 

- Ind. P. 16. F. 32. 33. 
Work table. — Emp. P. 386. F. 1. 
Woven work. — Preh. P. 3. F. 8. — Ind. 

P. 16. F. 29, 34. — Qrec. P. 2a F. 2. 
Writing bureau. — 18th C. p. 372. F.2. — 

Emp. P. 383. F. 1. — Neo G. P. 399. F. 3. 
Writing desk. — Rom. P. 75. F 9. P. 84. 

F. 11. 
Wrought iron-work. — Ind. P. 14. F. 11. 

— Romque p. 74. F. 4. P. 83. F. 1. 2, 10. 
11. P. 84. F. 1,2. P.99.FI3. P. 105. 
F. 5, 6. — Mahom. P. 112. F. 9, 10. P. 125. 
F. 2, 4, 5. — Goth. P. 138. F. 5. 6. P. 14a 
F. 5. 8. P. 145. F. 3, 4, 6. P. 151. F. 3, 5. 
P. 156. F. 5. P. 158. F. 2. P. 169. F. 1 - 16. 
P. 171. F.3. P. 173. F.l. P. 180. F. 1-4. 
P. 181. F. 6. P. 187. F. 3. — Jap. P. 198. 
F. 1. — Ren. P. 209. F. 6. P. 226. F. 3. 
P. 230. F. 2. 5. P. 231. F. 3, 5. 6. P. 232. 
F. 5. P. 238. F. 7. P. 241. F. 4, 7. P. 242. 
F. 1-9. P. 243. F. 1. 2, 6. P. 252. F. 5. 
P. 254. F. 2, 3. — Lat. Ren. P. 272. F. 1. 
P. 274. F. 2. 3. P. 278. F. 5. P. 28a 
F. 1—7. P. 282. F. 1, 2. P. 238. F. 5. 
P. 289. F. 1-7. P. 290. F. 2. P. 294. 
F. 3, 5. P. 297. F. 4. P. 29a F. 1-3. 
P. 30a F. 1. 3. ' P. 304. F. 5. P. 306. 
F. 1—10. P.307. F. 1-7. — Roc. P. 314. 
F. 5. P. 317. F. 3. P. 324. F. 6. P. 327. 
F. 5. - Col. P. 33a F. 2. - 18th C. P.34a 
F. 1-3. P. 354. F. 3—6. P. 376. F. 1, 2. 

- Pages 252, 335, 480. 



^^}£2^ 



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